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DECEMBER 30, 1899. PRICE, 50 CENTS. J 


The Firelands Pioneer J 






7f * 

NORWALK, OHIO. ■ • i ; A 


1900. ^ 

X 892248 

Vol. 12 


Donor of " Catharine Gallup Fund." See Vol. 1 N. S., pages 15-16. Obituary- 
notice see Vol. 1 N. S., page 141. 

DECEMBER 30, 1899. PRICE, 50 CENTS. 


The Firelands Pioneer 








Officers of the Society for 1899-1900. 

HON. RUSH R. SLOANE, President Sandusky. 

HON. S. A. WIIyDMAN, 1st Vice President Norwalk. 

A. J. BARNEY, 2d Vice President Milan. 

DR. A. SHELDON, Recording Secretary .' Norwalk. 

MRS. C. W. BOALT, Corresponding Secretary Norwalk. 

C. W. MANAHAN, Treasurer Norwalk. 

HON. C. H. GALLUP, Librarian Norwalk. 

DR. F. E. WEEKS, Biographer Huron Co Clarksiield. 

JOHN McKELVEY, Biographer Erie Co Sandusky. 

Board of Directors and Trustees. 

The President and Secretary, Ex-officio. 



Publishing Committee* 


Forty-third Annual Meeting 


Firelands Historical Society 


Methodist Church, at Norwalk, Ohio, 
June 21, 1899. 

Hon. Rush R. Sloane called the meeting to order as 
follows : 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Pioneers : In the absence 
of our worthy President^ whose ill health keeps him from being 
present at the meeting this morning — I hope he will be with us 
this afternoon — it is my duty, as the First Vice-President, to call 
this meeting to order. I am glad to see so many of the older 
Pioneers, and of the older people of the county. I wish there 
were many more, but they are passing from us rapidly, and I do 
hppe that the younger people will take their places. In accord- 


ance with the custom of this Society, I will call upon Rev. Dr. 
Broadhu'rst to open our deliberations today, with prayer to God. 

Prayer by Rev. Dr. Broadhurst. 

A motioif was then made by Mr. C. H. Gallup, to elect Miss 
Young and Miss Godfrey as stenographers, to report the pro- 
ceedings of the meeting, which motion was sustained. 

By vote of the Society, the minutes of the previous meeting 
were not read, as they are published in full, in the "Pioneer" of 
October, 1898. 

Dr. A. Sheldon then read a telegram that had been re- 
ceived by him, which read as follows : "Owing to washouts 
cannot reach Norwalk. Sorry." Mr. C. E. McBride and E. J. 
Bauman, of Mansfield, had been expected at this meeting, to 
address the Pioneers, but as stated in the telegram, were unable 
to attend. 

The report of the Directors of the Society was then read by 
Mr. C. H. Gallup. 


The Board of Directors and Trustees of The Firelands His- 
torical Society, respectfully submit their report for" the year end- 
ing June 20, 1899. 

Since its last annual session June 30, 1898, the only meeting 
of the Firelands Historical Society held was at Renappi, Sep- 
tember 7, 1898 ; the. proceedings of both of which meetings were 
included in the last published volume of The Firelands "Pio- 

The official vacancies occasioned by the resignation of 
President Gideon T. Stewart in February, 1899, because of fail- 
ing health and absence from the State, and the death of Vice- 
President George W. Clary 011 January 12, 1899, were not filled 
by this Board, there being no meeting of the Society and no 
business requiring it. 

During the year little progress has been made in the effort 
for the proposed Memorial Building. 

The Firelands "Pioneer" of October, 1898, eleventh volume, 
new series, contained over two hundred pages, and was well 


received by the Society and the public. Materials are being 
prepared for the next volume, twelfth, new series, which will be 
issued in due time. 




Directors and Trustees. 
Norwalk, Ohio, June 20. 1899. 

An Auditing Committee was then named by Mr. Sloane, 
consisting of G. H. Mains, Dr. F. E. Weeks and H. C. Barnard. 
Also a Nominating Committee for officers to serve during the 
ensuing year, viz., Messrs. Sheldon, Whiton and Gillett. 

The reading of the Librarian's Report then followed. 


June 30. Cash on hand $51 73 

June 30. Mrs. H. A. Boss for dinner. . . . $12 50 
June 30. Drayage S. P. Starr collection.. 40 

July 11. D. P. Miles, stenographer 3 00 

July 20. C. W. Manahan, treasurer..... 34 00 
July 2. Rent of piano at annual meeting 3 00 
Sept. 16. Virginia Harrington, stenog- 
rapher 3 00 

Oct. 1. Received from individuals for 

purchase of half tone cuts ... 22 00 

Oct. 24. Half tone cuts ' 25 50 


Feb. 25. Drayage orf Reed cabinet and 

Danforth sideboard 1 50 

Apr. 14. Postage 12 

Apr. 19. Express on return photos and 

cuts 17 

May 3. C. W.' Manahan, treasurer 21 00 

May 5 Express to Buffalo His. Soc. ... 40 


May 17. Express on "Pioneers" to J. W. 

Eldridge 95 

May 17. Drayage on book and book case 95 

June 2. C. W. Manahan, treasurer 2300 

June 17. Collection for June meeting, 1899 54 00 

June 21. Pioneers sold during year...?.... 58 46 

$129 49 $186 19 
129 49 

Cash on hand June 21, 1899 $5 6 7° 


We find this report correct. 


Auditing Committee. 
The Treasurer's Report was next read. 

June 30. Bal. invested in H. S. & L. Co. $533 23 

Error— footing up 1897 29 22 

July 7. Received from librarian 34 00 

Oct. 1. Dividends H. S. & L. Co 16 09 


Apr. 1. Dividends II. S. & L. Co .- 18 38 

Apr. 22. Paid printing ''Pioneer/' Vol. 11, 

N. S. /. $115 29 

May 3. Received from librarian 21 00 

June 2. Received from librarian 23 00 

June 21. Bal. invested in H. S. & L. Co.. . $559 63 

$674 92 $674 92 



We find this report correct. 

Auditing Committee. 

The Biographer's Report of Rev. T. F. Hildreth was given 
orally. He said : I have no written report. I have found that 
I could not fill out, successfully, a biographical report, because 
of the amount of matter that came into my hands each year from 
the time of the annual meeting, till the publication of the min- 
utes. I have received the account of the death of about twenty- 
five or thirty that probably come under the head of "Pioneer," 
at this time to appear. 

You remember — you that were present — that a committee 
was appointed a vear ago, to formulate some method of secur- 
ing better information concerning the obituaries, or the death 
notices of our Pioneers. And the committee was authorized to 
get some printed slips to be sent in to the townships through the 
county, with certain questions to be replied to, and returned to 
the Biographer. That committee never has taken any action as 
far as I know. The names of the committee are given in the 
report, and no formulated answers have been placed in my 
hands. To Brother Pitezel and myself were referred simply 
the form of the blanks ; when I was ready, or felt the most pro- 
pitious time to do that work, Brother Pitezel was out of town. 
I made some applications of different persons in the county, 
sometimes here in town, and in a few instances by writing, and 
I find the difficulty is of getting information regarding these 
blanks, into the hands of persons that would interest themselves 
and make such report and such responses as we desire. This is 
the situation of the case now. Go into the townships and get 
some person that is empowered, or authorized to get the neces- 
sary data and forward to us, and I see that we are not getting 
that exact, that authentic statements of the biographical history 
of the Pioneers of the county that we desire, or that we ought to 
have, and it is a question — how to secure ; how we shall get it ; 
and I suggest that if we could institute a series of public meet- 


ings in some form before the county, call the people together, 
state the purposes of the Society, then a brief history of the , 
Society, what we desire to accomplish, and enlist somebody in 
each township that would take the thing in hand, I would be 
glad to give any amount of time, that is necessary to promote it, 
by calling together persons by public meetings ; by making ad- 
dresses ; by putting such matter before them. Many of our real 
Pioneers, whose real history would be interesting and valuable 
don't appear, and how to cause them to appear, how to make 
them accessible, is the question, and the real fact. 

My full report will be ready in time for the " Pioneer" with 
such authority as I can command. The further difference in 
making our report is, that there are so many, that we are obliged 
to eliminate much of the matter that comes to us through the 
public, and parties feel that they have been neglected, or over- 
looked, if we don't insert the entire matter that is forwarded by 
some biographer. A few minutes though, will convince you 
that it is impossible to do it. A column and a half of interest 
to the family, and to the local community, would occupy the en- 
tire space of the "Pioneer" in biographical statements alone, if 
we should publish them as they come to hand. And I hope that if 
there are any Pioneers here who die, and it is seen afterwards 
that they are not fully reported, you will remember that it is the 
lack of space, because we haven't space enough to give you the 
attention you deserve, that you are not reported in the 
"Pioneer." That is the state of the case. 

Rev. J. H. Pitezel : Mr. President, I wish to make a mo- 
tion. I realize as I did at the meeting when Dr. Hildreth was 
appointed to attend to this matter, that it is a matter of a great 
deal of importance. The biographies increase every year, and 
are so voluminous as a general thing, that there is certainly no 
place in the "Pioneer" to print these documents as a whole. 
The persons interested in these biographical sketches are under 
the necessity of giving the facts in as condensed a form as possi- 
ble, or the only other way I can see out of the difficulty, is that 
whoever edits the "Pioneer" have authority to edit it in such a 
way as to bring in the principal facts and circumstances, and 


leave out such matter as would not be interesting to the general 
public. And to bring about something of this kind, I . would 
move you, sir, that Dr. Hildreth be appointed as a committee of 
one — a committee of one can do a great deal more than a half 
a dozen — to work up this business, as he may see best. He has 
the time, and as lie has expressed, said he is willing to devote 
time to get this matter before the people throughout the Society 
and I think that the safest and best way to accomplish the 
thing, is just to appoint Dr. Hildreth as a committee of one to 
attend to this matter. 

Dr. T. F. Hildreth : The fair probabilities are, that your 
next Biographer won't be Dr. Hildreth, and you had better fix 
'upon someone that, whoever the Biographer will be, he may do 
such things. And furthermore, the serious question of the mat- 
ter of abridgement will confront any man ; and the serious ques- 
tion of how to get accurate information that would really make 
a history of the Pioneers. Now the Pioneers proper, are be- 
coming so few, where are we to draw the line of distinction be- 
tween our actual Pioneers, and those who are not Pioneers? 
If we insert their descendants, that opens up a very large volume 
to fill, and the insertion of names that could hardly be reckoned 
as identified with the Pioneer life of the Firelands, and yet who 
are so related, as that they derive some personal importance in 
connection with it. The work is really much more, and more 
important, than at first blush will suggest itself. It seems to 
me, that the most desirable thing, next to the life of the Society, 
is to preserve in its absolute integrity, the biographical history 
of the Pioneers of the Firelands of the Western Reserve. They 
are becoming so few year after year, our ranks are becoming so 
thin, and it is only a little way off that there will not be left an 
actual Pioneer, in the proper sense of "Pioneer," on the Fire- 
lands at all. And while it may be difficult (do you suppose I am 
making a speech? that is not my purpose), while it may be diffi- 
cult to enlist the immediate descendants of the Pioneers in this 
work, it is very desirable that we shall, in some way, get them 
into line with us in this work; if we don't, we will soon be face 
to face with a limit, where practically the Pioneer has gone out 


of existence, because there is not enough Pioneer blood left in 
them to perpetuate it — a very undersirable thing, it seems to 

Mr. C. H. Gallup : This discussion is becoming somewhat 
interesting, and that it may be fully understood, the volume of 
the work required for discharging the duties of Biographer of 
this Society, I will refer to the last number. There are some 
forty odd pages, I think, covered under the head of biographies ; 
starting on page 317 they run to 359 — 42 pages. Now I will 
say .to you, Mr. President, that when this matter came into my 
hands, as one of the Publishing Committee, those notices that 
appear, were of a volume that would have filled that whole book, 
if they had been published in full. It required about three days' 
time, solid work, to go through and strike out matter in these 
biographies that was purely "gush ;" — would have been worth 
nothing to the public, worth nothing as a record of the lives 
here recorded, and would have been so burdensome that we 
simply could not publish them. Now, a very great inconven- 
ience is discovered, in following up these biography notices 
that come to the Publishing Committee in the shape of a clip- 
ping out of a newspaper ; — there is no date to it, the name of the 
newspaper is not even preserved upon it ; and it says : "'Died 
yesterday morning, Mr. So-and-so," and then goes on with 
a statement, giving what is considered proper. But from that 
clipping, you cannot tell when that person died, or what year he 
died in. I kept a memoranda of all those that were short in 
data. After this work, there was quite an accumulation of 
notes to be looked up. At the Probate Judge's office the re- 
turns are made once a year of deaths, and you have got to wait 
a year to get them. There is no record of the recent deaths, 
and only a very few years ago, there was no record at all in the 
Probate Judge's office. In other cases, by applying to the re- 
latives, those deficiences were supplied, but altogether it re- 
quired, I presume, if the time had all been concentrated into 
business hours, fully one week to edit the obituaries that are 
in this number. In. addition to that, the Librarian has made an 
effort to secure pictures of those who have, in years past, been 


prominent in the different walks of life on the Firelands, and as 
a result, we have a number of illustrations in here of people 
whom you all know, many of them who have passed away 
thirty and forty years ago. There, for instance, is a picture of a 
pair of twins — Mrs. Sarah Hoyt and Mrs. Hannah Jones. They 
were captured at the age of five years, by the Indians at the 
time of the Wvoming massacre and carried off, but afterwards 
ransomed. Those are historic characters. There is another 
one — Mary Hathaway. She was of Quaker parentage, lived 
near Milan, and has been dead many years ; but there is a cor- 
rect, and very correct picture of her ; by the older people of the 
Firelands she was known and admired. There are pictures of 
S. P. Hildreth, formerly one of the Directors in this Association. 
Mr. and Mrs. John Kennan, father and mother of George Ken- 
nan, the Siberian traveller. There is another noted character I 
wish to call your attention to — picture of Mrs. Cornelia Ma- 
son. I venture to assert that there are not five persons in this 
room that knew her, and yet those five persons, if there are that 
many, remember her with love and affection. She was one of 
the early settlers in this country; she and her husband came in 
with the Underhill family, and her husband was killed by the 
Indians on the Peninsula. Mrs. Mason then returned to Avery, 
and it is of her they tell the story that she hid her valuable 
household goods in the well that is on the hill where the Renap- 
pi Club House now stands. 

Now this question as to obituaries, is a very important one. 
It is important first, that you distinguish whether a person is 
entitled to recognition here as a Pioneer, and in answering that 
question, you look back through the records, and find that this 
vSociety established some ten or twelve years ago, the limit. 
Those who came in here as early as 1840, and their descendants, 
were Pioneers. That is the dividing line — 1840. Now, that is 
the point to determine. Are the people who desire notice 
descendants of those who came in before 1840? If so they are 
Pioneers. The next point : When were they born. Where ? 
When did they die? Where? Have they left children? If 
so, their names, present residence, if you can get it, and in that 


way, give a family history. You will find that there has been 
pains taken to trace their family histories, and that particular 
pains have been taken to refer back to the former volumes of the 
"Pioneer," in which anything appears in relation to these par- 
ties, and that is the joint work of the Biographer and the 
Publishing Committee. The Biographer can turn over to the 
Publishing Committee the copy, in such shape alphabtically 
arranged, as to save a very large amount of labor for the Pub- 
lishing Committee. I have said this much that it may be fully 
understood; the amount of work required to get them in pre- 
sentable shape. 

I wish now to say, Mr. President, that in the future work 
of publishing our "Pioneer/' the members of this Society, can 
render very great aid, if they will induce neighbors and friends, 
who have friends that they desire noticed in this publication at 
a future time, to furnish the Publishing Committee, a good 
photograph of the party, together with $1.50 to pay for a half- 
tone cut ; in all cases of that kind, we will publish free of charge, 
w T ith the obituary. We now have this book upon sale, and as 
you understand, we accumulate the fund for paying for this 
publication by the sale .of the "Pioneer," aided by what little the 
income of our permanent fund is, and what we do by begging. 

Mr. President, in addition to the donations mentioned 
some time ago, I omitted one that just came in this morning. 
It was donated to The Firelands Historical Society, with the 
compliments of Pev. John H. Pitezel. I refer to a Pioneer 
Sketch. It is in a publication of "The Western Christian 

In addition to this, I would state that yesterday, I discov- 
ered among a bundle of old papers that had been found down 
at the Episcopal Church, or rectory, the original minutes of the 
first meeting of the citizens of Norwalk, that organized an Epis- 
copal Church Society. This original paper is in the handwric- 
ing of William Gardiner, and it gives the list of the parties who 
met here. 

On the twenty-first of January, 182 1, was the first baptism. 
The first name that appears, is that of Louise Williams, who 


married Dr. Bronson, and lived in Mansfield; Dr. Bronson was 
an Episcopal minister. The second was Theodore Williams, 
now living in Norwalk. 

I consider this a very valuable find. It was supposed that 
this record was burned up ac the fire of 1838 that destroyed the 
residence of Rev. Mr. Punderson. He was at that time the 
Rector of St. Paul's Church, and this document has lain hidden 
among a lot of old papers and not recognized ; not known that 
it was in existence for a half a century. It just came to hand yes- 
terday. It will appear in full in the next "Pioneer." 

Hon. R. R. Sloane: In connection with this subject, I 
hope some remarks upon this subject of biographies will not be 
deemed improper, and I make them more to direct the attention 
of our future Biographer. 

It is a subject that is fraught with a great deal of difficulty, 
as it has heretofore devolved a great deal of labor upon my 
friend, the Librarian, and of course the work of the Biographer 
has been laborious and I have been desirous of calling the atten- 
tion of the Society to this matter. It does seem to me, the 
Society has acted in a wrong way, in the publishing 
of biographies, inasmuch as they do not propose ■ simply 
to publish the biographies of Huron county, but the 
biographies of the Pioneers of the Firelands. Now I 
suppose what is true of ' this present number, is equally 
true of all the past numbers of the biographies published in our 
"Pioneer," and, understand me, I do not want in the slightest 
degree to reflect upon the Biographer, or upon the Librarian, or 
upon the Publishing Committee, but had I been the Biographer 
of this Society, I would have received such biographies as might 
be sent me, and would have printed those that were proper for 
publication. Our Librarian has just stated what the limit is — an 
individual who has resided upon the Firelands since 1840. 
Now take this number: Here are several names who were 
never Pioneers at all, and yet in this whole list, as I count hur- 
riedly, there are twelve Pioneers from the townships of Erie 
county — part of the Firelands ; the rest are all from Huron 
county, and four or five of them outside of Huron county, and 


who apparently never lived upon the Firelands. Now that 
shows at once that the system or plan is wrong. It seems to 
me, that in publishing the biographies of the Firelands, Huron 
county would be taken by the townships, and the same way Erie 
county ; and if there are more in the respective townships of this 
county than can be published in one number, take the actual 
Pioneers, and let the others follow in some future number. I 
don't suppose that Erie county is any more healthy than Huron 
county. I don't know as we have ever had a man, or a woman 
either, live to the green old age that our friend Martin Kellogg 
lived. He lived to near 106 years, 1 believe. Men marry in our 
county, and they die, as many of us know to our sorrow, that the 
grave hides them from our daily admiration and our love, and 
of course we feel thac these Pioneers, men and women who were 
truly Pioneers, who came into these wilds of Ohio, when it cost 
the life-blood, when it cost the vigor of youth, when it cost the 
loving embraces of the mother, in groans of agony, almost, over 
her dear children, threatened with some dire disease, before the 
helping hand of a physician could reach them in these wilds, and 
I feel as a Pioneer, for I have lived on these lands, say for more 
than seventy years, as a son of a Pioneer who came here in 1815, 
and taught the first school ever taught in the township of New 
Haven, in this county, in the winter of 18 15 and 181 6, as the son 
of a mother, who, as a girl of 14, went into the town of Lyme, this 
county, of which our Brother Barnard is today a resident, we 
feel that these memoirs of these old Pioneers ought to be pub- 
lished in this book, in preference to those who are not Pioneers. 
Now, without criticizing, for 1 do not do this in the spirit of crit- 
icism, here is J. D. Chamberlain, who died in 1898: It don't 
seem that he ever lived on the Firelands at all. Also Isaac 
Brown, who was married in 1834; he lived in Medina county 
until 185 1, when he moved into Fairfield township — not a 

I find .1 great many of that kind, and I want to say to you, 
Brother Gallup, that we have a pile of obituaries ready for publi- 
cation, names of which you have read, born in this town of Nor- 
walk, and who have only recently been gathered by the Great 


Reaper, and who, in every sense of the word, were Pioneers. A 
son of Judge Lane who was one of the witnesses to the baptism 
of this Louisa Williams. There are many other cases: Wil- 
liam 'fownsend, who was president of the first steamboat cor- 
poration ever organized in Ohio — his. obituary never yet has 
been published. 

You will all see the force of these suggestions that I have 
made, without any desire to criticize, and hope that you will 
adopt some plan by which before one township shall monopolize 
the obituaries which are to be published, that you will call upon 
the townships through the representatives of that county, for 
their fair and proper proportion of obituaries. It is a matter, as 
the Librarian has so eloquently stated, of thankfulness to every 
son of a Pioneer, or every daughter of a Pioneer, that, when 
their father and mother shall have passed away, shall have en- 
tered the Great Beyond, that a notice is published by this Society, 
and in that spirit, I desire simply to present the matter in the way 
that I have; to call attention to it, that it may be righted, in so 
far as it is possible to do it. 

Mr. Gallup : I wish to call the attention of our President 
to the fact that all notices which have come into the hands of 
the Publishing Committee of deaths and burials in Erie county, 
have gone into this record faithfully and well; that this Society 
has one President, two Vice-Presidents (one now dead), the 
other a resident of Erie county, and if you have a stack of obit- 
uaries that ought to have been published, you should have sent 
them in. 

Dr. Hildreth : I want to say that T agree perfectly with 
our Librarian, and he understands perfectly well the difficulty 
of securing matter for the Historical Society. 

Mr. Sloane : It is not a pleasant matter to write obitua- 
ries. I have written quite" a good many of them at the request 
of the President of the Society. I suppose I am responsible for 
as many as thirty or forty in the last fifteen years. As our 
Librarian knows, as the officers of this Society know, it is 
a very difficult matter to attract the attention, or interest the 
people in this honored Society, which every child, who is the son 

2 Vol. 12 


of a Pioneer should feel interest in. I say this with 
great regret — living as I do in a city on the Firelands, contain- 
ing a population of 25,000 people within its corporate limits. I 
do not think today there are fifty people within that city 
who know anything about this Society, and care less. And 
from the few that are here today, here in your own beautiful town 
of Norwalk, hallowed by the recollection of some of the most 
honored men and women who have ever lived upon these Fire- 
lands ; with a church-going people .; with a people who have 
been educated in the best schools in the land; with church tow- 
ers that reach almost to the sky ; you know hoAv difficult it is 
here to get the presence at these meetings of your population. 
Fifty or sixty get together in this beautiful town, making public 
the fact that they ever think of this Society. 

Now it does seem to me, that it would be no more than 
right or fair, and while I admit the trath of the criticism, that 
had the obituaries been sent in they would have been published, 
I think that rule of the Society has practically been ineffective 
in getting a fair distribution of the obituaries. They should 
have been publshed by the townships. The first eight or nine 
numbers of the publication of the "Pioneer" — they used to call 
at their annual meetings for a report of every township upon the 
Firelands, and some such plan as that, that they should be 
called for, and reached in some manner, we should have. 

Dr. Hildreth : Now, Mr. Chairman, that's the very diffi- 
culty. They don't come to hand ; 3^011 send us nothing from 
Erie county; we get nothing from Lorain county — those coun- 
ties that are properly included in the Firelands ; true, Lorain 
county is not in the Firelands, but some of the folks, descend- 
ants of the Pioneers are now over there, and we don't get them. 
You know we get no knowledge of their- having been there 
through their societies. They come to us in newspaper clip- 
pings, of which Mr. Gallup speaks. You don't know the name 
of the newspaper, nor the date, unless we take some special pains 
to find it, or where they come from, and we have to glean it out. 
Before I handed these obituaries to Mr. Gallup, I had drawn my 
pencil over as large a part of them as I dare undertake the re- 


sponsibility for, and he would skin them down to their last 
point, and if Erie county has suffered at our hands, she. must 
send over an account of her illustrious dead, and we would see 
them properly recognized here. 

Judge Sloane : I will ask you whether it would not be bet- 
ter to appoint a Biographer for both counties. 

Dr. Hildreth: I think it would, unless, as the President 
says he has diem on hand and don't send them in. 

Motion was then made and sustained, that two Biographers 
be appointed for the Society — one from Erie county and one 
from Huron county. 

The meeting was then adjourned until 1 130 P. M. 


The meeting was called to order at 1 130 as per adjourn- 
ment, by the Vice-President. 

Miss Willett favored the audience with a solo, "Love's Old 
Sweet Song." 

Judge Sloane: Before proceeding with the regular busi- 
ness of the Society, in view of a very important paper which was 
filed by your Trustees at the morning session, I will call upon 
my friend and brother, the Librarian, to address the meeting. 

Mr. Gallup : Mr. President — We have with us today, two 
charter members of the Firelands Historical Society — G. T. 
Stewart and P. N. Schuyler. They are the only ones left of 
those who, in 1857, organized this Society. Its first President 
occupied the position of President during his lifetime: We have 
had, I think, but six Presidents since. One of them, Mr. Stew- 
art ; and for many years he has filled that position ably, and to 
the success of this Society. He has been instant in season and 
out of season, for its welfare and progress. No labor, no ex- 
pense, that he personally could provide, has ever been withheld 
for its success, and it is with regret and sorrow, that we have 
presented here today, the statement from him, that his failing 
health prevents his acceptance of a re-election. There is more 
regret about this than perhaps he appreciates. We have all 
looked to him, and leaned upon him in the management and 


control of this Society. His has been the laboring hand thai 
has kept it np. Now, in his declining years, he feels the physi- 
cal necessity of withdrawing from that position. We will regret 
it. We would cheerfully and gladly have him reconsider that 
step. We have done all that was possible to get him to with- 
draw his resignation, but he is persistent. It is characteristic 
of him, he is always persistent in anything he undertakes, 
when he works, he works with all his might and main, and when 
he is going to stop, he stops. But we shall lose a valuable .offi- 
cer. We shall lose one whose influence and whose name has 
carried force and character with the reputation of this Society, 
and so long as this Society exists, the memory of what he has 
done for it, will go down with it, and, Mr. President, I cannot 
allow this time to pass without saying these few words in recog- 
nition of his faithful services, and express regret that they can 
not be continued. 

Judge Sloane : Ladies and Gentlemen — I am going to em- 
brace just a moment, before I call upon other gentlemen who 
are present, to add a word to what my friend, Mr. Gallup, has 
said, with regard to our President — our late President, Mr. G. 
T. Stewart. I want to say that for a good many years, I have 
been somewhat familiar with historical societies, not only in 
Ohio, but other western states. I am a member of an Histori- 
cal Society in Massachusetts, in Indiana, in Wisconsin, and am 
a member of this Historical Society, and I am more proud of my 
membership in this Society, than of all the others, and I say to 
you. that you would be very much surprised to learn 
— how many different historical societies have been formed 
in the State of Ohio, — in the different States of the United States 
and then to learn how few of those societies remain existing and 
active bodies today. Why, my fellow citizens, it is surprising, 
I say, that in this State of Ohio, this Society is today the mosi 
prominent society, by reason of what it has done, and with the 
means it has had to do with ; that it is the most prominent 
society of any existing today, within the boundaries of our great 
State. We are living in a State which, either as a territory or as 
a State, is barely a hundred and one years old — for the north- 


western territory was organized into the territory of Ohio, on 
the 6th day of September, 1799, so that we are not yet a hun- 
dred years old — either as territory or as a State. During this 
time, there have been hundreds of historical associations formed 
in Ohio. Now the Western Reserve Society of Cleveland, three 
or four recently organized societies in other counties of the 
State, and the Pioneer Society of Cincinnati, and this Firelands 
Historical Society, are all that remains, the rest having passed 
away ; springing into existence, publishing a few articles, a few 
volumes, and then dying a death that knows no waking. 

Now our Brother Stewart, who, for more than two decades 
has been the active, efficient President of this Society, has build- 
ed better than he knew. His work, as Mr. Gallup has told you, 
has been "in season and out of season," faithful unto the end. 
It is no easy matter to secure knowledge of historical events. 
They are fleeting at best, and the records of our Society show, 
that there have been great labor, great perseverance, great ability, 
great earnestness of purpose, great determination to succeed in 
the accumulation and record of history ; that through the instru- 
mentality of this gentlemen, we are proud to show to the world, 
as part of the work of this Society. Yes, my friend, now weak- 
ened by care and responsibility, and labors, and exertion, and 
faithful determination of years, finds it necessary to pass from 
him the burden he has so long and so ably borne, but he has 
made a place in the affections of the Pioneers and of their 
decendants, and those that are here to-day. He has made a 
place in the hearts of the liberty loving citizens of Ohio,. w T ho 
are proud of its history, that has erected for him a monument 
more enduring than granite. 

P. N. Schuyler : Mr. Chairman — On some accounts I am 
obliged to admit to myself that I am a Pioneer ; the reason of 
it is this ; that I cannot hear half so well as I used to. I con- 
sequently did not have half the benefit of the remarks our Pres- 
ident just made. I understand, however, the point is raised in 
reference to the resignation and retirement of my old friend, 
Mr. Stewart, from the Presidency of this Society. I regret to 
have to speak on a subject of that kind. I don't see any neces- 


sity for his retirement. I don't see any propriety in his retire- 
ment. I have known him from boyhood, if you please, from 
the time when we were boys together, in early times, long be- 
fore the organization of this Society, while "Uncle Piatt," as we 
used to call him familiarly, a fine old gentleman of the olden 
style, was the instigator, so to say, of the formation of this So- 
ciety. It was through his special efforts that it was organized. 
There had been an attempt before that time to organize a society 
here ; I was going to school down here ; I don't know whether 
my friend Mr. Sloane was there at that time, or if he remembers 
it, but an effort was made to organize a historical society here, 
and Dr. Thompson, President of the Seminary, made an ad- 
dress in the Court House, recommending its being carried into 
execution, and a sort of historical society was made; it was 
designed to be auxiliary to a State Society at Columbus. I 
think that was in 1842 ; but that attempt failed. Nothing par- 
ticular came of it, until Uncle Piatt made that effort, and a suc- 
cessful one, of organizing a Firelands Historical Society; that 
was in June of T857. Uncle Piatt was the President so long 
as he lived, to the gratification as well as the satisfaction of all 
its members. At his decease, Judge Phillips, of Berlin Heights, 
succeeded to the place, which he held, I think, about six years. 
Then I had the honor to hold the place not quite ten years. 
Mr. Woodruff, of Peru, held the office for some two or three 
years ; Mr. Bogardus followed for six years, and then Brother 
Stewart held the office from that time until now. 

It is not egotistical for me to say that I know how the So- 
ciety has been managed, and who were its friends, and who has 
done the work in upholding it; saying nothing about the great 
credit due to Uncle Piatt, as the organizer, etc., and the ability 
he showed as President, I will say right now, that no man has 
done so much towards sustaining this Society, and especially 
its literary productions, as Brother Stewart. He has been its 
friend and supporter, determined supporter, from beginning to 
end, and in all respect has promulgated and sustained the in- 
terests, reputation and honor of this Society. I am glad to 


say a word indicating my approbation and admiration of him 
as a presiding officer. 

There ought to be a resolution — I will suggest it now — 
that the thanks of this Society be given to G. T. Stewart for his 
ability, industry, and efforts in every way, in the support and 
management of this Institution, and for his merit as a man, upon 
his retiring from this office. 

This motion having been seconded, a rising vote was taken, 
and carried unanimously. 

Mr. Stewart : I would say that this is very much of a sur- 
prise, and it seems to me, entirely unnecessary. I think at my 
age, it is time for me to unload all I can. Another reason, it 
seems to me, that we ought to have in this Society, what we 
have had in almost every other Society I have been connected 
with — a passing of the chair. Our Whittlesey Academy of 
Arts and Sciences, consisting of twenty-five members, which 
has existed so long, and by which Whittlesey Building was con- 
structed, is in the constant practice of putting in a new presi- 
dent every year, and this is continued successfully. I know in 
the fraternal societies, we generally do this. I don't think one 
should continue to occupy the executive chair for life. I am 
by no means retiring wholly. I am willing to do everything in 
my power to support this Society and carry it onward in the 
success which has attended its past history. I think it is, as 
your worthy Chairman has suggested, one of the most success- 
ful societies in the wav of accomplishing work in the publica- 
tion of about 3,500 pages of historic collections, and in the large 
collection of historic, pre-historic and Pioneer relics, which were 
boxed away in darkness, and which we are all longing to place 
in the light of day. I had hoped that while I was in the Chair, 
we would succeed in erecting a Memorial Hall and because we 
have not succeeded, I have felt that some other citizen of Nor- 
walk, might have more personal influence in raising the neces- 
sary funds. Seven or eight thousand dollars are already laid 
away for the erection of such building, not yet quite enough to 
complete it ; and I do hope that my successor in the office will 
accomplish much more than I have been able to do in that di- 


rection. The first founder of this Society was, as has been 
suggested, the first -founder of Norwalk, the worthy Piatt Ben- 
edict, who built the first dwelling-house in what is now the 
city of Norwalk, and afterwards he and his family occupied its 
place till his death ; and I have been hoping that his grandson, 
who has done so much for so many years in furthering this 
Society., in labors for it, in and out of season, would, before 
long, be placed in the Chair that his worthy grandfather filled ; 
and I have no doubt that he will, in the future, at the proper 
time. But we have done what is w r ise, as I understand, in se- 
lecting one who resides in the other county. It is well to take 
one to occupy the office from the other county; it is well to 
divide the offices between Huron county and Erie county ; and 
I have no doubt that he will be able to keep together the west 
part of the Western Reserve, which has such a grand history ; 
that we will be disposed to keep it together indissolubly to the 

I have no doubt our worthy chairman will do all in his 
power for that purpose. God bless him, and God bless you all 
my friends ; and remember that I am subject to your call, if in 
any way I can aid in the further work of this Society. 

The Auditing Committee then made report that they had 
found the reports handed in by the various other committees 
correct, and had signed their approval of the same. 

The Nominating Committee next made report as follows : 

For President — Hon. Rush R. Sloane. 

For Vice-President — Judge S. A. Wildman. 

For Vice-President — A. J. Barney. 

Recording Secretary — Dr. A. Sheldon. 

Corresponding Secretary — Mrs. F. H. Boalt. 

Treasurer — C. W. Manahan. 

"Librarian — Hon. C. H. Gallup. 

Biographer, Huron county — Dr. F. S. Weeks. 

Biographer, Erie county — John McKelvey. 

Board of Directors and Trustees —J. M. Whiton, C. H. 
Gallup, I. M. Gillett, R. M. Lockwood, D. D. Benedict. 


Publishing Committee —Hon. C. H. Gallup, Hon. L. C. 
Laylin, Hon. J. F. Laning. 

This report, having been put before the Society by Hon. 
C. H. Gallup, asking what should be done with it, it was 
adopted unanimously. 

Hon. R. R. Sloane : My Fellow Pioneers — Before pro- 
ceeding to read an article that I prepared on the Centennial 
Year of Methodism, and expected to have read that year be- 
fore our Society, and to have published in our last volume, 
(an article upon Early Methodism in Erie County, and especi- 
ally in Sandusky). I want to say to you, that I thank you ex- 
ceedingly for the honor I feel that you have truly given me, 
in the selection which you have made of me as the President 
of this time honored Historical Society. I want to say to you, 
that until this morning, when we met in the office of our Sec- 
retary, Dr. Sheldon, I was not advised of the intended resig- 
nation of our President, Mr. Stewart, and it came to me like a 
clap of thunder in a clear sky. For, as I have remarked al- 
ready in your hearing, I must say now, that in all my knowl- 
edge of associations of this kind, I have never known a man 
who has given the same faithfulness of purpose, the same per- 
sistent, untiring industry in the discharge of his duties, as has 
been given by my predecessor, I feel unable to fill his shoes. 
In fidelity of purpose, in a desire to accomplish the object of 
this Association, he cannot be excelled — in trying to carry out 
the wishes of the members and the earnest friends of this As- 
sociation, that we may have a home, and a resting place, some- 
thing we have never had as a Society. I shall try to do my 
duty, and accept with thanks the honor you have given me, 
with a pledge that I will try and be faithful in the discharge of 
the important and pressing duties that will be mine to perform. 
I will simply say, again, I thank you, and read the article which 
I have prepared. 



By Hon. Rush R. Si,oane. 

The history of Methodism has yet to be written. Ex- 
cepting- a few sketches and fragments, a few biographies and 
obituary notices, we have no permanent record of its work. 
Memories most hallowed come to the mind as you read the 
incidents of the early Pioneer life, of those revered names 
whose voices as Missionaries of Christ wakened in the years 
long gone by the echoes of the dense forests, which then cov- 
ered our State. And while many of these Pioneers lived to a 
ripe old age like the Elder Gurley, who nearly reached the 
century mark, none of them are with us now. All of them are 
with their Master. They have left examples of moral courage 
and heroic deeds in their itinerancy and Missionary lives, 
which is to be seen on every side, in the churches and school 
buildings, and villages and populous cities ; grand and mag- 
nificent monuments of their toils, hardships and privations. 
And even those much younger than these sainted ones who 
have gone to their reward, and who as a link between the 
Pioneers of Methodism and the present time can give life 
pictures even of some of these remarkable men and their work, 
are rapidly disappearing; the Pioneer conditions of life in 
Northern Ohio are rapidly fading out of memory. And as 
one of these connecting links it shall be my aim to record 
matters either of personal knowledge, or such as have been 
vouched for by friends or taken from historical magazines of 
the highest repute. Early Methodism in Ohio is a continual 
record of incidents, interesting and profitable, and the period 
can truly be called, an heroic age. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church for nearly one hundred 
years has exerted a mighty moral influence within what now 
constitutes the State of Ohio — then the Northwestern Terri- 
tory. It was in 1798 that Eishop Asbury sent Rev. John Kob- 


ler as a Missionary into this territory to form a new circuit and 
to plant .the gospel, no words of which had as yet been sounded 
by a Methodist minister ; where Cincinnati now stands the only 
improvement to be seen was at "Fort Washington," built on 
the brow of a hill, extending to the river, and around which 
were a number of cabins occupied by the first settlers. Gen- 
eral Harrison commanded the frontiers and it was the place of 
rendezvous for the troops to go forth to war with the Indians. 
It was in 1801 that the Rev. John Kobler, in this neighbor- 
hood, preached the. first Methodist sermon, and spread the first 
Table of our Lord of that Church, in what is now the State 
of Ohio, then a dense wilderness. It cannot fail to excite more 
than ordinary interest in a man who gained this distinction, 
and who had braved the perils of the wilderness in order to 
preach the gospel in the then wilds of the Northwest. The 
number of communicants were about twenty-five. In 1898 there 
is little doubt that the minutes of the annual Methodist confer- 
ence of Ohio will show nearly 300,000 members. What a won- 
derful result in such a length of time? 

Between 1798 and 18 16 four circuits had been established 
within what is now the State of Ohio, and in this connection 
it will be interesting to mention that since November 181 1, 
preaching and services by Methodist ministers had been quite 
regularly held in Perkins township (only excepting the period 
of about one year following the disgraceful surrender of Gen. 
Hull to the British and Indians, at Detroit in 1812). The first 
of these ministers was Father William Gurley who came to 
BloomingviHe, seven miles south of Sandusky, and then a part 
of Huron county, on the fourteenth day of November, 181 j, 
and on the following Sunday preached a sermon, and organ- 
ized the "First Methodist Episcopal Society," and indeed the 
first religious society of any kind organized in the county of 
Huron, or of the Western Reserve west of Cleveland. 

The surrender of Gen. Hull at Detroit in 1812 drove the 
settlers away and prevented Missionary efforts. In 1814 we 
find the Rev. Charles Elliot came into the woods of Ohio, and 
afterwards spent one year as a Missionary with the Wyandotte 


Indians. In the year 1815 a Methodist class was organized in 
Perkins township, and was for many years the largest society 
in this section. In this class was Julius House, an Elder, and 
a model for such officers, and worthy of special mention. This 
church has ever been maintained, and the fires upon the church 
altars have been kept burning brightly. Rev. A. Brunson in 
his autobiography, speaks of this class as follows : 

"At Perkins was the largest and best society on the cir- 
cuit, and composed mostly of the old Methodists who had emi- 
grated from Connecticut. John Beatty, a local Elder, and 
Wiliiam Gurley, a local Deacon, resided there." I will now 
speak of the first Presiding Elder who visited Sandusky. 

At the General Conference in Louisville, Ky., in Septem- 
ber, 1816, Rev. J. B. Finley was appointed the Presiding Elder 
of the Ohio District, which then included eight circuits, ex- 
tending from the mouth of the Captina River to the Lake at 
the mouth of the Huron River, including the State of Ohio, all 
the Western Reserve, all Western Pennsylvania, from the Ohio 
and Alleghanies, and Western New York as far as Silver 
Creek, below Fredonia. In his autobiography he says : 

"At the Conference held at Zanesville, Ohio, September 
3, 1817, I was reappointed to the Ohio District 'of which the 
Huron Circuit was the newest and consequently the most diffi- 
cult field,' and it became necessary to divide the circuit, and I 
sent Rev. Alfred Brunson to the Firelands, or Huron Port, for 
the purpose of forming a new circuit. At this time all North- 
ern Ohio was occupied by Indian tribes, and the monotony of 
the forest was only disturbed by the songs of the birds, the roar 
of wild beasts and the wild whoop of the savages." 

The life of Rev. Brunson, written by himself, is interest- 
ing but time will only allow me to quote briefly the following : 

"I could not get away from home until the first week in 
January, 1818. I was clad in homespun, the product of my 
wife's industry. She had spun the wool and wove the cloth, 
and after the cloth came from the fullers, made my garments. 
My horse and equipage were of the humblest kind, though 
the best that I had the. means to procure. My journey was 


through a country of which I had no knowledge, mostly a dense 
forest. I reached what is now Medina county by the southern 
tier of towns on the Reserve; finding no road further west I 
turned north through Pittsfield and traveled some thirty miles 
before I could find a road leading to the lake shore, west of 
Cleveland. Where Elyria now stands, there being no bridge, 
I crossed the river on the ice of one or two nights freezing, but 
found it to be six inches thick, and of course, safe. After cros- 
sing Black River on the Ridge Road, I found a Methodist fam- 
ily by the name of Smith, whose house was one of my appoint- 
ments. This place was no miles from home by the nearest 
route, but 150 by the road I traveled. My circuit extended 
from Black River along the Ridge Road, by where Norwalk 
now stands, which was laid out in the spring of 1818, to the 
little town of New Haven, and from thence by a zigzag course 
to Sandusky Bay at Venice, and Portland, now Sandusky City, 
thence through Perkins east along the Lake shore to the place 
of beginning. I soon formed a four weeks circuit of twenty- 
four appointments with 200 miles to compass it, and I preached 
the first sermon ever preached in Sandusky City, then contain- 
ing but some half-dozen houses." 

Mr. Brunson had been a soldier in the war of 1812, during 
which time he sailed up Sandusky Bay and was present at the 
meeting of Gen. Harrison and Commodore Perry after the 
victory of Pake Erie. 

Mrs. Jane Hartzhorn, in June, 1896, in an interview I had 
with her,, says that in the fall of i8t8, when her father, William 
Kelly, afterwards usually called Father Kelly, and grandfather 
of Judge Malcolm Kelly, now a lawyer of Sandusky, first ar- 
rived here, he at once united with the Methodist Society, and 
at the time it was the only church society in Portland, or San- 
dusky. We can therefore assert, without doubt, that a Meth- 
odist minister preached the first sermon ever preached in the 
city of Sandusky, and there can be no reasonable doubt that 
the Methodist Episcopal was the first church society organized 
in Sandusky ,and that since it was organized, in the year 1818, 
it has maintained its services of prayer, class meetings and 


preaching from house to house up to the year 1824, during 
which time it most frequently met at the houses of D. H. -Turtle, 
William Kelly, John Beatty, John N. Sloane, Daniel Van Fleet 
and Daniel Newton. Gen. L. T. Bierce, deceased, whose father 
settled in Portage county, Ohio, in the year 18 16, in his pub- 
lished notes upon the "Settlement and Organization of the 
Firelands" when speaking of Sandusky, states positively that 
the first church was a Methodist. In the year 1819 Rev. Wil- 
liam Swayze was appointed Presiding Elder for the Reserve 
east of Cleveland and his biographer says of him : "That more 
souls along the southern shore of Lake Erie have gone up to 
shine like stars in the heavenly sky through the instrumentality 
of William Swayze than by that of any other man, living or 
dead.' ; Rev. Charles Waddel at the same time was appointed 
Presiding Elder for Huron county, both succeeding Finley. 

The society worshipped in this way up to the year 1824, 
when Rev. True Pattie was sent here and preached a large por- 
tion of the time in the frame school house, then standing on or 
near the north front of the Sloane Block on Columbus Avenue. 
He was a man of easy manner, very graceful and of natural elo- 
quence. Services were conducted quite regularly in this school 
house. Both Pattie and James Mclntyre as missionaries had 
been in the woods of Northern Ohio since 1814. And in the 
year 1826 the town was put upon the circuit and was supplied 
by the Rev. James Mclntyre and Rev. Adam Poe. It was said 
of Mclntyre, who used to wear a blue hunting shirt and tow 
panes and shirt, that with the first glance of his piercing eye he 
would penetrate every intellect and every heart. Of the Rev. 
Poe, who a few years later became an Elder, and whose name 
was a household word in almost every Methodist family living 
in old Huron county, I will say he was a man of herculean frame 
and a very able, earnest and effective speaker, and attained 
great influence in the Methodist denomination. 

Succeeding these men, in the year 1828, came Rev. John 
James, who was the first stationed minister ever sent to San- 
dusky. He was an able and earnest man and admirably 
adapted to his work, and his wife was equally qualified as a 


helpmate. For quite a time during their residence at Sandusky 
they boarded with my parents, and Mrs. James taught my sister 
as part compensation for their board. While here Mr. James 
was very earnest in the work of securing a church, and so suc- 
cessful were his efforts that his successor, Rev. L. B. Gurley, 
had the great satisfaction of having a house opened for public 
worship in 1829. It was a small frame church building forty- 
two feet in length, and thirty-two feet wide, one story high 
with fourteen feet posts, and with one-quarter pitch to the roof. 
Much of the timber was sawed in Huron county, south of Nor- 
walk. The building was constructed plain and strong. The 
pulpit was unique, and the Rev. Gurley used to say, "It was so 
unlike anything in heaven or earth that there would be no sin 
in worshipping it." It was located near the southwest corner 
of the public square, a few rods southwest of our present court 
house. At that time all around the "little brown church," as 
it was called because it was rv»ver painted, were trees and hazel- 
nut bushes ; no roads were then opened either in Jackson or 
Adams street. The nearest path was one leading from where 
the Sloane Block noAv stands to a little stone lock-up which then 
stood near the southwest corner of the stone church now stand- 
ing west of our court house; it was called Fort Mockabee, al- 
though erected as the village jail. You will hardly realize that 
at this time Sandusky had scarcely a population of 300 people, 
the larger portion of whom resided north of Market Street, and 
not more than twenty families residing south. 

Great satisfaction was shown by all the people upon the 
completion of this, the first church erected in Sandusky, and 
when dedicated it was impossible for the building to hold those 
clamorous for admission, and many turned away disappointed. 
My remembrance of this church building goes back to 1831, 
from which time until i8J6, there was scarcely a Sunday that, 
with my parents and sister, I did not attend worship there. 
Only congregational singing was ever heard within those walls, 
no instrumental music was allowed. The men and women 
were always seated separately, the men on the right, the women 
on the left. The little village was not then a place of resort, it 


was before the days of literary or social clubs, whist parties were 
even unknown and this absence of something else to do coupled 
with the eloquence and fervor of Gurley, Runnels, Thompson, 
Bigelow and those early ministers was such that the seats were 
always filled, and often it was that only standing room could 
be had, even before the time for the opening of service. For 
quite a number of years Brother Van. Fleet would blow a tin 
horn at the hour for service ; later a small bell was provided for 
this purpose. Some of the itinerant ministers who labored in 
northern Ohio since 183 1, as well as the ministers stationed 
here, I well remember. Their advent was looked forward to 
with interest as an event of more than usual moment. My 
father always had the latch string out for their coming, and 
they always seemed glad to come and to enjoy, as our family 
certainly did, their coming. 

William Runnels, who always rode the best looking horse 
on the circuit, and of which animal there was no better judge, 
was a most interesting and pleasing speaker. 

Elder Russel Bigelow, his oratory was of divine inspiration 
and under his unequaled and soul stirring appeals, I have seen 
people leave their seats and get as near the pulpit as possible, 
apparently unaware of changing their places. "Such vast im- 
pressions did his sermons make, he always kept his flock 

Rev. Edward Thomson, who had been converted under the 
preaching of Elder Bigelow, was licensed to preach in 1832, and 
was at once sent to Sandusky. When asked why he joined the 
Methodists, he replied, ''Because they make a business of re- 
ligion.'' So useful and eloquent was he that his fame went 
abroad, and the next year he was sent to Cincinnati, two years 
later made an Elder, and in 1864 was elected Bishop. It was 
my privilege to attend Norwalk Seminary in the year 1843 
while he was President. We all loved him and to all those 
students his is a sainted memory. 

Rev. John Ouigley, afterwards an Elder, was a man of 
learning and practical oratory, and always produced a great 
effect for good. 


Rev. L. B. Gurley was eloquent and his sermons full of 
pathos, most convincing and often moving to tears. 

Rev. Harry O. Sheldon was sublime in his eloquence, of 
noble bearing, with a voice musical and penetrating, was the 
type of a missionary. 

Rev. William Disbrow, a profound orator and thinker, 
scholarly and polished, warm of heart and in every way attrac- 
tive, was also an Elder. 

Being the only denomination in Sandusky with stated 
preaching, this church rapidly increased in members and in in- 
fluence; as we have seen, the station was supplied with men of 
great zeal, learning and eloquence, and it was this, no doubt, 
that so long delayed the organization of other denominations 
in Sandusky. 

The year 1835 opened most auspiciously for the, "little 
brown church ;" the seats were filled on every occasion of public 
worship ; revivals of exciting interest had brought so many 
members that the full membership could not be cared for at 
one love feast or class. 

The necessity existed, the emergency demanded a new and 
much larger church building for their accommodation. This 
was the situation when an agent of the Boston "Liberator" came 
to Sandusky. He desired to hold meetings to present the (at 
that time) peculiar views of William Lloyd Garrison, the editor, 
in other words, to agitate the wickedness of southern slavery. 
Some favored the use of the church for that object, notable 
John Beatty and R. J. Jennings. The majority of the trustees 
refused the use of the church ; it seemed at that time as if the 
north was all excited upon this subject; there were riots in 
Boston, in Philadelphia and Alton. The feeling became in- 
tense in Sandusky, and as a result a large majority of the mem- 
bers of "the little brown^ church" seceded and organized a 
new Methodist Society, and during the next two years com- 
pleted the erection of a very fine stone church building still 
standing just west of our court house. It was for many years 
known and called the Beatty Church for the reason that he was 
more prominent than the other seceders and also advanced a 
3 Vol. 12 


large portion of the money expended upon it. The building is 
today owned by the German Lutheran Society. At about the 
same time Grace Episcopal Church, in the East Square, and 
still standing, and the Congregational Church, in the West 
Square, lately taken down, were erected, and in the years 1836 
and 1837 occupied, in the basement. The result of all these in- 
fluences most seriously effected the First Methodist Church 
Society, so that it ceased to be self-supporting. It remained 
in this condition for several years and made but little gain in 
membership ; from 1836 to [840 the circuit was included in the 
Michigan Conference, and since the latter year it was joined to 
and included in the Northern Ohio Conference, which, in 1845, 
sent to Sandusky Rev. E. R. Jewett, under whose labors it 
again became self-sustaining and a larger church was soon re- 
quired for their accommodation. In 1846 one was com- 
menced in the East Square, facing North on Columbus 
Avenue, just west of where the high school building 
now stands; but just as it was completed it was de- 
stroyed by fire in the fall of 1848. After the decease 
of Mi. Beatty, who had intended to give his interest 
in the stone church to The Methodist Society, but failed to 
make the requisite provision, and after considerable litigation 
the church was sold to Mr. Hector Jennings, w T ho is still living, 
for the benefit of the society, but it was too poor to raise the 
money to secure it, but continued to occupy the basement until, 
in the cholera season of 1849, the building was seized by the 
city and used as the cholera hospital during that eventful 
period. With an earnestness of purpose and zeal worthy of 
their work, and with that energy and indominitable spirit pecu- 
liar to Methodists, not dismayed by internal dissensions or the 
ravages of fire the First Methodist Church Organization again 
went to work to build another church edifice, and it was a very 
beautiful stone building seventy-five feet in length and fifty-five 
feet in width. It was erected just west and partly in front of 
the present court house, facing north. It was commenced in 
1849 an d was completed and dedicated late in 1853. The beau- 
tiful new church, which had just been dedicated was hardly oc- 


cupied before another quite serious secession took place, caused 
by a disagreement on the question of choral singing. The 
society had, by a decisive vote, expressed the preference for 
choir singing; a few of the members, however, were strongly 
against it and insisted upon the old way of congregational sing- 
ing and were not willing to yield to the larger majority against 
them. Mr. M, C. Clarkson, who considered himself as gifted 
in this line in which the great majority of the society did not 
agree, and Mr. P. Gregg, who felt that his voice and position 
should control, with a goodly number of others withdrew from 
the society, and on September n, 1853, organized The Second 
Methodist Church of Sandusky. Rev. S. M. Beatty was the 
first pastor; in 1854 it had eighty members. The trustees were 
P. Gregg, E. Warren, I. Ward, M. C. Clarkson, T. H. Norman, 
D. C. Morehouse and I. Weston. Rev. Samuel A. Lee and 
Rev. J. T. Caples were also pastors of this church from 1855 to 
1857, inclusive. They built a new frame church on the west 
side of Decatur Street, between Washington and Adams 
Streets, but after a few years this church organization disband- 
ed and the members mostly returned to Trinity Methodist 
Church and the building was sold to and is now occupied by 
the (colored) Zion Baptist Church. The First German Meth- 
odist Church society was organized in 1851, and in 1852 
bought "the little brown church" of the west public square. 
This was occupied by their society until in 1880 the old "lit- 
tle brown church" was removed to the south side of Jefferson 
Street, nearly opposite the new Congregational Church. Some 
years since 1896 the society sold their church lot and building 
to the Zion German Lutheran Church and built a frame 
church in the west part of the city, on the corner of Tyler and 
Shelby Streets. The Methodist society was reorganized 
July 23, 1853, into The Wesleyan Methodist Church and occu- 
pied the Bethel Church on Water Street, until 1856 when it 
moved into a small stone chapel, which the society erected just 
south of the so-called Beatty Church, and which they had erect- 
ed with the share of its members from the sale of the Beatty 
Church. The society only maintained its organization a few 

•*K \j, 


years when its members mostly returned to their first love; 
others united with the Congregational Church society. From 
1854 The First Methodist Episcopal society was not in a pros- 
perous condition; portentious clouds covered its spiritual and 
financial horizon, but after the disruption of the Wesleyan So- 
ciety and the Second Methodist Church, together with the 
faithful labors of the Reverends Dr. T. F. Hildreth, W. D. God- 
man, A. J. Lyon, h. B. Gurley and George Collier, better 
known as "Chaplain Collier," and others, the clouds lifted and 
the society was about to complete the upper story of the church 
in the West square, when negotiations were opened and ar- 
rangements made by which the church building in the West 
square was to be taken down, as the space it occupied was de- 
manded for our new court house. Then was commenced the 
present structure, now completed, and so well known as Trinity 
Methodist Episcopal Church, a beautiful edifice built of brick, 
on the south side of West Washington Street, and was dedi- 
cated in 1882, the fourth church erected by this society in San- 

During the incumbancy of the present devoted and untir- 
ing pastor; Rev. L. K. Warner, the church building has been 
greatly beautified and improved by interior alterations and dec- 
orations, so that today it rivals in attractiveness and beauty any 
of the protestant churches of our city. The society and church 
is now in a more prosperous condition than it has been since 
the Beatty Secessions in 1835. 

How serious have been the dissensions of this First Meth- 
odist Church ? Is it not a Providence of the Almighty that the 
old society, the pioneer church of our city, is today stronger and 
more influential than ever? That those prodigal sons and 
daughters have nearly all returned to its fold? No Methodist 
society, no Wesleyan society, no Second Methodist Episcopal 
church. Trinity Methodist Episcopal Church alone repre- 
sents the English-speaking white Methodist population of 
Sandusky. And when it is known that from this First Meth- 
odist Church society, which for so many years was the only 
church affording public worship in this place, and from this 



congregation the members of all other Protestant denomina- 
tions have recruited, when you learn that three distinct church 
organizations of Methodist proclivities have been organized 
by seceders from this parent church society, and for a time 
gained strength and increased in numbers, and yet are now dis- 
organized and unknown, our surprise and wonder rises into 
amazement at the distinctive and protecting hand of an All- 
powerful Diety who has protected this Society and church, 
founded in the wilderness, sanctified and strengthened by the 
zeal of heroic Christian Pioneers, and at last cemented and 
purified by the trials and tribulations that it has so miracu- 
lously survived. 

To complete the story of Methodism in Sandusky refer- 
ence must be made to the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church, Rev. George Stevens, first pastor, which was organ- 
ized in 1879. A frame church building was erected on the 
south side of Neil Street. The society has had to struggle for 
its existence, and up to 1889 whenever the society was without 
a regular pastor, Brother James Boston would officiate. He 
was, although somewhat illiterate, a most godly man and zeal- 
ous in good works. Brother Boston, as he was called^ came to 
Sandusky in 1841, and supportd himself by whitewashing; he 
died in 1890. 

The First Methodist Episcopal society has owned four dif- 
ferent parsonages at Sandusky. One, a brick two-story house 
on East Adams Street, one, a frame house on Fulton Street, 
one, a frame house on Washington Street, and the one which 
the present pastor occupies, a very desirable and well located 
house, convenient to the church and society. A pipe organ 
was first purchased while the Rev. J. F. Brant was pastor, but 
it was not wholly paid for until the pastorage of Rev. P. F. 
Graham. The society Has had, since the Rev. John James was 
stationed at Sandusky, the following clergymen, whose time of 
service was in the order their names are written : 

William Runnels, L. B. Gurley, Edward Thompson (after- 
wards Bishop) ; Thomas Barkdull, John Quigley, Orin Mitch- 
ell, William C. Pierce, O. Burgess, Clark Johnson, James 


Thompson, Ralph Wilcox, F,arvey Camp, Thomas Cooper, 
who as Chaplain on the Seaman's Bethel died of cholera at 
Carey, July 23, 1849, E. McClure, S. D. Seymour, E. R. Jew- 
ett, E. R. Hill, H. P. Ward, who died of cholera, July 24, 1849, 
E. S. Crumley, James A. Kellum, A. Wilson, L. Prentiss, A. 
Wheeler, A. Wright, M. K. Hard, T. F. Hildreth, W. H, Nick- 
erson, W. D. Godman, A. J. Lyon, J. A. Mudge, Geo. W. Col- 
lier, P. B. Stroup, A. D. Knapp, G. W. Pepper, B. J. Hoadley, 
R. T. Stevenson, I. F. Brant, P. F. Graham and L. K. Warner. 
Would that time allowed me to describe the dress of the 
Methodist Sisters of those early days ; so peculiar that when 
meeting them you would know the church to which they be- 
longed. And the camp meetings so frequently held for weeks 
at a time, so fervent and exciting; and the soul-inspiring love 

But, I must close: too short is a brief half-hour, in which 
to relate, no matter how condensed, the story of early Metho- 
dism. It would fill a volume. And when at the centennial of 
Methodism in Ohio, now so near, that story of heroic deeds of 
christian pilgrim warriors over the fields of their labor and toil 
and sacrifice is made fully known, it will truly be said, in the 
language of another, that, 

Sacred and solemn is this centennial hour — 

Our mingling spirits bow beneath its power. 

The present fades, the mighty past returns, 

Rolls back times muffling shades and glows and burns, 

The good, the great, the glorious live once more, 

The moss-grown tombs their buried dead restore, 

While memory, the Elijah of the soul, 

Breathes o'er the forms that spurn the graves control, 

Wakes them to new vitality, and sheds 

Prophetic splendors round their honored heads. 

Mr. Ernsberger (who is more than ninety years old) said:: 

In 181 5, this tin horn (exhibiting it) was blown in Seneca 

county, in the State of New York, at a camp meeting where a 

famous preacher presided — in 1815 or 1816. Perhaps many 


here may have heard of him, by the way of reading ; but it is the 
tin horn that was blown there. 

Mrs. Herbert Gallup then favored the Society with a solo 
—"At Night." 

judge Sloane : I take great pleasure in calling for the 
reading of the paper which will soon be read to you, not only 
because it will be an interesting article, but it brings me back 
to my earliest boyhood days. It is the history of the first 
church built on Strong's Ridge, in Lyme, Huron county, Ohio. 
My grandfather, on my mother's side, settled in Lyme town- 
ship in 1815, and in the winter of 1816, while my father was 
teaching his winter school in New Haven township, he was in- 
vited over to visit a gentleman named West, who was teaching 
the winter school in Lyme, or on Strong's Ridge, and it was on 
that visit, when he first saw my mother, whom he married the 
following year. My early visits there as a boy, will never be 
forgotten. I will call for Mr. Barnard of Lyme, to read this 

Mr. Barnard: Mr. President — I realize the fact today, 
that I have got to be careful in reading historical papers before 
this Society. Reading such things at home, for the young 
people, is very different. They are uninformed, and so don't 
criticize. I have in this paper, that Mr. Sloane's grandfather 
came to Strong's Ridge in 1816; he told me down stairs, that 
he came in 1814, now he says he came in 181 5, and I don't 
think I know when he came. 

This church, whose history I have written for you, started 
out Pi esbyterian, but is now Congregational. My wife was a 
Methodist, and so of course, I love the Methodists. 


[Paper by H. C. Barnard read at the annual meeting ot The Firelands 
Historical Society at Norwalk. June 21, 1899.] 

The first family that settled in the township of Lyme was 
that ot Conrad Hawks in the year of 1808. The next families 
were those of Michael Widner and John Stull in 1809. 

In 1811 Joseph Strong came from Onondaga county New 
York, to view the country, and alter a careful exploration 



returned home. In the spring of 1812 he and two sons, Nathan 
and L,ester, came with a wagon and horses, and farming utensils. 
He bought the cabin of Michael Widner, fenced twelve acres of 
prairies, broke it and planted it to corn. Major Strong returned 
to New York and in the spring of 1813 brought his lamily with 
him. During the year 1813 Major Strong went to Connecticut 
and purchased for himself and others about three thousand acres 
of land. Captain Zadoc Strong and Stephen Russell came in 

Abner Strong, grand father of our worthy president, Hon. 
Rush R. Sloane, started late in 1814 arriving early in 1815. 
L,ater this same year, 1815, came Squire Strong, John Baker, 
Jacob Goodrich, Charles Rash and Asa Sylvin. These families 
constituted the settlement on " Strong's Ridge," the road now 
going east from East Main street, Bellevue, to North Monroville, 
earlier known as Cook's Corners, or Four Corners, up to the time 
of the organization of the present Lyme Congregational church. 

This church was organized on the plan of union — partl} T 
Presbyterian and partly Congregational — with the Presbyterian 
name, and continued so until the year 1871, when by vote of the 
church, it withdrew from the Presbytery and became wholly 

It was the safety and glory of the Fathers of our Republic, 
that they brought with them to this land the church and that 
their first business was to set up the institutions of our holy 
religion. And it was no less the safety and glory of the Pio- 
neers in this region that they so soon united themselves together 
for the worship of God. Scarcely had men like Squire Strong 
and John Baker become settled in their homes than they 
began to think and talk about a place for the worship of God. 
And so during the year 1815 a log school house was built on an 
acre of ground given for that purpose and ior a cemetery 
by Capt. Strong, and as early as 1816 the people who were here 
began to assemble regularly on the Sabbath to unite in a service, 
conducted alternately by Squire Strong and John Baker, and to 
listen to a sermon read by one of these men, or by Capt. Hop- 
kins, who was a good reader but not a professed Christian. 


The first minister who visited the place was Rev. Simon 
Woodruff who preached on the Ridge in April, 1815. 

During the year 1816, an occasional sermon was preached 
in the school-house by Rev. Alvin Coe, whose home was in 

On July 8, 1817, Rev. John Seward and Rev. Joseph Treat 
met at Cleveland on their way to Lyme, having an appointment 
to meet Rev. Coe in Lyme July 15th. After preaching at several 
points on their way, and pending the Sabbath near Vermillion, 
they arrived at Strong's Ridge on the day appointed. The people 
met at Squire Strong's and after a sermon by Mr. Treat ten (10) 
persons were examined and approved as candidates for church 
membership. A meeting was then appointed for July 17th at the 
school-house, to complete the organization. On the 17th (Thurs- 
day) at ten o'clock a. m., after a sermon by Mr. Seward, these 
ten persons publicly assented to a confession of faith and cove- 
nant and were solemnly declared to be a visible church of Christ, 
and charged to walk worthy of their high calling. The follow- 
ing ten persons were those who composed the membership of 
the Lyme church at its organization July 17th 1817. John and 
Susannah Baker, Wm. and Anna Ferguson, Frances Strong, 
Wm. Richy, Jacob Goodrich, Phebe Root, Dinah Strong and 
Anna Sylvin. I find among the early additions, Abner and 
Sally Strong, Araph Cook, Dolly Russell, James Hamilton, Lewis 
and Hannah Stone, Moses and Sarah Thatcher, John and Sarah 
Seymour, Dr. Charles Smith, Elijah Bemiss, Joseph Peirce, John 
Brown, John F. Adams, Polly Sowers, and Thomas Prentiss. 

From the organization of the church until 1828 meetings 
were held in the log school-house. In 1828 a brick school-house 
was built, nearly in front of where the church now stands, and 
was used as a place of worship until 1835 when the present 
church building was erected. Calvin Barnard was the carpenter 
who was the builder, and many a time in my boyhood did father 
entertain his boys by telling them of the " haps" and " mishaps" 
in raising and completing the old church. The inside of the 
building has been several times remodeled and improved. Three 
years ago the old belfry was removed and a new one took it's 
place ; with this exception the outside is the same as originally 


In 1840 two acres of land was purchased and a parsonage 
built. Ten years ago a part of this house was removed and a 
modern two story house took its place. 

In May 1818 a Sabbath school was organized in connection 
with the church, which has had an existence to the present time 
never having been burned up in summer or frozen out in winter- 
Eighty one (81) years. This was the fourth school organized in 
the state. None except this one now exist in the same place 
where organized. Since 1839 it has had but three superinten- 
dants— Elijah Bemiss from 1839 to 1869 ; Rev. W. T. Hast from 
1869 to 1881 ; John Dewey from 1881 to 1899." [Just as this 
goes to press, Joseph Sweet is elected superintendent.] 

Squire Strong was the first superintendent and his daughter 
Mrs. Houlten, was a member either of the church and Sunday- 
school, or both, from its beginning in 1818 until her death in 
1898— eighty years. 

This church was in the van in the anti-slavery movement of 
the past generation. Some of the original abolitionists were 
found here and stations, agents, engineers, conductors and en- 
gines of the underground railroad, by which some of our brethern 
were helped on this way to freedom. It helped its full share 
too in the wars of the past, as our cemetery amply attests. We 
have twenty-two graves of soldiers, and only two soldiers are 
living in the bounds of the parish. 

The church has had sixteen pastors, ranging in time of serv- 
ice from one to sixteen years. 

At the annual meeting of the Sunday-school in 1830 Dr. 
Charles Smith was elected a delegate to assist in organizing a 
County Sunday-school Union, and again in 1832 was made dele- 
gate to attend the annual meeting of the County Union. 

I have in my possession some papers which are interesting : 

The Constitution of The Female Domestic Missionary So- 
ciety of Lyme and Ridgefierd, Oct. 23, 18_6. 

A call to Rev. Enoch Congor, to become pastor of the church 
in 1826, for which service he was to receive an annual salary of 
$400 ; one-third in cash and the balance such produce as he might 
need in his family. 

The present membership of the church is one hundred. 


The Strong's Ridge road is now stretched with telephone 
wires and in a distance of four miles from the east corporation 
line of Bellevue there are fifteen 'phones in use by farmers. A 
franchise has been granted for an electric railroad, surveys are 
made, and within a year it is expected that cars will be running. 
At the time the old church was built this road was a stage route 
— now from its belfry steam cars can be seen on four railroads. 
Many changes have come in eighty-two years ; what will the next 
century bring? 

Letters were expected to be read, written by General Law- 
ton, since arriving at Manila, and who, from the discussion 
which followed, was found to have been born upon the Fire- 
lands ; but these letters were not. brought to the meeting, and 
were promised at the next meeting of the Pioneers. 

G. T. Stewart (showing Indian relics)': Last winter, on 
account of ill health, and after the death of my wife, I went, 
south with about a dozen ladies and gentlemen of Norwalk, 
and we spent a season very pleasantly on the shores of what is 
known as Perdido Bay, an arm of the Gulf of Mexico, running 
up about twenty miles, and into which, flowing from the north, 
is Perdido River ; and the two form a boundary line between 
the States of Alabama and Florida. While there, some of us 
took the opportunity to visit one, of what we had been told 
were two old Indian mounds, located on what is known as Bear 
Point, near the Gulf of Mexico, and on the shore of Alabama. 
You are aware that east of the Mississippi River and extending 
from the Arctic region down to the Gulf of Mexico, the Abor- 
igines found there when the first whites landed, were divided 
into three distinct races, speaking distinct languages, although 
in man)/ respects, their customs and manners had strong re- 
semblance. First was the great Algonquin race, extending up 
to the Arctic region and covering what is now British America 
and New England with parts of other states. Next to that, 
and located in the central part of the United States, was the 
Iroquois race — two tribes of which, the Hurons and Eries, oc- 
cupied the shores of Lake Huron and Lake Erie, at a period 
long past; six tribes being in what is now central New York; 


one tribe, the Susquehannas, in what is Pennsylvania; and one 
in what is Tennessee, the Cherokees. South of this was the 
third race, the Maskoki, or Muscogee (spelled both ways), with 
a long history. The first we know of them, was when Fer- 
nando de Soto with his Spanish army, came across the Penin- 
sula of Florida and entered into what is now Alabama, and 
there encountered the native tribes, known as the Alabamas or 
Maskokis, and had some terrible battles with them. They 
fought him and his army all the way up, until he passed into 
what is now known as Tennessee, and then he went on fighting 
his way until he reached the Mississippi River, and became its 
discoverer. There he was attacked with fever, died, and was 
buried in that river. His followers made their way into what 
was then Spanish America, now Mexico. He had ordered a 
fleet which came around into Pensacola Harbor, (the first 
known of that place in civilized history) to await his return. 
After waiting in vain, it sailed back to Spain without him. This 
was some three hundred and sixty years ago, about the year 
1540, that he thus came, and encountered these tribes. He 
found a powerful race there. If you ask me where is that race 
today, I will ask you, where are the Eries that once inhabited 
these Firelands? Where have so many of our Indian tribes 
disappeared: It would be hard now to find any of that old 
Maskoki race, except a portion of them that are known as Wild 
Men, or Seminoles, who fled southward, and took refuge in the 
forests and swamps of Florida, and some of them may now be 
found there, but after having been mostly broken up and de- 
stroyed by our army under Gen. Andrew Jackson, and in var- 
ious wars, the remains of them only are to be seen in our 
Indian Territory. 

We have good reason to believe that these two mounds 
were the work of those great Indian tribes, when they inhab- 
ited that country. The Maskokis overspread from the Atlantic 
ocean to the Mississippi river — divided up into various tribes 
and names, the Creeks, Catawba^, Yemassees, Chickasaws, 
Choctaws, and other tribes. All these have passed away and 


only this small surviving remnant is left in the Indian Territory 
and the swamps of Florida. 

We went to Bear Point, and a lady has since, from mem- 
ory, made this little sketch of the Indian Mound there (exhibit- 
ing it). Hundreds of years must have passed since that mound 
was constructed. There are large trees which had grown upon 
it, and an enormous live oak which had grown out of it, and 
now lies there prostrate and decayed. 

We proceeded to see what we could find by digging again, 
for it had been explored before by parties, and seemed to* be 
thoroughly dug over. We found only broken pieces of pot- 
tery, except one of us, Curtis L. Simmons, grandson of a 
Pioneer, of Greenfield township, who worked to see what he 
could find. He was a better judge of surface work, and while 
we found nothing but broken pieces of pottery, he struck new 
ground. Pretty soon he called me to him, and I saw that he 
had found something like that (exhibiting a vase). As he drew 
it out, however, it broke to pieces. It did so, because it had 
been penetrated by roots of what is called the saw-palmetto 
plant. He endeavored to get it out whole. That broke in 
pieces, but he took out three of these vessels whole. 

On the margin of these there is very pretty artistic work 
of some Indian artist, who thus wrought hundreds of years ago. 
Evidently this part of it had been upon the fire, for it has that 
appearance. There is a hole in the bottom of it, and inside of 
it the colors have disappeared ; and there were in it some well- 
preserved pieces of charcoal, which is evidence of the purpose 
for which it had been used. It seems to be made of clay. On 
the bank of Perdido Bay, colored clays are abundantly found. 
Yellow clay, perfectly white clay, black clay, and various color- 
ed clay; and it is probable that the Indian artist, who formed 
these, had made them from pieces of clay, or from the stone, 
for we found formations all along, of these clays, which had 
hardened into stone ; and we found pieces of such clay on 
digging into the mound. We went down to the depth of only 
a few feet, and would have gone further, but expected to re- 
peat the visit. He also found a stone imitation of a gourd, 


such as you raise in your gardens, a beautiful gourd with 
handle and cup perfectly formed. The mound also contained 
Indian arrow-heads like what you have taken from your mounds 
and have preserved in your pre-historic collection ; flint-heads, ar- 
row-points, spear points, and stone hatchets or hammers; 
various things of that kind had been gathered up, but we found 
no human or animal bones. This fact shows that the mound 
must have dated back through centuries — and all such remains 
of former life had dissolved into the earth. 

In this mound, Mr. Simmons found also a very beautiful 
little stone imitation of a duck. It seemed perfect, so nicely 
formed. He unfortunately lost it in passing through the 
woods. A gentlemen gave me this from the other mound, 
(exhibiting it) which is an imitation of a dog's head. It is 
what is called a "totum ;" the other is also a "totum," that is 
an emblem of some object, from which the clan is named and of 
which it is the religious symbol. It is the "totum" or idol of 
the dog clan which worshipped this. It had evidently been 
carved out of stone, as had the other in imitation of the duck, 
which represented the duck clan. The Indians worshipped their 
ancestors; they worshipped the sun, moon and stars; they wor- 
shipped the lightning and made little imitations of lightning in 
form of the snake, and took that form as symbol to be wor- 
shiped for the idol of the snake clan. Several of these clans 
combined together, formed what is called a tribe. Usually each 
clan was made up of descendants of one family, occupying sev- 
eral houses, sometimes gathered into different apartments of 
one building, each clan electing its sachem, who was member 
of the tribal council. They were organized in this way from clan 
to tribe, and self-governing. All property was owned by the 
clan, except a few specified articles which belonged to its in- 
dividual members. The only domestic animal found with the 
Indians by the first white settlers who came to this continent, 
was the dog, north to the Arctic region, and south to the Gulf 
of Mexico. The dog was the totum worshipped by the dog 
clans. Each clan took the image of a bear, eagle, snake or other 
animal, bird or reptile, for "'totem." The totum-pole of the 


Alaska Indians illustrates this form of religion. There is much 
of interest about such relics, that should be gathered into, the 
store house of history. 

Remarks were then made by different members of the So- 
ciety on the death of Col. Crawford, who was burned at the 
stake in 1782. The following was read by Mr. Stewart to show 
that this most cruel event was barbaric retaliation for the 
slaughter of the Christian Moravian Indians by the Whites. 

June 10, 1782, Colonel William Crawford met his death. 

"Nearly all of Colonel David Williamson's men, just re- 
turned from the slaughter of the Moravian Indians re-enlisted. 
An election for commander resulted in the choice of Colonel 
William Crawford. . . . Colonel Crawford, placed himself at 
the head of the column, but missing his son John and his 
nephews Major Ross and William Crawford, he passed back 
to the rear in search of them, but without avail. He met Dr. 
Knight, the surgeon of the expedition, and the two were joined 
by others. They pushed forward to overtake the army, and had 
proceeded but a short distance when several Indians sprang 
upon them. On the morning of the 10th of June (1782) Craw- 
ford, Knight, together with nine other prisoners, were then 
taken back to' the Sandusky towns. Here all were painted 
black, the first step in the awful fate to follow. When they 
came to the fire the colonel was stripped naked, ordered to sit 
down by the fire, and then they beat him with sticks and their 
fists. He was tied to a stake six or seven yards from the fire, 
made of small hickory poles. Three or four Indians, by turns, 
would take up one of their burning pieces of wood and apply it 
to his naked body, already burned black with powder which, 
they had shot into him. These tormentors presented them- 
selves on every side, so that whichever way he ran around the 
post they met him with the burning fagots and poles. Some of 
the squaws took broad boards, upon which they put a quantity 
of burning coals and hot embers, and threw them on him. . . . 
An old squaw — whose appearance every way answered to> the 
ideas people entertain of the devil — got a board, took a parcel 
of coals and ashes and laid them on his back and head after he 
had been scalped. . . . Thus dies Colonel William Crawford, 


and thus was terribly avenged the slaughter of the Moravian 
Indians, but not upon the perpetrators of that fiendish act," (V. 
A. Lewis, "History of West Virginia.") 

The audience was then favored with a piano and mandolin 
duet by Esther Gibbs and Clarence Laylin. 

A vote was taken by the Society, giving the Committee 
in connection with the Memorial Building, an extension of time, 
with same instructions given them heretofore. 

Clarksfield and Fairfield each sent in an invitation to the 
Pioneers to hold their next meeting at such place, but no action 
was taken in the matter the members thinking best to leave it 
to the officers of the Society. 

A vote of thanks was tendered to all those who had helped 
in the entertainment of the Society, and especially to> those who 
assisted in the music. 

The Society also tendered a vote of thanks to the Trustees 
and Officers of the Methodist Church, for the courtesy shown in 
extending the use of the church building. 

After a few remarks by Messrs. Gallup and Sloane, a gen- 
tleman said, that in conversation a few days ago with Rev. Mr. 
Day, of Milan, O., the latter informed him that a lady who had 
died recently had handed him, the writings of Rev. Mr. Judson, 
the builder of the church about 1832 or 1833, with some of his 
addresses. That church was organized at a place called Spear's 
Corners, near Avery, about the time the Village of Milan was 
laid out. He afterwards moved to Milan, and in 1839, Mr. Jud- 
son was minister of that church. It would be well for this So- 
ciety to have some of those historical addresses, and a photo- 
graph of Mr. Judson. 

Upon motion, the meeting then adjourned. 

4 Vol. 12 



Firelands Historical Society 


Clarksfield, Ohio, Friday, Sept. 22, 1899, 

Doctor A. Sheldon opened the meeting by stating that the 
President of the Society was away in the east on a vacation and 
that the duty of presiding at the meeting would devolve upon 
the First Vice-President, Hon. S. A. Wildman, but as he had 
not yet arrived, he would call Hon. G. H. Gallup to the Chair, 
until Judge Wildman arrived. 

Mr. Gallup upon taking the chair, addressed the meeting as 
follows : Ladies and Gentlemen — We come once more to greet 
each other and tell the stories of early days, and we meet at a 
place that has many associations that will call' the mind back to 
youthful days. Some of you are Pioneers and many are the de- 
scendants of Pioneers. We are very glad to see and greet you 
here. The meeting will now be opened by prayer by Mr. I. M. 



After the opening prayer, the hymn, "The Valleys will be 
Covered with Corn," was sung by the choir in which the audi- 
ence joined. 

Doctor A. Sheldon then read a paper prepared by A. G. 
Baughman, a member of the Richland County Historical So- 

At the beginning of the reading of the paper by Doctor 
Sheldon, Judge Wildman arrived and took the chair. 

Paper by A. G. Baughman. 

We were pleased to have your Secretary and his wife with 
us at Mansfield, a week ago last Saturday, at the meeting of the 
Richland County Historical Society, and it is a pleasure to me 
to be able so soon to return the call, and be with you at the 
annual meeting of your Society to-day. 

I have read of the "Firelands ;" I have from passing trains 
looked with admiration upon your fertile fields and well-kept 
farms, and from the late Rev. D. Bronson, whose early life was 
passed in this part of the State, and who was my rector for 
eighteen years, I learned much that was interesting of the early 
.history of your county. I know your first settlers came from 
Connecticut, and I have never yet known a people who were 
ashamed of a New England ancestry. 

I come from old Richland county — from the crest of the 
great "divide," the water-shed between the Lake and the Gulf. 
I come from a county made somewhat famous as having been 
for a number of years the home of John Chapman — better 
known as "Johnny Appleseed" — who came west abreast with 
civilization and planted nurseries along our streams and 
throughout our valleys that the Pioneers and their children 
might enjoy the fruits of the earth. Johnny lived an ex- 
emplary Christian life and was a benefactor of his race. He 
loved to ramble in the forests, to listen to the singing of the 
birds, to look at the stars, and in his Swedenborg faith, commune 
with ministering spirits and angels. Chapman's death 


was in harmony with his blameless life. When the death-angei 
touched him with his cold finger, Johnny's eyes shown with light 
supernal, a smile wreathed his lips as they moved in prayer and 
a halo seemed to crown him with the glory of a saint as he 
passed from the life here to the life eternal. Since then, more 
than 50 years have come and gone down the echoless aisles of 
time, but the story of "Johnny Appleseed" is told from genera- 
tion to generation, and his good deeds live anew every spring- 
time in the beauty and fragrance of the appleblossoms he loved 
so well. 

I claim a lineal right to> speak for the Pioneers of Richland 
county, for my grandfather Baughman, was the first white set- 
tler in the Blackfork Valley, near the historic old Indian village 
of Greentown, now in Ashland county. And my mother's 
father — Capt. James Cunningham — built the third cabin in 
Mansfield, boarded the surveying party that platted the town 
site, and later served his country as the captain in the war of 
1 812, as his father — John Cunningham (an Irishman) — had 
served as a soldier in all the long and bloody struggle of the 
war of the Revolution. 

Europe was peopled by larger bodies of men moving from 
one country to another. But America was settled by a slower 
process. These men emigrated collectively — here they came 
severally, and were called "Pioneers," because they foreran the 
column of civilization. 

The Pioneers of Ohio were men of "brain and brawn," of 
courage and perseverance. Of their work, adventures and 
achievements enough has not been written, for theirs was not 
an age of literature. It has been said that the annalist of that 
period left his note-book to his son, who lost it while moving 
farther west. We know, however, that they endured privations, 
that they encountered dangers, that they worked hard and ac- 
complished much. 

The early history of Ohio tells of a period in the settlement 
of America when civilization crossed the crest of the Alleghenies 
in its march across the continent, as "Westward the Star of Em- 
pire took its Way." 

Ohio, being on the frontier, was, in part, the battleground 


in the war of 1812, and the result of the conflicts, engagements 
and battles may be summarized in the dispatch of the immortal 
Perry : — "We met the enemy, and they are ours." 

During that war a great number of volunteers passed 
through our part of Ohio, and observed the gentle swell of its 
uplands, the fertility of its valleys, the magnificence of its for- 
ests, its copious springs and abounding streams, and when the 
war was over, many who had traversed the country as soldiers 
returned after their discharge, entered land, built cabins and 
made Ohio their home. 

We feel grateful as a people and proud as a nation when we 
reflect upon the wonderful achievements of the century ! In all 
the history of the world we find no parallel to American prog- 
ress. Beautiful cities have supplanted the wigwam villages of 
a hundred years ago, and where unbroken forests then spread 
their leafy branches, and tangled weeds held undisputed sway 
in the valleys, the land is now teeming with its wealth of fruit- 
ful orchards and fields of golden grain. 

As I have spoken of men as Pioneers, permit me in conclu- 
sion to pay a tribute to the women of that period. 

The Pioneer women did not clerk in stores, but she sold 
butter and eggs, knit socks and made garments and ministered 
to the wants and comfort of her family. She did not write short- 
hand, nor keep books, but she wrote on the unstained tablet of 
the human heart that line upon line and precept upon precept by 
which life is made a holy thing, and which, if a soul heeds, it 
may bask in the Father's house in which there are many man- 
sions. She did not build memorials in brick and stone, but she 
built that best earthly house — a home, in which children grew 
up in her love and care. 

The Pioneer woman did not ride a wheel, but she had a 
spinning-wheel, and the thread she spun was fine and smooth, 
and the hum of the spinning was music sweet to the household. 

The Pioneer woman % did not build hospitals, but her cabin 
was a wayside inn, and she herself was both physician and nurse. 
And not in her own home only, but wherever fever burned or 
disease wasted, there her hand ministered, for every true Pioneer 
woman was a sister of mercy and a friend of the poor. 


The Pioneer woman did not paint on China, but there are 
pictures in our memory in which our dear old Pioneer mother is 
the central figure; pictures that all the storms of life cannot 
blot, nor scorching sunlight fade. Pictures of home, pictures 
of the scenes of our childhood, pictures dear to every man who 
loved his mother. 

After the reading of the paper by Doctor Sheldon, Judge 
Wildman rose and spoke as follows : — "I am told that in the ab- 
sence of the Hon. Rush R. Sloane, as President of the Firelands 
Historical Society, the duty devolves upon me, as first Vice- 
President, of presiding at your gathering to-day. It is a great 
delight to me to come back to> Clarksfield where I was born and 
where I spent some of the happiest years of my boyhood, as 
many of you know, especially of the older people here, and to see 
so many familiar faces and so many familiar places. In a letter 
which I received some -days ago from Doctor Weeks, he sug- 
gested that it is now one hundred years since the organization of 
what is known as the Northwest Territory, comprising what is 
now the State of Ohio* and some of the other states of the union ; 
he also suggested that this would be a fit occasion for the pre- 
sentation of a talk or a paper upon the event which is now one 
hundred years gone, — the beginning of organized government 
in the territory embraced in that great extent of what was then 
mainly a wilderness, known as the Northwest Territory. Doctor 
Weeks has prepared a paper on this subject and it will be read 
at this time. 


By Dr. F. E. Weeks of CivARKSFiEU). 

The. first settlements in North America were made along 
the Atlantic coast and the early settlers were entirely unac- 
quainted with the country back from the coast, for many years. 
On account of this ignorance of the character and boundaries 
of the lands which had not been explored, the charters which 
the English monarchs granted to the first colonies along the 
northern coast conveyed the same lands west of the explored 
portions to different colonies. This made no great difference 


as long as there were no settlers and the colonies were sub- 
ject to the English crown, but when the colonies declared their 
independence in 1776 they assumed jurisdiction over the whole 
of the lands granted to them. The conflicting claims of the dif- 
ferent colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York and 
Virginia made trouble. 

After the Revolutionary war was ended, the colonies ceded 
the lands in dispute to the United States. This vast tract of 
land was called the Northwest Territory. It was bounded 
on the north by the Great Lakes, on the east by the 
state of Pennsylvania and the upper part of the Ohio river, 
on the south by the Ohio river and on the west by the 
Mississippi river and included the present states of Ohio, 
Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin and the portion of 
Minnesota which lies east of the Mississippi, with an area of 
250,000 square miles, or 160,000,000 acres of land, which is the 
cream of the American Continent in wealth, population and in- 
telligence. In 1787 Congress appointed Gen. Arthur St. Clair, 
Governor, Winthrop B. Sergeant, Secretary and Samuel H. 
Parsons and James M. Varnum, Judges, in and over the North- 
west Territory. The government was organized and laws 
adopted but there was no fixed seat of government. In 1788 
the settlement was made at Marietta, on the Ohio River. The 
ordinance of 1787 authorized the establishment of the tento- 
rial legislature whenever there were five thousand free males of 
full age in any territory. By the end of 1778 the Northwest 
Territory contained that number of voters, and accordingly 
representatives to a territorial legislature were elected by the 
people. These representatives nominated ten freeholders of 
five hundred acres each, who constituted a legislative council. 
The day set for the meeting of the legislature was the 16th of 
September, 1799, at Cincinnati, but both houses were not or- 
ganized for business until" the 24th of the month. The legisla- 
ture was in session until the 19th of December. Thirty-seven 
acts were passed and approved bv the Governor. William 
Henry Harrison, who was the Secretary of the Territory, was 
elected a delegate to congress. 


Our meeting today may be considered a celebration of the 
centennial anniversary of the meeting of that first legislature. 
In 1800 the territory was divided, and Indiana Territory was or- 
ganized. In 1802 the state of Ohio was organized. Let us 
look, for a moment, at some of the changes which have taken 
place in this territory during these hundred years. The popu- 
lation has increased from .25,000 to twenty millions. Four mil- 
lions of children are attending school. The state of Ohio, alone, 
has ten thousand miles of railroads, which cost half a billion of 
dollars. She has built eight hundred miles of canals, at a cost 
of sixteen million dollars. She has fifty thousand miles of tele- 
graph wires. She has thirty-seven colleges and universities, 
eighty-one academies and thirteen thousand school houses. 
The wealth of the whole territory is fifteen billions of dollars. 

Doctor Sheldon said : "I should like to say a word in re- 
lation to the question of this Northwest Territory : It is going 
to come before the Ohio Centennial Commission with added 
interest, because what was first begun as the Ohio Centennial, 
is taking on greater proportions and is to be the centennial of 
the Northwest Territory and therefore will be more and more 
interesting in the discussion of the history of the Northwest 
Territory. I have been told by the centennial people, that 
nearly all the states are making large preparations for represen- 
tation in what we at first supposed would be a centennial for 
Ohio, but which is now taking on the dimensions of a centennial 
for the Northwest Territory. 

Doctor Sheldon moved that the paper read by Doctor 
Weeks be handed to the editor of the Firelands "Pioneer" for 
publication. Motion seconded by C. H. Gallup with the 
amendment that the paper read by Doctor Sheldon also be 
handed in for publication. Motion as amended carried. 

Judge Wildman : I understand there are parties here hav- 
ing relics for exhibition and perhaps for donation to the Society 
and they may be exhibited at this time. Our treasurer, Mr. 
Manahan has some articles which he wishes you to see. 

Mr. Manahan: I only wish to exhibit these things. My 
grandson, Charles Peel; ham was in the Cuban War and re- 
turned a few months ago. Among other things that he brought 


back was this ; I will ask some man to name it for I am unable 
10 do so. It was used as an instrument of death. (Some one 
suggested that it is known as a broad sword.) And here is an- 
other one which I have understood they scour very bright and 
place in a very strong light, either of the sun or some other 
light and were used as a signal to notify persons far away, as 
far as they could be seen, and by turning it in the light of the 
sun, it was used as a means of communication from one to an- 
other. These were obtained in Cuba by my grandson, Charles 
Peckham, during our late war with Spain. Here is another 
relic ; it is a SAVord of a Spanish officer that was slain, and among 
other things, here is a pistol which he obtained and which a 
neighbor of mine sa3^s was a pistol that was used in the time of 
the history of Rome. Here are also some photographs that 
were taken in Cuba and among them are two which represent 
the mode of the Cubans in disposing of their dead. They rep- 
resent a long building, or a place where they put their dead on 
shelves. They pay rent, and when a man loses a member of his 
family, the remains are put in there, and he has a right to open 
the door and look at his departed friend as long as he pays the 
rent, but when he is unable to pay rent, or makes up his mind 
not to pay rent, the body of his friend is pushed out at the back 
end of what is represented in this picture as a valley or a ravine 
— a deep ravine ; these photographs are taken opposite this ra- 
vine, showing the many thousands of bones and skulls of people 
who have been pushed out into that valley when people were 
unable to pay rent for their departed friends. 

Doctor Weeks: An old Clarksfield boy has requested me 
to exhibit this lamp. It is a primitive chandelier or hanging 
lamp and can be placed in a crack in the wall. 

Motion to adjourn until 1 o'clock, sun time, by Doctor 
Sheldon was carried. 



Afternoon session opened by a selection from the Clarks- 
field Orchestra. 

Exhibition and presentation of relics completed. 

Doctor Weeks : Here is a wooden shoe. It is one of the 
early day dancing slippers they use to have. It is made of 
cucumber wood, a kind of soft wood very similar to cotton wood. 
It grows about here. 

Mr. A. J. Barney: Here is a paper received directly from 
the Philippine Islands by my daughter at Wakeman, from her 
cousin in a South Dakota regiment, just returned; he arrived 
the 15th of September. Here is a spoon that Chaplain Dill 
picked up on the battlefield of May 23, 1899. These papers are 
just as they were sent through the mail. Here is a cocoanut 
shell that they make there. These are American papers dated 
there at Manila and I present these to trie Society. I also pre- 
sent these cartridges to the Society. They were put up by the 
United States Government before the War of 1812 and were 
used in the old flint lock guns. I got these directly from the 
United States Government. They are real cartridges and the 
same kind that my father used in the battle at Fishburn (or 
plashburn). Here is a piece of property that used to be known 
as a swift. It was used for winding a skein of yarn. It was a 
real improvement on the old kind that most all of you people 
are familiar with. It is some sixty years of age and was made 
in Milan by Mr. Homer. There is a row of holes in the stand 
and it was the custom to put a knitting needle in one of the holes, 
either to raise or lower the swift, and by which the skeins of yarn 
were made larger or smaller. (Swift exhibited, not presented 
to the Society.) 

Mr. G. H. Mains : Away back many years ago there came 
a man from Ireland to the Firelands by the name of William 
Gurley, and dwelt near where Bogarts Station is now. He had 
one son that was a Methodist preacher who travelled all over the 
country. He once preached in Birmingham, and he got ac- 
quainted there with a family by the name of Banks. He married 


their daughter, Christiana Banks. He afterwards became Pre- 
siding Elder of the Sandusky District, and this is a cane that he 
used. After his death his wife gave it to James Banks and he 
gave it to my wife's father. He died a few years ago and it was 
left in our possession. It will not be presented to the Society 
until they have room to preserve relics. 

Judge Wildman : Among your honored citizens of Clarks- 
field, you for many years knew Mr. Cooper who died a year or 
so ago. I knew him from my boyhood. My first distinct recol- 
lection of him dates from the time when he enlisted in my father's 
company and went out in the service of his country. His widow 
has handed to me, for presentation to the Society, some papers 
which were brought home by him from Virginia at the close of 
his military service. They are of exceedingly great interest and 
will be a valuable addition to the Firelands Historical Society. 
Among them, but not the most important, perhaps, are some 
bank notes. They are scrip, designed especially to take the place 
of silver or other currency, which was undoubtedly at that per- 
iod very scarce. There is also a piece of printed scrip or due bill 
designed to circulate as scrip for the sum of ten cents. There is 
also presented to the Society a little paper printed at Moorefield, 
Virginia. It was no uncommon thing for a regiment, as it ad- 
vanced through rebel territory, to take possession of rebel print- 
ing offices and sometimes at the end of a toilsome day's march, 
to issue a Union paper and scatter it broadcast for the dissemina- 
tion of Union principles and Northern ideas. I remember very 
well, just a short time before the surrender of Appomattox, that 
Major Ed. Culp, afterwards Lieutenant-colonel of the regiment, 
came to me and said to me he was getting some printers of the 
25th Ohio together to print a paper in a rebel printing office in 
the town. I had been a printer in the "Reflector" printing of- 
fice in Norwalk. I had learned my trade there before I enlisted 
in the army. We printed a £aper that night and I have a copy 
of it at home perhaps I may some day present to this Society. 

The next night, after a toilsome day's march, having got up 
lat 6 o'clock, and having been up until 1 o'clock in the night, we 
chased the rebels through the town, and our whole division were 
singing the "Battle Cry of Freedom." I remember very well 

Last log house in Clarksfield used as a dwelling. Built by 
Sardis Pixley about 1850. Stands 2% miles south, of Clarksfield 

Store built by Winslow Fay about 1839 on the 
hill south of Clarksfield Hollow. Now stands at 
the foot of the hill and is used for a carriage shop. 



that, as we double-quicked into town, the rebels went out at the 
other end. If I remember, that was on the very day of the sur- 
render of General Lee's army to Grant. For more than two 
weeks after that, we did not know of the surrender, nor did we 
know of the assassination of President Lincoln. 

There is artother valuable document here. It is a parch- 
ment deed signed by Lord Thomas Fairfax, who was the owner 
and proprietor of what was known as the Northern Neck of Vir- 
ginia. Lord Fairfax was an historic character, a man gaunt of 
frame, over six feet in height, a man of sturdy character, strong 
and intelligent and proprietor of a large tract of land in what is 
now known as the State of Virginia. This document is well 
worth preserving and I am glad it has been handed to me to be 
presented to the custodian of the Firelands Historical Society. 
(Presented by Mrs. Cooper.) 

Doctor Weeks : I have a photograph here of the last log 
house occupied as a residence in Clarksfield. It is still occupied. 
It was built by Sardis Pixley but the year I can't remember. I 
present it to the Society. I want to say in connection with that 
house when it was built, Daniel Bills notched the logs to the 
northeast corner and in his old age he died in that same house. 

T have also a photograph of the store built by Winslow Fay 
in the northwest corner of the present school yard 'in 1839. It 
was used for a school house and is now doing duty as a carriage 
shop at the foot of the hill. The brother of Winslow Fay is with 
us today. I present both these photographs to the Society. 

Judge Wildman : We will now listen to the talk from Doc- 
tor Weeks on the History of Clarksfield. 


By Dr. F. E Weeks. 

In dividing the Firelands in 1808, the township of Clarks- 
field was assigned to the holders of the original claims of 117 per- 
sons, whose claims amounted to £8,339, worth then $27,797, 
but these claims had been scaled down to $17,924, which was a 
little more than a dollar per acre. After the State of Ohio had 
incorporated the company known as the "Proprietors of the half 



million acres of land lying south of Lake Erie, called Sufferers' 
Land," the directors assessed a tax of two cents on the pound on 
the original losses, for the purpose of defraying the necessary 
expense of surveying and dividing the lands. Many of the own- 
ers failed to pay this trifling tax and the lands were sold at "pub- 
lic vendue," as the deeds state, in 1808. Comfort Hoyt, Jr., was 
one of the tax collectors, and among other claims sold to Zadock 
Starr, claims amounting to $747 for $10.06; to Ezra Wildman,. 
claims amounting to $569 for $7.84; to John Dodd, claims 
amounting to $862 for $9.64 and other claims at like discounts. 
Undoubtedly most of the original sufferers or their heirs realized 
but little from the granted land. When the drawing for the di- 
vision of the Firelands was made, on the ninth of November 
1808, the four sections of Clarksfield township were drawn by the 
following persons : 



William Walton 2253, 

Timothy Chittenden, Jr 1886 


James Clark 698 

Curtis Clark 934 

Joseph Trowbridge 1962 

Capt. John McLean , 443 

Timothy Chittenden, Jr., 122 


John Dodd 685 

L. Phillips 685 

Philo Calhoun 683 

Zadock Starr . 687 

Timothy Chittenden 586 

Daniel Minor 809 



Comfort Hoyt, Jr , 2902 

J. H. Gregory 26 

Ezra Dibble 1178 

The township is a little more than five miles square and 
hence contains over sixteen thousand acres. The township was 
named from James Clark, one of the original owners. 

At the first meeting of the commissioners of Huron county, 
held at the county seat north of Milan, near Abbott's Bridge, 
on the 1st day of August, 181 5, Vermillion township was organ- 
ized to contain the whole of the twentieth range, that is, the 
townships of Vermillion, Florence, Wakeman, Clarksfield, New 
London and Ruggles. It also includes "all of that portion of 
Huron county east of the Firelands," which was a considerable 
of the present county of Lorain. March 2, 1818, New London 
township was organized to comprise the townships of Ruggles, 
New London and Clarksfield. March %, 1820, the commis- 
sioners ordered "that townships number 3, in the 20th and 21st 
ranges, (Clarksfield and Hartland) be and the same are hereby 
organized into a separate township with all the privileges belong- 
ing thereto, by the name of Bethel." The township records 
were kept in Clarksfield and deeds and other papers contain 
the name Bethel, during this period. In the spring of 1826, the 
two townships were organized separately under their present 
names and each elected its own officers. Before this the officers 
were from both townships. 

The first road laid out in the township of Clarksfield was 
the one which runs north and south through the village of 
Clarksfield. The commissioners ordered it to be laid out, at a 
meeting held in December, ^815, and it was described in these 
words: "Beginning at the end of the north and south road 
which is now laid out from the lake to the south line of Jessup 
(now Florence), thence to continue through the 20th range to the 
south line of said 20th range, through the settlement in New 
London." This road was cut out during the winter and it is 
said that the first persons to travel over it with a team were 


Hosea and Hiram Townsend, who< left Florence with an ox team 
on the 28th day of March, 1816, on their way from Massachu- 
setts to New London, and drove over this road. 

Before there was a house in this township, several persons, 
who afterward became residents here, purchased tracts of land. 
In 1810, "Benjamin Stiles, of New York City purchased of John 
Dodd, 1,256 acres at one dollar per acre. In 1817, Samuel 
Husted, of Danbury, Conn,, purchased of John Dodd, 782 acres 
for $1,600. At this time all of the third section except one tier 
of lots on the south side was owned in common by Ezra Dibble, 
Comfort Hoyt, Jr., Benjamin Stiles, Timothy Chittenden, Jr., 
and Samuel Husted. On May 14th, 181 7, they divided this 
land, taking quit claim deeds of each other. Chittenden re- 
ceived 595 acres, Dibble and Hoyt, 693, Stiles 1,300 and Husted 
752 acres. On the 19th of May, 181 7, John Dodd sold to Na- 
thaniel and Ezra Wood, brothers, of Danbury, Conn., 126 acres 
of land in the second section, in common for $252.56 and a later 
deed located it on lot 17. Abraham Gray purchased lot 13, in 
the second section in 1817. Benjamin Benson, purchased lot 7, 
in the third section in 1817 for $335. In 181 1, Comfort Hoyt, 
Jr., deeded to his son Simeon, 159 acres in lot 6, in the fourth 
section and to his daughter Dolly, lot 4, in the same section. 
She deeded the land to* the First Congregational Church of 
Clarksfield in 1826, but it was deeded to the heirs of Comfort 
Hoyt in 1844. 

This year, 181 7, marked the first attempt to make a break 
in the wilderness of Clarksfield. On the 19th of May, 1817. 
Samuel Husted, of Danbury, Conn., and Ezra Wood, of Put- 
nam county, N. Y., started from Danbury in a one-horse wagon 
on their journey to the Firelands. Jonathan Fitch, of Sherman 
township tells the story of the journey. They came to Florence 
and must have reached there about the middle of June. They 
stopped at the home of Major Eli Barnum. Taking a week's 
supply of provisions at a time, they came over into Clarksfield 
and cut timbers and cleared a place for a log cabin on the land 
of Mr. Husted. After six weeks of toil they obtained the help 
of four men (probably from Florence), and raised the house. 
This house stood by the side of the road running from Florence 


to New London, a few rods south of the road now running from 
Clarksfield village to Norwalk, back of the present residence of 
Albert Stone. According to the most authentic accounts this 
was the first house built by white men in the township. Husted 
and Wood went back to Danbury after the house was built. 
Soon after this Stephen Post, who' came from the state of New 
York to New London first, built a log house in the southwest 
part of this township, across the road from John Dunning's 
present residence and moved in. This was the first white family 
tO' live in the township, although an old bachelor by the name of 
Osmer lived in a shanty on the Baldwin place, but we hear noth- 
ing more of him and he was only a squatter or trapper. Mr. 
Post and his family lived here for many years. He died in 1833. 
His children were Isaiah, Cynthia, Lucinda, Anna, Stephen, 
Bushnell, William F., Ashbell and Almira. With Mr. Post 
lived a young man by the name of Zara Norton and he married 
Cynthia Post in 1818, and this was the first wedding in the town- 
ship. Mr. Norton settled on a farm east of Barrett's Corners. 

In the fall of 18 17, after Mr. Post had settled here, Smith 
Starr and Simon Hoyt came here from Danbury, Conn. Starr 
occupied Husted's house until he could build one for himself, 
which was built on the hill south of Clarksfield "Hollow." His 
children were John Taylor, Mary, Rory, Peter, Deborah, Smith 

and William K. 

Simeon Hoyt built a house on his own land on the east side 
of the New London road, next the south line of the township. 
He had married a widow Knapp, who had seven children, Ly- 
man, Hiram, William, Henry, Caroline, Emeline and Eliza. The 
latter is still (1899), living in the township. Mr. and Mrs. Hoyt 
had three children, J. Frederick, Dolly and Lucy. 

In December, 181 7, Samuel Husted returned with his fam- 
ily. He became captain in the Ohio militia, and the title re- 
mained with him all the resfof his life. He had a family of seven 
children, Hiram, Edward, Samuel, Thomas, Hoyt, Betsy and 
Mary Jane, and another son, Obadiah, was born after' he moved 
here. With him there came a young lady, Hester Paul, who 
married Obadiah Jenney. 

5 Vol. 12 


EH Seger and his family came with Capt. Husted. An old 
account book shows that they came by the way of Pittsburg, 
Petersburg, Canfield, Rocky River, Ridgeville and Black River. 
Husted charged Seger fourteen dollars for carrying a chest three 
hundred miles. Seger died in 1822, but his family continued 
to live here for a few years. The family settled on a farm a half 
mile north of Clarksfield village, on the road towards Wakeman. 
The children were Alfred and Albert, twins, Mary Ann, Amaril- ; 
las, Lucy and Ephraim. Ephraim was bitten by a rattlesnake in 
August, 1 81 8, and this was the first death in the township. 

Early in 1818, or possibly late in 181 7, Jason and Ziba 
Thayer, twin brothers, came here and boarded with Capt. Husted 
— they were single men. After a time they bought a farm on 
the east side of the road leading to< Wakeman next to the north 
line of the township. After a number of years they moved 

Benjamin Benson started from New York City, October 14, 
1817, and came to Florence where he staid until spring, when 
he moved to his farm a half a mile south of Clarksfield village, 
on the east side of the road. After a number of years he moved 
to Townsend. 

Obadiah Jenney came from Cayuga county, N Y., with a 
horse and sleigh and arrived in Clarksfield, March 11, 1818. He 
was a millwright by trade and worked on Capt. Husted's mill 
until fall, when he went to Greenwich, where he had brothers. 
In 1 82 1 he came back and on Christmas day of that year he 
married Hester Paul. In December, 1825, they moved to Nor- 
walk, where they lived until their death, many years afterward. 

Benjamin Stiles was a saddle tree maker and lived in New 
York City. As mentioned before, he owned 1,300 acres of land 
in Clarksfield, the west side of the third section. In April, 1818, 
he started with his family and a sister. He had bad luck on the 
way, losing horses and being delayed, so that he did not reach 
Clarksfield until July 3, 1818, the trip costing him $700. He 
built a log house on his land on the river bottom southwest of 
Clarksfield village. Several houses were built near him in later 
years to accommodate his sons and sons-in-law, so- that the set- 
tlement became known as "Stilesburg." Mr. and Mrs. Stiles 


raised a numerous family, and they and their descendants were 
good citizens. The children who> grew to maturity and mar- 
ried, were, Ann, Henry, Joseph, Lucy, Samuel, William W. 
Hannah and Edmund. The last two were children of a third 
wife. Mr. Stiles lived to> be 93 years old. 

Ephraim Webb, whose wife was a sister of Benjamin Stiles, 
came from the state of New York about the same time as Mr. 
Stiles, who gave him fifty acres of land for clearing ten. He 
lived just north of the railroad at Clarksfield depot. They did 
not remain in the township many years. Their children were 
Stiles, Horace, Ben, David, Amy, Ruth, Ann, Delia, Mary Ann, 
Eunice, Belinda and Phebe. 

Piatt and William Sexton, brothers and single men, came 
from Carlisle township, Lorain county, in 1818 and bought 100 
acres of land northwest of Clarksfield village, where Thomas 
Nestor now lives, and put up a log house. They kept "bache- 
lor's hall" for some time. William went back to Carlisle and 
settled, selling out to Piatt. Piatt married Delia Webb and they 
lived on the place until their death. Their children were Mary, 
Althea, William, Edwin, Hiram, Aaron, Andrew and Pamela. 

Asa Wheeler, Sr., lived in Connecticut during the Revolu- 
tion and was drafted into the service as teamster, but he was only 
eighteen years old and did not relish the life, so he went home 
and the officers were never able to catch him. He came to 
Clarksfield from Trumbull county, O., in 1818, with his son, 
Asa, Jr. The latter was married to Olive Minor, a sister of 
Daniel Minor, of Hartland. Asa, Jr., settled on a part of Ben- 
jamin Stiles' farm, up the river from where Mr. Stiles lived. 
After a few years he moved two miles east of Clarksfield village, 
at what was afterward called "Hayesville," where he and his 
brother-in-law, Joseph Bartholomew, bought or traded for, the 
Barnum sawmill. They failed in the business and Bartholomew 
went back east and Mr. Wheeler lived in different places, but 
died in Clarksfield. Mr. Wheeler's children were Lovina, Bethia, 
Anson, Lucretia, Mary Ann, William W., Lucy, Lemuel and 
Betsy. Asa Wheeler, Sr., after he had lived here a number of 
years, married Mrs. Minor, the mother of his son's wife. 

Aaron, Levi, Esther and Nancy Rowland were the children 


of Hezekiah Rowland and Grace Wildman, who lived in Clarks- 
field Township, at some time in their lives. Hezekiah served 
in the Continental army during nearly the whole period of the 
war of the Revolution. Grace Wildman was a sister of Capt. 
Samuel Husted's wife. On the ioth day of October*, 1818, 
Aaron Rowland and his family and Ezra Wood, with his wife, 
(who was Nancy Rowland), and a child, started from the town 
of Southeast, in Putnam county, N. Y., and arrived at Capt. 
Husted's in Clarksfield on the 18th of November. Mrs. Husted 
being an aunt to Mr. Rowland and Mrs. Wood, both families 
found shelter in the primitive log house of Mr. Husted. This 
addition must have swelled the number of inmates to twenty, at 
least, but the new-comers were undoubtedly welcome, as they 
were of the same family and could bring tidings from the rest of 
the relatives in the east. Mr. Wood soon erected a log house on 
his own farm, just south of what became known as Rowland's 
Corners. He brought a board for a door on his back from 
Florence. Mr. Rowland built a log house a little ways north 
of Capt. Husted's, where Ezra Wildman afterward lived. He 
obtained employment at his trade, a miller, in Capt. Husted's 
new grist mill. He operated this when there was water and in 
the summer attended to farming. In a few years he moved to 
his own farm two miles east of Clarksfield, where he lived the 
rest of his days. He operated the mill at Hayesville for some 
years. His children were Ezra, Jemima, William, Samuel, Wild- 
man, Tamzon, Betsy, Charles and Daniel. 

Solomon Gray came from Connecticut in 181 8, and settled 
on a farm two miles east of Clarksfield village, at what was af- 
terward called "Hayesville." In a few years he traded with 
Levi Barnum and obtained a farm just on the north side of the 
river at Clarksfield village, where he built a log house near 
where Oscar Kress now lives. He died here in 1845. His 
children were George, Pamela and James. 

Levi Barnum was in business at Pittsburg in 1819 mak- 
ing saddles. He had purchased some land in Clarksfield and 
hired some improvements made. He induced two of his 
brothers, Ebenezer and Eli, to come here, which they did in 
July, 1 8 19. Eli settled on a farm a little more than a half-mile 


east • of Clarksfield village, where Benajah Furlong afterward 
lived. He moved to> Hartland Ridge in 1824 and later to Nor- 
walk. Ebenezer Barnum first lived across the road from Eli's, 
but soon purchased the farm further east, on the corner, on 
the south side of the road. In 1857 he moved to the village of 
Clarksfield. His children were Francis, Mary, John, Joseph, 
William, Gregory and Sarah. 

Levi Barnum moved here in April, 1820, and settled on 
a farm just north of Capt. Husted's, on the west side of the 
road. He soon traded with Solomon Gray, and moved over to 
the east branch of the river and built a sawmill, but sold out 
to Asa Wheeler and Joseph Bartholomew. He then moved to 
a farm three-fourths of a mile south of Clarksfield, on the west 
side of the road, where Mrs. Bunce, his granddaughter now 
lives. He died in 1833. His children were Mary Ann, Eliza- 
beth, Fanny, Thomas, Joanna, Margaret and Catherine. 

Henry T. Vanderveer came here in 1819, having bought 
the farm where Upton Clark afterward lived. In 1825 he was 
killed by a falling tree. 

Frederick Hamblin was here as early as 1819, but where 
he lived or went to, we are unable to say. 

About this time John Anderson came here from Florence 
and settled on a farm on the south township line, where W. K. 
Hoover now lives. He became a local Methodist preacher. 
He was called "Bub John." 

Henry Hopkins lived here during the winter of 1819-20, 
and taught school. 

Levi M. Bodwell came here in 1820 and settled on a farm 
a half-mile north of Clarksfield, near the river. He went away 
from the township in 1825, but returned by 1832, and settled on 
a farm a mile and a half south of Clarksfield where Essex Call 
afterward lived. He moved to Kansas in later years and died 
there. His children were Levi, Leslie, Edwin, Joseph and 

In 1 82 1, John Hough came here from New York, where 
he had learned the trade of hame and saddle tree maker, of Ben- 
jamin Stiles. After he came here he married a step-daughter 
of Mr. Stiles. Mr. Hough bought a farm just at the south side 


of Clarksfield village, where he carried on a quite an extensive 
business of making names, as well as farming. His children 
were Charles, Anne, Cordelia, Ellen, William and Frances, be- 
sides some who died young. 

With Mr. Hough came Charles or "Nunkey" Hoyt, a 
blacksmith, who never married but lived with Mr. Hough until 
his death. 

Omri Nickerson came here as early as 1821 and built a 
tannery sometime afterward. He moved to Townsend soon af- 

In 1822, Andrew McMillan, a young physician, came from 
Monroeville to Clarksfield and followed his profession until his 
death in 1849. He was the first physician in the township. 
His children, who lived to maturity were Andrew, Harriet, 
John, Lucy, Frank, Mary and Charles. 

Ira Peck came to this township in 1818, and settled on the 
Dunham farm, but afterwards moved to a farm west of the vil- 
lage of Clarksfield, next the Hartland line. His children were 
Harry, Philemon, Amanda, Riley, Alvah, Martha, Calvin, Ar- 
galus, Samuel and Edward. 

Benjamin Carman came here as early as 1822 and boarded 
with Benjamin Stiles for a time. He afterwards lived in a log 
house on the Stiles farm. He was a surveyor and in later years 
was county surveyor and went to Norwalk as early as 1829. 

Jonathan Baldwin bought a tract of land on the west side 
of the New London road, near the south line of the township. 
He was a single man and lived with Zelotus Barrett for a num- 
ber of years while he was having some of his land cleared. He 
went away and was not heard from for a good many years. In 
1866, he came back with a family, had a house built on his land 
and the family lived there until Baldwin and his wife were 

Zelotus Barrett came to New London in 1814, and to 
Clarksfield as early as 1824, and settled on the farm next south 
of Baldwin's, known as the Knowlton farm. He met with an 
accident by which he lost one of his legs. His first wife was 
a sister of Sherman and Major Smith. They had two< sons, 
Philander and Smith Barrett. The wife died in 1839, an d Mr. 


Barrett married again and lived in New London until his death. 

Salmon Rockwell came here in 1819. He lived on the 
east side of the New London road, north of the George Car- 
penter house, nearly opposite where Horace Porter afterward 
lived. He was a half-brother of Porter. He moved to Mich- 
igan and died there. 

Stephen Day was a native of Rutland, Vermont, and was 
a brother of Dr. Samuel Day, of New London. He came to 
this township as early as 1822, and settled on a farm on the 
Medina road, south and two miles east of Clarksfield village, 
where his son, Ransom, afterward lived. He died in 1825, and 
the widow married John Bates. The children of Stephen Day 
were Stephen, Ransom, Lucinda, Corydon, Alzina, David R., 
and Sally. Moses R. Day, a brother of Stephen, also lived 
here at a later period. Ransom Day was a lad twelve years of 
age at his father's death and the oldest of the family of six 
children, and it fell upon him to do a man's work in supporting 
the family. He married a daughter of Ezra Wood, and they 
lived on the old homestead until their death. 

Augustus Porter came here in 1822 and lived between the 
Medina road and the next one south, a half-mile east of Benja- 
min Stiles' place. PL's wife was a sister of Daniel Minor. He 
moved to Townsend where his wife died. He was sent to the 
penitentiary and died there. 

Town Clark and his brother Upton, with their widowed 
mother and some younger children came to Florence in 181 1, 
and the two brothers moved to* Greenwich in 1818, and to 
Clarksfield in 1823, Town soon moved to Seneca county. 
Upton settled on the farm now owned by Edward Day and 
lived there until 1839, when he purchased the farm next east, 
where his son, Carlton, lives, and moved there. His wife was 
Sally Day and their children were Augustus, Elias, Olive, 
Samuel, Rollin, Carlton, Sarah, Emily and William. 

Daniel Bills came to Hartland in 1817, but traded farms 
with Daniel Minor in 1824, and moved to Clarksfield. His 
farm was a little southwest of Stilesburg, where Charles Fisher 
now lives. His children were Lothrop, Ortency, Roby, Daniel, 
Sherman, Mindwell, Hannah, Myron, Roxana and Spencer. 


Daniel Minor came to Clarksfield, probably about 1819. 
After he traded farms with Daniel Bills he built the Minor tav- 
ern on Hartland Ridge. 

Joseph Nickerson came to> Clarksfield from Connecticut in 
1824, and settled on a farm a half-mile north of Clarksfield vil- 
age, near the river. In 1836, he moved to another farm on the 
Medina road, near Whitefox Corner. His children were Wil- 
liam, Joseph, Ebenezer, John and Henry. 

Joseph Osyer came from Hartland to Clarksfield in 1824, 
and lived in a log house back of the Daniel Bills farm. Cyrus 
Waggoner, who married a daughter of Osyer's lived in a house 
adjoining. They moved away in 1827. Marshall O. Waggoner, 
of Toledo, is a son of Cyrus and was born in Clarksfield in 1826. 

In 1825 Sherman and Major Smith came from New Lon- 
don to Clarksfield. Sherman married Caroline Knapp and lived 
on a farm east of the New London road, three miles south 
of Clarksfield. He afterwards moved to the Simeon Hoyt 
farm. His children were Sarah, Sabra, Mina and Emeline. 
Major Smith married Eliza Knapp and lived on a farm across 
the road from his brother's, but moved to* another farm on the 
New London road, two miles south of Clarksfield. He had a 
daughter, Dolly. * 

Abraham Gray came from the state of New York in 1825 
and moved into the log house which Levi Barnum had built, 
a little north of Capt. Husted's. He lived on- this farm until 
his death in 1842. His children were Smith, Erastus, Starr, 
Deborah, Lydia, Pamela, Sarah, Samuel and Hiram. 

Seldon Freeman lived on the New London road. Willis 
Case lived on the road toward Fitchville. Linus Palmer lived 
east of Clarksfield. John Wriker lived in the south part of the 
township. Israel T. Moad lived on the New London road, 
Essex Call lived on the New London road near the section line 
road. Allen Blackman lived at Hayesville. Ephraim Day 
lived south of Upton Clark's. David Lee lived a mile and a 
half south of the center of township. Roswell Manchester lived 
a mile northwest of Clarksfield. William Hendryx lived a 
mile south of the center of the township. John Day lived on 


the next farm south of Daniel Bill's. Henry Barber operated 
a distillery at Clarksfield about 1819. 

In 1826 the trustees divided the township into school dis- 
tricts and made a list of the householders and the list contains 
the following names, in addition to the most of the names al- 
ready mentioned: Harvey Smith, John Harmon, Richard 
Huyck, Nathan Reed, John Gray. In 1828 the following 
names were added to the list. John Bates, Henry Bates, Al- 
len Mead, Ira Starr, Harvey Town, Samuel Parker, Asa Reed, 
Ira Reed, Isaac Van Houton, John M. Smith. 

In 1828 Ezra Wildman, who was a brother of Capt. Hust- 
ed's wife, came with his wife and two sons, William H. and 
Frederick A. and daughter Cornelia, and also Daniel Stone and 
family.. Mrs. Stone was another daughter of Mr. Wildman. 

George Gregory and family came about the same time and 
settled at the south line of the township. His children were 
James, Mary, Peter, Charles, Abby, Ann Maria, and Matthew. 

In 1829 Benajah Furlong came and settled east of Clarks- 
field. In 1830 came Sturges Hayes, Alva Heath, Levi Row- 
land, Luke Rowland. In 1832 came Lucius M. Curtiss, John 
Hayes, Lewis Patch, Truman R. Percy, Hoxsie Vincent, Wil- 
liam Bassett and others. Among others who came about this 
time were John Milton Bissell, Hiram Cunningham, Isaac C. 
Scott, Hiel Scott, the widow Fanning with her family, Jacob 
Clawson, Hiel Hamlin, Almanza Hamlin, The Potters, David 
Tyler, Alonzo Bishop, Thomas and Worlin Carlton, Robert W. 
Hurlbut, the Twaddles, Gridleys, Cooleys and Asa Curry. 
Lack of space forbids the enumeration of more names of equal 
importance. About 1836 George Lawton came here and 
bought an interest in a store and also helped erect a mill. 
While here he was married to Catherine Daley, of Henrietta, 
Lorain county, O. One^son, born after they left here, is Major 
General Henry W. Lawton, who has been favorably heard of 
during the late Spanish war and who< was recently killed in the 

The first birth of a white child in the township was that 
of Samuel Stiles, born November 13, 1818. The second was 
that of Bethiah Wheeler, born two days later. The first mar- 


riage was that of Zara C. Norton and Cynthia Post on the 14th 
of October, 1818, and the next was that of Obadiah Jenney and 
Hester Paul on Christmas Day, 1821. The first death was 
that of Ephriam Seger on the 27th or 28th of August, 1818. 
Capt. Husted began to sell goods to the settlers as soon as he 
was settled here and continued the business of merchant for a 
number of years. Richard Huyck kept a small store also. Capt. 
Husted built the first flouring mill in 1818. Smith Starr built 
the first saw mill in 1821. Omri Nickerson built the first tan- 
nery and Henry Barber the first distillery. The first post office 
was established at Clarksfield in -1 821 and Smith Starr was the 
first postmaster. In 1840 the population of the township had 
reached the number of 1,473, DUt ** wm * probably not exceed 
1,000 at this time. 

Other mention of Clarksfield history may be found in the 
Firelands "Pioneer" of June, 1858, page 45; November, 1858, 
page 18; May, 1859, P a & e 2 3 5 J une > 1864, page 87, and Septem- 
ber, 1876, pages 34 and 97. 

Doctor Weeks: We have with us today one of the true 
Pioneers of Clarksfield township — a lady who has lived here 
ever since the fall of 181 7. When she came here, there was but 
one other family in the township — Mrs. Eliza Smith. 

Judge Wildman: Will the lady stand up and face the 
audience and tell the people how Clarksfield looked in those 
early days, and how they lived? 

Mrs. Smith : There was nothing but woods. I guess the 
people here have all seen boiled beans and boiled corn and boiled 
beef. That is what they had to live on in those days. That is 
about all I can say. 

Doctor Weeks: In connection with paper I have read, in 
reference to J. J. Cobb, who kept a store for many years, Mr. 
Fanning has handed me a copy of the Norwalk "Reflector" of the 
year 1843 m which we find an advertisement of dissolution. It 
says that the partnership existing between the. subscribers under 
the name of J. J. Cobb & Co., has been dissolved by mutual con- 
sent and is signed, J. J. Cobb. 

Mr. Peter L. Gregory, of Sandusky: My father came here 
with his family 71 years ago today — my father and mother, three 


brothers and three sisters. My father tended the mill of Captain 
Husted the winter of 1828 and 1829, and in April of 1829 moved 
up on the township line opposite Simeon Hoyt's. A man by the 
name of Sweet lived on the southwest corner of the township line 
adjoining- my father. Simeon Blackman lived on the southeast 
corner and Simeon Hoyt on the northeast corner. Right north 
of Simeon Hoyt, north half a mile, was where Aaron Hoyt 
lived. That part of it, as far as the Smith's are concerned, is all 
correct, but the other, I think, is all wrong. Then Mr. Barrett 
joined father right on the north half a mile from the corners. 
Now that place is called Barrett's Corners. 

Paper read by Doctor Weeks ordered by the President, 
Hon. S. A. Wildman, presented to the editor of the Firelands 
"Pioneer" for publication. 

Motion to give vote of thanks to Doctor Weeks for the 
valuable and interesting paper read by him, carried. 

Mr. P. L. Gregory: Comfort Hoyt married my father's 
mother and in connection with the war of 1812, they got this 
piece of land, 112 acres. She at that time, lived in Norton, Con- 
necticut, where my father was born. He moved from there to 
Putnam county, New York, and there he married his wife, Polly 
Waring. There were six children born before he came here. 
We all came here together. Matthew, my youngest brother, 
now lives on the farm himself. 

Judge Wildman : Doctor Weeks has a paper which has 
been sent to him by Judge Cunningham, an enthusiastic lover 
of Clarksfield, on the subject of the Vermillion and Ashland 
Railroad, which he will now read. . 

Doctor Weeks : I want to say a word about the orchestra, 
of the five members who^ have just rendered a selection : All 
were born in Clarksfield, and the parents of all but one were 
born here, and the grandparents and the great grandparents of 
four out of the five have lived in Clarksfield. I wrote to Esq. 
Cunningham asking him if he could be present on this occasion 
and give an address on the history of this Vermillion and Ash- 
land Railroad, but he is unable to be present himself ; so he sent 
this paper requesting me to read it. 





By J. O. Cunningham, of Urbana, Iu,. 

It matters little how rich a country may be in the gifts of 
Nature; if it be without means of transporting its surplus pro- 
ducts to* the consumer, its natural endowments count for little. 

Seventy years since, Ohio, with only the water transporta- 
tion which bounds its northern and southern limits, was little 
better off in the matter of bringing the products of the larger 
part of its soil to the consumers, who> lived to the east and 
south, than is the region of the Andes range of mountains in 
South America, where lie the richest of mines all unworked by 
reason of lack of transportation. 

The northern central counties of the state sent their wheat 
in huge Pennsylvania wagons, drawn by four or more horses, 
to Milan and the lake ports, but this burden added to the costs 
of carrying the product to the sea shore, left little to pay on the 
farm debt. 

About this time and for some years thereafter there were, 
along the southern shore of Lake Erie and within a few miles 
away from the lake, many towns of "great expectations," based 
upon the alleged "best harbor" on the lakes or upon some other 
advantage claimed therefor. Few of the towns alluded to real- 
ized largely upon their expectations, but Milan, one of the Fire- 
land towns, which was aided only by its shipping facilities, real- 
ized an exceptional success. It is said that along in the forties 
it was the second largest primary grain market in the world. 
The writer of this well remembers hauling grain to that market 
about the year 1848, when it was with difficulty that his team, 
after waiting for hours his turn, could reach the elevator and 
discharge the load. A ride upon the electric road from Nor- 
walk to Milan, a year or two since showed "how are the mighty 

The exploiters of the towns alluded to realized the value 
to their towns of interior connections in the shape of good 


wagon roads, canals and railroads, though of the latter they 
knew but little. Cleveland projected and completed the Ohio 
canal, which brought to it great wealth of interior trade, and la- 
ter it projected the Cleveland, Columbus and Cincinnati Rail- 
road, which demonstrated the greater value of the more rapid 
transportation. Two railroads were in turn projected and af- 
ter many years completed, by Sandusky. Vermillion, an am- 
bitious port of entry on the Firelands, was not behind its neigh- 
bors in its project of interior connections. What we knew 
away back in the thirties as the "Butler Road," was blazed 
through the eastern tier of townships to Ashland, the centre of 
the wheat growing region. In time it was cleared of brush and 
timber but never proved a success in bringing to the port the 
trade its projectors sought. It is probably true that never, in 
the history of the "Butler," did it bring to Vermillion a single 
load of the products of the southern counties. The rage for 
speculation and town building which had its run in the thirties 
and its culmination in the money crisis of 1837, hatched out 
among many other projects, what was known as the "Ver- 
million and Ashland Railroad Company/' incorporated by the 
law of Ohio, for the construction of a railroad from the mouth 
of our Vermillion river to the aforesaid village of Ashland, then 
in Richland county. The date of the act of incorporation, the 
nominal stock, the names of the incorporators and the specific 
corporate powers, are unknown to the writer as are the arts 
made use of for the entrapping of the unwary but ambitious 
dwellers along the proposed line. 

It is now remembered that "railroad meetings" were held 
at Clarksfield Hollow, along about 1839, and family talk fur- 
ther said that "Father had subscribed $200 towards building 
the road." This, too, when the unpaid balance on the farm debt 
was long over due and when the odd sixpences and shillings 
of the year were carefully husbanded with which to "pay tax- 
es." It is also remembered that in the fall of 1840, while the 
memorable campaign of "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" was at 
its best, the writer's father was absent several weeks working 
out this subscription on the bridge north of Florence Corners, 
and that afterwards, perhaps in '41 or '42, the constable made 


frequent calls at our humble home, at the "Centre," with exe- 
cutions against the goods, chattels and personal property of the 
family, in favor of one Bennett Pierce, a merchant of Florence, 
who had come into> possession of the unpaid notes given for 
stock, and which, in default of payment, had become merged 
into judgments. 

The writer well remembers the discussions and anticipa- 
tions among the neighbors which preceded actual work on the 
line of road. The only knowledge of what a railroad really 
was, then possessed by the people, was that obtained from the 
most recent edition of "Olney's Geography," wherein were 
brief textual descriptions of the very short lines of road in the 
eastern states, together with coarse wood cuts of the train in 
motion. These cuts represented a primitive locomotive, such 
as we saw at the Columbian Exposition, and of a series of cars 
not unlike the stage coaches of that day. A little further 
knowledge had been obtained from those of our neighbors and 
merchants who had visited eastern states and had actually rid- 
den from Schenectady to> Albany upon the cars. Stories of 
this unknown quantity had gone from neighborhood to neigh- 
borhood until it had become to be believed that the building 
of a railroad through the country would bring to the inhabi- 
tants all that was good. 

After the railroad meetings and the talk and the expecta- 
tions, came the engineers, with their mysterious brass instru- 
ments and wise looks. They drove little oak pegs with talis- 
manic signs written upon them, in the ground along a line, 
which came to us in Clarksfield from the north, along the west- 
ern side of the Florence road and running within a few feet of 
Daniel Stone's house, on the north hill, and again through Esq. 
Starr's orchard, on the south hill. Following in the direction 
indicated, the line ran within a few feet of the centre stake of 
the township and the line of stakes, as well as the cleared away 
line of underbrush through the woods, is well remembered by 
the boys of '39 and '40. 

As indicated above, work was commenced on the north end 
of the line as early as 1840. Grading, bridging and pile driv- 
ing was completed to the north hill at Clarksfield Hollow in 


the summer of 1842. The writer well remembers seeing many 
of those bridges and long lines of piles between Florence and 
Clarksfield for many years after this date. They stood to those 
victims of their own and their neighbors ambition, as so many 
skeletons of their lost and hard-earned dollars. Although 
nearly sixty years have passed since then, evidence of that early 
effort at railroad building may yet be seen along the line indi- 
cated in the faint remnants of the grade and cuts. 

Of course the population of the towns through which the 
line was being constructed, then large and perhaps larger than 
now, was greatly excited over the belief that it would soon, see 
in motion the wonderful locomotive and cars shown in the 
geography and about which all had read but few had seen. 
Multitudes flocked to see in operation the pile driver which 
closely followed the graders, who> were the farmers along the 
line. The writer remembers, even now, the thrill of delight 
he experienced when promised that all of us boys might go and 
see the pile driver on a given day in May 1842, provided that 
before that day we were "through planting." The time came 
and the work having been done, we tramped to the Hollow and 
north to the neighborhood of Esq. Wildman's, where the mon- 
ster was doing its work. A large crowd of our townsmen was 
there on the same errand as ours. We were astonished to see 
the machine handle an oak log a foot or more through and sev- 
eral feet long as easily as a man could handle his walking stick. 
By a few strokes of its hammer, which were rapidly given, it 
was driven far into the earth and then sawed off at the grade. 
A row of these piles was driven on each side of the road bed as 
supports to ties upon which were stretched the timbers which 
were to support the flat rail of iron, for the "T" rail had not 
then been invented. These piles were of oak and lasted many 
years. As late as 1866 the writer saw some of them still pro- 
truding from the ground along the line. [A few of them may 
still be seen and a portion of one of them was exhibited at the 
meeting. — Editor. ] 

Thus a large amount of the money of men, none of whom 
could afford to lose a dollar, besides $44,000.00 of the money of 
the state of Ohio, applied, as is believed, under the provisions 


of what was known as the "Pluredon law/' was wasted, for 
no train of cars was ever moved a foot over the line, no rail 
was ever laid and no subscriber was ever benefited a dollar, 
unless some one who owned corner lots took advantage of the 
transient boom to unload his commodity. 

A direct line between Vermillion and Ashland would have 
run through the eastern part of Clarksfield and through the en- 
tire eastern tier of the Fireland townships. Some influence, 
probably now unknown to any one, perhaps the heavier sub- 
scription, deflected the line to the west so* that it made the 
"Hollow" a point which was at least two miles west of a direct 

The joy of Clarksfield at the completion of the work of 
bridging, grading and pile driving to the top of the north hill, 
was so great that a grand celebration was planned and executed 
for the 4th of July, 1842. Thousands came, heard speeches 
about the supposed great benefits of the railroad that was soon 
to be, at the dinner which was spread under a bower of leafy 
branches erected for the occasion east of Mr. Barnum's store, 
and all felt satisfied and it was well that it was so, for no> other 
sign of life was ever after seen in the project. 

The railroad future of the Firelands was to be settled by 
other hands and in the years to* come. Clarksfield had to wait 
long for its share of benefits and they came from a direction not 
looked for and from hands then unknown. The recollection of 
the affair of which I have written has nearly perished from the 
earth and soon the dwellers in Vermillion, Florence, Wakeman 
and Clarksfield will be asking in vain the origin of the few evi- 
dences of the Vermillion and Ashland railroad which remain 
and will perhaps refer their origin to the Mound Builders for 
want of better information. 

Doctor Weeks : I will say in addition, (on the subject of 
his father's indebtedness on this railroad), that I have heard 
Judge Cunningham say that the officers would come up there' 
and levy an execution upon some of his father's property and 
the old gentleman would turn out an old wagon and his neigh- 
bor would appraise it for $2 — perhaps enough to pay for the 
execution, and it was put up for sale and he bid it in, and the 


next time they came, the old wagon served the purpose again, 
but the time came when Mr. Cunningham was able to, and did 
pay the note afterwards. On yonder stand is a part of the 
lower end of one of those piles pulled from the ground. It is 
presented to the Society. 

Mr. P. L. Gregory : Ebenezer Warner who was after- 
wards sheriff of Erie county, for 3 or 4 terms, had a contract 
for building that road from the mouth of the Vermillion River, 
south. There was a man by the name of (Freeman) who lived 
somewhere between Bellevue and Monroeville; he was the en- 
gineer and handled the pile driver. He never had had any ex- 
perience in such things and I had had something in the way 
of building engines. He came up here and w r anted I should 
go down and fix up that engine. I said I would try and do the 
best I could. I went down there and he proposed to give me 
so much a month if I would go and fix the engine and run it, 
and I did so. It wasn't half an hour after I got there till I had 
the engine all right and ready for use. I drove piles there 
about three months. I lost all that I had earned and he lost 
all he had. I drove the first pile that was ever driven in Ohio. 
That I know. I was married here in Clarksfield Hollow on 
May *27, to the oldest daughter of Eliza Tyler, David Tyler's 
wife's daughter, and in 1838, I went to work down on that 
railroad and in 1839 we a ^ went mto t ^ le S0U P- My wife died 
up here at the Hollow and I went to Sandusky and went into 
the hotel business. 

Judge Wildman: After some more music, there will be 
an opportunity for a free-for-all talk. 

Doctor Sheldon: I would like to have Mr. Gallup state 
to this audience how they may be able to obtain a history of 
this day's meeting. I can see a good deal of interest in the 
faces of the people here and I presume a good many of them 
would like to have the history of it in a condensed form. 

Music by the Clarksfield orchestra. Song: "The Old, 

Old Home of My Childhood." 

* In Volume 4 Huron Co. Marriage Records page 4, is the following 
entry.— [Editor.] "Peter L. Gregory to Louisa Tyler. Mr. Peter L. Greg- 
ory and Louisa Tyler were married in Clarksfield, June 3, 1838, by me. 
David Hinman." 

6 Vol. 12 


Judge Wildman: After Mr. Gallup has presented the 
matter to which his attention was called just before the last 
song, you will all have an opportunity to speak briefly what- 
ever is in you which you wish to speak. 

Mr. Gallup: Mr. President, it has been suggested that 
the people of this audience would like a full report, or a full 
history of this meeting. It is here in the stenographer's notes 
and it will appear in print in the next volume of the Firelands 
"Pioneer" which you can obtain, after it is published, at 50 
cents, at the loan office in Norwalk, where they will be kept. 

Doctor Weeks : Some of the young people have asked 
what is meant by the Firelands and perhaps a short sketch of 
the Firelands would not be amiss to the young people. Dur- 
ing the Revolutionary War, the British made different raids 
upon the towns lying not so far from the coast of Connecticut, 
along Long Island Sound, and destroyed a great deal of prop- 
erty, and Connecticut, after it became a state, donated five 
hundred thousand acres of land which the state owned in Ohio 
to those sufferers. That land was the western extremity of 
the Western Reserve, and the south line of the Western Re- 
serve, or of Huron county, is the 41st parallel of latitude. The 
south line of Huron county is the 41st parallel and this five 
hundred thousand acres were divided up and assigned to the 
holders of the original claims of those fire sufferers, and the 
Firelands include Huron and Erie counties, Ruggles township 
in Ashland county, which was formerly a part of Huron, and 
Danbury township in Ottawa county. 

Doctor Weeks : The railroad company once carried on a 
store down here at Clarksfield. The store stood on the south 
side of the race, at the Hollow. After the company failed, the 
sheriff sold the store to Abel D. Howe. 

I. M. Gillett: Mr. President — I came to Ohio, with my 
parents in 1839, traveling along the shore of Lake Erie, from 
Buffalo to Huron. I saw along the way in Ohio, particularly 
between Vermillion and Huron, considerable grading and pil- 
ing, of the Ohio Railroad, it was graded and then the piles were 
driven I should say about two feet apart and sawed off two feet, 
I think, from the ground and ties laid crosswise, and then sawed 


timber, about five or six inches square laid lengthwise, upon 
which the flat rails were laid and spiked. The piles were 
driven to the river on both sides. I do not know the route 
from Huron west, but I saw a few years later some piling and 
trestling at Lower Sandusky, now Fremont. I think there was 
never any rails laid upon the line of the road. I have a one 
dollar bill which reads as follows : "The Treasurer of The Ohio 

Railroad Co. will pay One Dollar on demand to 

or bearer at their office in Richmond, Ohio, 

Prest." In the upper center is a train of three cars— two pas- 
senger cars which are about the size of an old four horse stage 
coach, and a baggage car, which looks like a huge box, drawn 
by an engine which looks somewhat like a portable engine now 
used for running a threshing machine. On the left hand end 
of the bill is the following "Capital Stock $4,000,000 (Chartered 
March 8th 1833) Perpetual." On the right hand end is a ship 
with a large figure one above and below it. 

I have an atlas by S. Augustus Mitchell, which I studied 
in the winter of 1 840-1. The only railroad, put down in Ohio, 
was the Mad River and Lake Erie, from Sandusky to' Dayton, 
fifty-three miles, finished to Tiffin. I have seen the cars on 
that road at Bellevue ; they ran on flat rails. I have seen the 
cars on the Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark, when they were 
drawn from Monroeville to Sandusky by horses. Thus you 
see Sandusky, Bellevue and Monroeville had their railroad at 
an early day, and Milan had its canal. 

G. H. Mains : In Judge Sloane's history of the Mad 
River Railroad, he speaks of this Ohio Railroad; he also speaks 
of the time when the law was enacted and the State appn> 
priated so much money for the building of the Ohio Railroad. 
It was appropriated provided they could raise one half of it 
among the people. The lialf of it was raised among the people 
and the State appropriated their half, and as soon as the State 
was done appropriating their money, the thing stopped and the 
next legislature, or the second one after that, I believe, repealed 
the law that allowed this railroad to> be started, called the Ohio 
Railroad, and all of these roads through here went south from 
Vermillion* and east from Huron. All these were built, that is, 


were commenced under that law and none of them completed. 
At the time when the piles were driven for this road here, the 
people, had they been a mind to> drive over in the neighbor- 
hood of Bellevue, could have seen the Mad River Road running" 
in the water. That was built before the road was built from 
Vermillion to Huron, or rather before the piles were driven 
for it. 

Mr. John McKelvey, of Sandusky: Piles were driven 
through the city of Sandusky and on down to> Huron and fur- 
ther east. It was about the time that has been first stated here, 
about 1836 or 1837. There are piles for quite a distance, a 
good many of them across what is known as Pipe Creek out of 
Sandusky. They are still there apparently in pretty good con- 
dition. The city, in putting in drains, sometimes come across 
them below, that are in perfect condition. But of course, there 
was nothing more done on the road than the driving of the 
piles. In those days all railroads were supposed to have to be 
built on piles. The old Sandusky, Mansfield & Newark Rail- 
road was built and that was subsequent to> the building of this. 
The old Mad River was started in 1832 and was supposed to> be 
the first one constructed this side of the Allegheny Mountains. 
Mr. Wright is now getting up a history of Ohio Railroads and 
the Mad River Railroad was put down as the first one con- 
structed. Then the Little Miami from Cincinnati up to Xenia. 
But prior to 1838 or in 1838, I think was the first that trains 
were run on the Mad River Road. There was a horse railroad 
from Sandusky to Monroeville that was run prior to that. That 
is, a part of the old Sandusky, Mansfield and Newark Railroad 
and it was run by horses from Sandusky to Monroeville. The 
first piles that were driven were probably those on this old Ohio 
Road. Pile driving was invented about that time, I think. I 
remember, as a boy (I was not very old at the time), of seeing 
them drive piles. There was a man by the name of Hawley 
who was working at it, and he is said to have been the inventor 
of the pile driver. 

Mr. C. W. Manahan, of Norwalk : I was one of the 
musicians that helped to> celebrate the building of that railroad 
from Sandusky to< Monroeville. I played the bugle horn and I 


went with the Monroeville band. The cars were drawn by 
horses and before we got to Sandusky, we got out and stood 
on top of the cars and played our best tunes and when we went 
into Sandusky, wfc were cheered, and women waved their 
handkerchiefs and boys and men hurrahed. It was said to be 
the first railroad ever built in Ohio ; that was the horse car rail- 
road in 1835. I think the Hollisters were the prime movers in 
the building of that Monroeville and Sandusky road and they 
furnished the most of the money. It didn't remain but a short 
time; they then built another road of steam power and that 
road was taken up after Hollister died. After Hollister failed 
in 1837, that road ceased. In speaking of the great grain mar- 
kets in the world, Milan being the second, I well remember of 
its being told how many loads of grain and stuff were unloaded 
there. The average number of teams each day for six days in 
the week, the year round that unloaded grain and stuff at Milan 
was 313. That will give you some kind of an idea of what 
Milan was in 1849. 

G. H. Mains : The railroad that Brother Manahan speaks 
of, the first one, was a horse railroad. 

Doctor Sheldon : I would like to ask if the steam road as 
at present constructed was built on the same line? 

Mr. Manahan : No engines ever ran over that road. 

I. M. Gillett: Years afterwards, that was continued 
through and made into a steam railroad. I think it ran on the 
same grade from Mansfield on toi Newark, It was what was 
called the Sandusky, Mansfield & Newark Railroad and it is 
called so today. I think the time I came here, there were cars 
running on the Mad River Railroad from Sandusky to* Spring- 
field and they ran on strap rails and an old engine called the 
"Sandusky" was claimed to be the first engine that ran on a 
railroad west of the Allegheny Mountains. Now, this Ohio 
Railroad at Fremont and also at Sandusky, when built across 
the River, they built on piles and trestle work; it was plain to 
be seen there afterwards. I don't know but it went to San- 
dusky. They didn't build it across the river at Huron. They 
had driven piles up to the River on each side but no bridge was 
ever built. It was built near where the Lake Shore is now. It 


ran up to the river on either side but no bridge was ever com- 
pleted and the project fell through. I think at places there 
were stringers and ties laid along ready for the iron rails but no 
iron rails were ever laid. This bill that I sf)oke of, is in good 
condition and I want to hand it over to the Society when they 
get a place to preserve their relics. 

Mr. E. A. Burr, of Hartland: This road Mr. Gillett speaks 
of never having been completed, I have heard my father tell 
about his working on that road and of driving piles a little over 
sixty years ago, I think, in 1836 or 1837. That was the Ohio 
Railroad along the shore, it was the one that ran through the 
Black Swamp and I have heard him tell about wading in the 
Black Swamp helping to drive piles. He said the water was 
about two feet deep. That road was never completed. I 
think that was the next undertaking to build a road. My 
father worked on that road and drove piles there; he worked in 
the water when it was about two feet deep and it was pretty 
tedious working. 

Doctor Weeks : Henry Howe, in his history of Ohio, says 
the first steam railroad operated west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains was a road running from Toledo to Kalamazoo, Mich- 

Mr . Gallup : I think Mr. Howe is certainly mistaken. 
There was a road running from Pontiac to Detroit that, I think 
ante-dated anything ever completed in this state. It was run 
by horses. But the road running from Sandusky south, known 
as the Mad River Road, was the first one we had here in Ohio. 
The next one was the old Sandusky and Monroeville Road that 
was afterwards extended to Newark, or to Mansfield and New- 
ark ; but it was a horse road built upon piles with timbers along 
the piles and then strap rails on the timbers. That was not a 
success as long as they ran it as a horse road, because horses 
could not draw cars heavy enough. They finally improved on 
horse power and put on steam engines and ran the cars, but 
they were so heavy that very frequently they would bend the 
rails, — the locomotive would go over the rails and bend them 
up and when the next passenger car came along, the rail would 
slip up through the car and perhaps take off a person's leg. 


There were a great many accidents of that kind that happened 
by what they called "snakeheads." They occurred both upon 
the old Sandusky and Newark Road and upon the old Mad 
River Road. It was that tendency of light strap rails to circum- 
navigate a person, and perhaps cut through him from bottom 
to top that caused the invention of the T rail and compelled its 

Doctor Sheldon: In behalf of this Society that has had the 
honor and the pleasure of meeting in Clarksfield for the first 
time, I wish to move that a vote of thanks be tendered by this 
Society to all the people of Clarksfield and vicinity who have in 
any way contributed to our welfare and our comfort and our 
greeting on this happy occasion, I include all the ladies and 
all the gentlemen — Dr. Weeks not excepted — and your choir 
and your singers, in fact, everybody in Clarksfield. 

Mr. Gallup : I want to second the Doctor's very appro- 
priate motion and I want to> say in support of it, that whoever is 
responsible for what has been done here (I suspect it is the 
ladies of Clarksfield), they are responsible for a grand success. 
These flowers and the adornment of this hall and their hospital- 
ity also do them credit and we have very much enjoyed it and I 
am glad the Doctor has made his motion. I support it. 

Motion carried. 

Nelson S. Hendrix : I wish to say a word about this rail- 
road. The gentleman here says that after they built this strap 
road the T rail was invented. I want to> say that the State of 
Pennsylvania had 80 miles of railroad running from Philadel- 
phia to Columbia with the T rail; then in 1836, they built a rail- 
road from Landon to Harrisburgh. I worked on that road. 
Then they built a road from Harrisburgh to Carlisle and to 
Chambersburgh, across the river. I came to Ohio in 1841. 

G. H. Mains: Some 55 years ago, I lived in Sandusky 
county, five miles from Fremont and on one occasion in going 
back from there to Henrietta, we passed near Bellevue and 
stayed all night at the house of a friend. In the morning, the 
horse cars went through the farm at which we stayed over 
night, and also the steam cars. We could hear the whistle of 
the steam cars. Just beyond that was the horse cars on the 


road this gentleman speaks of. The other road was the steam 
road. I was but a boy and I remember of seeing the man sit- 
ting on the front car. One horse was ahead of the other, not a 
span hitched abreast, but one behind the other. 

Mr. Gallup: I would like to get the names of the older 
members of the Society here from 70 years old and above and 
how long they have lived on the Firelands commencing with 
the A's. (None in the A's). 

John N. Barnum, born in 1820 and lived on the Firelands 
since 1820. 

Joshua B. Bissell and William W. Bissell, born in Decem- 
ber, 1826, and June 1825. Been on the Firelands since 1832, in 
May. 67 years ago. 

Mrs. John Spurrier, born in Clarksfield in 1827 and have al- 
ways lived on the Firelands — ^2 years. 

A. J. Barney, born in 1829, came to> the Firelands in 1832. 

Mary A. Cooper came from Vermont ; born in 1820 at 
Rochester, Vermont, and came to> this county in 1836 and have 
lived here ever since. 

Sarah Day came here on the Firelands when a year old; 
born in 1816 in Ontario county, New York. I first came to 
Florence, and came here to> this county in 1828 and have lived 
here ever since. 

W. M. Fanning, born in Ontario county, state of New 
York, in 1826; came here in 1834 and have lived here ever 

Darwin Fay, born in 1824, February 7, lived on the Fire- 
lands all my life, except about thirteen months I lived in 

I. M. Gillett, born in Onondagua county, New York, June 
1826; came to> the Firelands in 1839, an d been here just sixty 
years and live where I now do for over fifty-eight years. 

Mrs. Caroline M. Gillett, born in Tompkins county, New 
York, in February, 1836, came to Clarksfield in 1836; married 
I. M. Gillett, December 21, 1854. 

Peter L. Gregory, born in Southeast, Putnam county, New 
York, May 11, 1820. Came here in 1828 with my father's 
family, but have spent really only eighteen years here steadily 


on the Firelands, here in Clarksfield and Huron county; have 
been east and lived in New York several years ; been west 
nearly forty years ; went west in '6y and now live in Sandusky. 

Ruth Ann Harrison, born in 1822 in Florence township 
and always- lived in Florence. 

Nelson S. Hendryx born in Madison county, New York, 
came to Ohio in 1841, and came to* the Firelands in 1865; born 
in 1820, in December. 

Henry E. Husted, born in 1826 at Canfield, Trumbull 
county, Ohio, and came to the Firelands in 1840. 

Charles H. Jackson, born December 12, 1816, and came to 
the Firelands in 1842. 

Ralph C. Johnson, born in 1822 in Monmouth county, 
New Jersey, and came to the Firelands in 1835. 

Chas. W. Manahan, born in Cayuga county, New York, 
May 16, 1813, came to Ohio in the spring of 1833, lived in Ohio 
sixty-six years; built the first threshing machine ever built in 
Ohio. Made the pattern myself and did the work. Threshed 
wheat for Lester Cone of Monroeville. 

Edward McDonald, born in Ontario county, New York, in 
1825 ; came here in 1856 and lived here ever since. 

Edwin Prentiss, born in 1826, February 26, in Livingston 
county, New York, came to this State in 1833. 

Mrs. Catherine L. Prentiss, born in 1825, in England, came 
to this country in 1836, to Henry county first, then to Huron 
county. When I first came here, Huron and Erie counties 
were together. 

Sarah E. Peck, born August 26, 1826; came here in 1847 
and lived here ever since. 

Chas. H. Parsons, born the 17th day of March, 1820, came 
to the Firelands about 1820. 

Elon A. Stone, born in 1827 in Danbury, Connecticut, 
came here when six weeks old, in 1827. 

William W. Stiles born in 1821 in Clarksfield. 

Eliza Smith, born in 181 3, came here in 18 17 and lived here 
ever since. 

James T. Starr, born in Fayette county, Indiana, in 1822, 
and came here in 1830. * 


Dolly Tremain, born in Madison county, New York, in 
1835 and came here in 1836. 

Sheldon Munger born February 12, 1829, in Tomkins 
county, New York, came here in 1833 and resided here ever 
since with the exception of two years. Been here sixty-seven 

Anson W. Wheeler, born December 19, 1820, about half a 
mile south of Clarksfield Station and lived here ever since. 

Margaret Barnum Bentley, born in 1827 at Clarksfield; al- 
ways lived in this county. 

Mrs. Fanny Bright, born in Essex county, N. Y. in 1820; 
came to Wakeman, 1864. 

Mrs. Julia A. Pierce, born in Woodbury, Conn., 1826; came 
to Wakeman, 1828 

Mrs. Sally Shank, born in Jefferson county, Ohio, 1822; 
came to Clarksfield in 1839; married in 1839, husband still liv- 

Mrs. Mary Stone, born in Clarksfield, in 1825 and lived 
there ever since. 

George W. McKim, born in Columbiana county, Ohio, 
1 810; came to Clarksfield 1866. 

The meeting then on motion adjourned. 


Urbana, Ills., Nov. 28, 1899. 

Hon. C. H. Gallup : 

My Dear Sir: I have just now received your kind letter of 
yesterday and in answer to your query as to my interest in the 
Firelands Society., let me say that Huron County was my home 
from the time I was two and one-half years old to the time of 
reaching my majority, and is the resting place of the remains of 
my parents. When I was a mere child, in the year 1833, my 
father moved from New York to Clarksfield and died there in 
1866. He settled near the center of the town on an unbroken 
piece of land and with the help of us boys and the neighbors, 
cleared up 100 acres of it. I well knew Smith Starr, Samuel 
Husted, Ezra Wildman and all of the pioneers of that town. I 
well know what it is to live in a log house, to go to school in a 
log school house and all the work of a frontier farm. So, I have 
been a much interested spectator of the acts of the Firelands 
Pioneer meetings and have, with much perseverance and cost suc- 
ceeded in gathering up all of the numbers of the "Pioneer," from 
the first and have them in my library nicely bound and intend to 
keep up the series while | live. I am much better acquainted 
with you than you are with me. 1 have often seen Piatt Bene- 
dict, G. T. Stewart, the Bakers and others of the pioneers. It 
was the biggest thing in my childhood when I could go to Nor- 
walk to the shows or to the big political meetings which came off 
there. I remember of seeing Lewis Cass there in 1844 and Tom 
Corwin in 1848. I read the Reflector and the Experiment and 


have very kind recollections of Editors Wickham, Preston and 
Farr, of the olden times. In 1853 I came here and have filled the 
editorial chair of a weekly paper for five years and recently com- 
pleted my fortieth year of constant practice as a lawyer. The 
"brief biography" of myself for which yon ask is a very brief one 
indeed and may be mostly found on this page and upon page 12 
of the historical pamphlet which T send you by this mail for your 
society library. I was once examined by G. T. Stewart for or as 
a candidate for a position as a teacher in Clarksfield schools. I 
have always thought I would manage to attend some of your 
meetings, but have never found it quite convenient to do so. I 
hope to yet ; perhaps next year. I read by course all of your pub- 
lications so keep well posted in the affairs there. 

I am much interested in our northwestern history and have 
collected a library of considerable size upon that topic. 

I shall always feel much interested in affairs in your county 
and read with much interest the biographical sketches of your 
deceased pioneers, many of whom I personally knew or knew of 


J. O. Cunningham. 

Note. — The varied and ripe experience of Judge Cunningham as law- 
yer, jurist, journalist, educator, philanthropist, and antiquarian give to 
papers from his pen an especial value ver\* welcome to the Pioneer. — [Ed.] 


By J. O. Cunningham, of Urbana, Illinois. 

The career of Capt. William Wells, one of the most re- 
markable characters in Pioneer history, so far as it has been 
preserved to us in the meager and broken story of his times, 
will never fail to possess a charm to the ■ student of early his- 

He participated in many of the stirring events which res- 
cued the great heart of our national territory from aboriginal 
barbarism and gave it to civilization ; and finally gave his life to 


the cause by dying upon Chicago soil and mingling his dust in 
its foundations. 

William Wells was born in Kentucky about 1770. (1) 
The infant settlements! of that country were then and for many 
years thereafter subject to hostile incursions from the sur- 
rounding Indian nations, but suffered mostly from those living 
in the territory northwest of the Ohio river. When about 
twelve years of age Wells became the captive of a marauding 
band of the Miamis and was carried to Ke-ki-ong-gay, the chief 
town of that people, situated at the confluence of the St. Joseph 
and St. Mary's rivers. (2) There he was adopted into the 
family of Me-che-kau-na-qua, or Little Turtle, (3) one of the 
most distinguished chiefs of the Miami nation. 

The home of Little Turtle then and until his death, July 
12, 1812, was at his village on the headwaters of Eel river, 
twenty miles west of Fort Wayne, although the village of Ke-ki- 
ong-gay, at the junction of the St. Mary and St. Joseph rivers, 
where the city of Ft. Wayne now stands, seems to' have been re- 
garded as the chief city and capital of the Miamis. (4) 

Here a digression for the better understanding of our nar- 
rative : At this time the Miamis or Twigh-twees, as they were 
called, embracing several tribes, were the unquestioned pro- 
prietors of the valley of the Wabash and its tributaries, on both 
sides, with a claim, questioned by the Pottawatomies and Shaw- 
anese, to lands west and east of this watershed. They were a 
bold, independent and unconquered people, having frequently 
tested their strength in encounters at arms with the British and 
French settlers as well as with the powerful Iroquois and other 
Indian nations. They roamed through their own and their 
neighbors' territories in pursuit of game for their maintenance 
and the furs and peltries which they afforded, as well as in pur- 
suit of their white and red^enemies. 

(1) VI Appleton's Cyclopedia of Am. Biog., p. 432. 

(2) Dillon's History of Indiana, P. 228. 

(3) Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, p. 323. 

(4) One writer avers that at the time of his captivity Wells was a 
member of the family of Hon. Nathaniel Pope, of whom he was a relative. 
Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, p. 307. This relationship is 
denied by Gen. John Pope, a son of Judge Pope. 


The waters of the Wabash and the Miami rivers were then 
the principal highway of the French settlements in Canada and 
those at Vincennes, Kaskaskia and on the lower Mississippi, as 
well as a means of travel to the proprietors, the Miamis. 

On their various excursions, whether for war or peace, as 
a young warrior and hunter, Wells accompanied his captors, to 
whom he became attached, and evidently considered himself in- 
corporated into their life as one of their number. As he grew to 
manhood, he availed himself of the privileges of the men of his 
tribe by taking to himself two wives from among the dusky 
maidens of the Miamis, one of whom was a daughter of little 
Turtle, ^5) his Indian father. He became thoroughly familiar 
with the rivers and territory of the nation, learned the Indian 
dialects, acquainted with their modes of life and warfare, and, 
as it would seem, to a great extent sympathized with them in 
their grievances against the whites. In short, in all except his 
lineage, Wells was wholly Indian. His Indian name was, 
"Black Snake." (6) 

Before proceeding with the narrative of the interesting 
character before us, let us make a further digression by way of 
a short review of the situation of that part of the northwest ter- 
ritory upon which Wells acted his part and the relations of the 
national government to it : While to Spain justly belongs the 
credit of discovering the before then unknown fact of a western 
continent, to France and Great Britain particularly to the former 
belong the credit of exploring and proving the larger part of 
North America. That nation, during the 17th century, by its 
missionaries and armed parties, took actual possession of the 
valleys of the St. Lawrence, the great lakes and of the Missis- 
sippi, and, at many points, therein, planted posts which served 
as places of rendezvous for traders, military expeditions and for 
missionary stations. 

It will be sufficient for our present purpose to cite the sta- 
tions at Chicago, where as early as 1684, there was a fort com- 

(5) His name was Wa-nan-ga-peth. Appendix to John Weutworth's 
" Ft. Dearborn," Fergus' Hist. Series No. 16 p. 45. 

(6) Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, p. 307. 


manded by Mons . De la Durantaye, (7) ; Ft. Wayne, (8) ; Mau- 
mee Rapids, (9) ; Ouiatenon, eight miles below La Fayette ; ; 
Vincennes,. (10); Detroit, (11); Macinac, (12) and Ft. Chart- 
ers, (13). 

The judgment and foresight of the French, in the selection 
of these places as centers of their operations, having in view 
future empire, has been amply justified by the logic of subse- 
quent events. At or near all of these French settlements, 
planted two hundred years since, within the last half century, 
have arisen cities which control the trade of many mighty 

Following the treaty of 1763, which not only gave peace to 
Europe, but transferred this mighty Northwest from French to 
British control, the British substituted their garrisons for the 
French occupants at Pittsburg, Detroit, Vincennes, Fort 

(7) Tonti's Memoirs, in Historical Collections of Louisiana, Part I, 
p. 67. Chicago was first visited by Marquette who planted a missionary 
station there in 1684. Durantaye built a fort there in 1685. Lossing's Pic- 
torial Field Book of the War of 1812. Page 302. The Jesuit fathers had 
a station there in 1699. Kaskaskia and its Records, by E. G. Mason, No. 
12 Fergus' Historical Series, p. 3 and 302. The name is given as " Chicauga" 
in Niles Register. Vol. IV p. 82 and as " Chicaygo " by Sec. of War, Gen. 
Henry Dearborn, in his order for the establishment of the fort. Went- 
worth's lecture given in No. 16 Fergus' Historical Series, p. 9. See also 
Chicago in the Greenville Treaty, Fergus' Directory, p. 56. By art. 4 of 
the treaty of Greenville, concluded by Anthony Wayne with the North- 
western Indians, Aug. 3, 1795, there was ceded to the United States, " One 
piece of land, six miles square, at the mouth of the Chicago river, empty- 
ing into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood." 
Annals of the West, p. 444. 

(8) Gen. Wayne's Address to the Indians at Fort Greenville, Dillon's 
History of Indiana, p. 371. 

(9) Maj. Campbell's Letter to Gen. Wayne, Knapp's History of the 
Maumee Valley, p. 93. 

(10) Vincennes was a missionary station as early as 1700. Harrison's 
Historical Discourse given in Fergus' Series, No. 26, p. 28. Mons. De Vin- 
cennes who was slain in battle with the Cherokees in 1736, was the first 
Frenchman to pass down the Wabash and the first military commandant, 
lb. The place was at first called " Chippe-Coke," or " Brush Wood." 
Law's Vincennes. P. 5. Sieur Jucherreau, a Canadian officer, assisted by 
the missionary Mermet, made an attempt to establish at Post Vincennes 
in 1702. Brown's History of the North West Territory, P. 7. 

(11) Founded by Cadillac in 1701. Dillon's History of Indiana, P. 19. 

(12) Settled by the French missionary, Marquette, previous to the 
year 1773. lb. p. 3. 

(13) Built by Boisbriant in 1718, lb. 27. In the spring of 1720 all was 
finished, the banner of France was given to the breeze and the work was 
called " Fort Chartres." Old Fort Chartres, by E. G. Mason, Fergus' Se- 
ries, No. 12 p. 25. In its time the most formidable in America. lb. 23. 


Chartres, Maitmee Rapids, Macinac and other points. Quick- 
ly following this peace and occupancy came our war of the 
Revolution and the treaty of 1783, acknowledging the inde- 
pendence of the United States and its jurisdiction over territory 
reaching from the Atlantic to the Mississippi. Through some 
pretext, George III., reluctant to part with his colonies, failed 
and refused to> surrender to the United States possession of 
many of the posts received from the French according to his 
treaty stipulations, so> that the year 1790 found British garri- 
sons in actual possession of and exercising jurisdiction over 
the forts and dependencies at Niagara, Detroit, Maumee, Mac- 
inac and perhaps other points. (14) The presence of these 
garrisons upon American soil was not only an irratant to Amer- 
ican pride, but through the advice and encouragement of Brit- 
ish traders, and of American tories who were sheltered by these 
posts, the Indians, over whom they had great influence, ren- 
dered more potent by constant contact, were becoming very 
troublesome to the settlers along and on the south side of the 
Ohio. (15)- 

About this time the Ohio company, consisting of men of 
New England, was formed, with a purpose to effect a settle- 
ment of the country along that river. It had founded Marietta 
and was extending its settlements into the back country. Judge 
John Cleeves Symmes, a native of New Jersey, had secured 
from Congress a claim to a large tract about Ft, Washington, 
now Cincinnati. New Englanders were also pushing along the 
southern shore of Lake Erie, in search of homes. Kentucky, 
explored and partly settled before the war of the Revolution, was 
rapidly receiving settlers from Virginia and the Carolinas. 

The government of the United States had, in 1790, but just 
taken its permanent form and Washington was not half way 
through with his first term as president. Gen. Arthur St. Clair, 
(16), had been appointed governor of the Northwest territory, 

(14) Dillon's History of Indiana, p. 272—3. 

(15) lb. 

(16) Arthur St. Clair was born at Caithness, Scotland, in 1734. 
When twenty-three years old he came to America as a lieutenant in a 
British regiment and took part in the war with the French colonies which 
followed soon after, having been engaged at the fall of Louisbourg and 
Quebec. About 1762 he resigned from the army and in 1764 settled at 


had established his capital at Ft. Washington and made a tour 
of inspection through the territory, embracing the settlements 
on the Ohio and the French posts at Vincennes, Kas- 
kaskia and Cahokia, even going so far as St. Louis, then a 
Spanish colony and a dependency of Mexico. 

At this time the Indians of the Delaware, Wyandotte, 
Shawanese, Miamis, Pottawattomie and Kickapoo nations de- 
fiantly occupied all of the territory under consideration, under 
claim of absolute ownership, proudly scouting any title of the 
United States based upon its treaty with Great Britain. These 
nations repudiated the treaties of Ft. Harmar and Ft. Stanwix, 
entered into by them with the States, shortly before, by which 
they ceded the territory on the Ohio as far down as the Great 
Miami, as made by unauthorized parties on their behalf and 
treated the settlers thereon as intruders, mercilessly murdering 
chem and destroying their property whenever they found op- 
portunity. (17) 

The British posts above referred to, supplied the Indians 
with the munitions of war and reaped therefrom a rich reward 
in the way of trade. 

During the year 1790, Gen. Josiah Harmer, in command 
of the national forces in the Northwest, and Col. John Hardin 
under him, suffered their defeats near the site of the city of 
Ft. Wayne, in a vain attempt to humble the Miami nation. 
(18) In both these battles, which were but little less than 

Ligouier, in Western Pennsylvania, where he purchased lands and erected 
mills and a residence. In 1776, as colonel of a Pennsylvania regiment, he 
joined the colonial army and having been successively promoted to 
brigadier and major generalships, he served conspicuously during the 
entire struggle. After his return to private life he became a member of 
the continental congress and president of that body. His appointment as 
governor of the Northwest Territory by President Washington was based 
upon an intimate knowledge of his character and merits and with special 
reference to the grave responsibilities of the position. He died August 31, 
1818. V. Appleton's Cyclopedia of Am. Biog. p. 368. 

(17) Dillon's History of Indiana, p. 217. Judge Innis, of Kentucky, 
estimated in 1790 that within seven years, over fifteen hundred whites had 
been killed and 20,000 horses and other animals stolen by the Indians. St. 
Clair Papers, Vol. 1 p. 160. 

(18) Dillon's History of Indiana, pp 251 — 253. John Francis Ham- 
tramck, at this time in command at Vincennes, for the purpose of creating 
a diversion in favor of Gen. Harmar's expedition, moved his forces up the 

7 Vol. 12 


slaughter of the whites, Wells, as a painted Indian, took 
part under Little Turtle. In June and ^ August 1791, Gens. 
Charles Scott and James Wilkinson, respectively, made suc- 
cessful forays against the savages — the former against those 
living at and about Ouiatenon and the latter against those liv- 
ing on Eel River — in each case overcoming all opposition and 
destroying the towns and cornfields of the Indians and their 
British and French allies established thereabouts. (19) In the 
latter year followed the overthrow and destruction of the army 
of Gen. St. Clair, who, in addition to> his duties as civil gover- 
nor, had been appointed commander in chief of the army of 
the Northwest to succeed Gen. Harmar, with specified instruc- 
tions how to conduct his campaign, drawn by Washington. 
With all the attempts at caution on the part of the government 
and the veteran general in command, the wily foe, made up of 
Indians, their British and French accessories and renegade 
tories, under the leadership of Little Turtle, fell upon the army 
on the morning of Nov. 4, 1791, at a place called Ft. Recovery, 
in Mercer county, O., and cut down one-fourth of its numbers, 
including many gallant officers. (20) Wells, as a savage, 
took part in this battle, having command of three hundred 
young Indians. The place assigned him was in front of the 
artillery of St. Clair. Here, the aim of the gunners being over 
the heads of the men, Wells succeeded in piling the ground 
with dead cannoneers. (21) As is well know, the battle re- 
sulted in a total rout of the army. The shattered remnants 
straggled back to Ft. Washington and thus ended the cam- 
paign, of which much had been expected. 

The years immediately following this defeat were years of 
sorrow to the infant settlements west of the Alleghanies. The 
triumphant savages in small bands spread themselves among 
the settlements and carried murder and rapine to many homes. 
Immigration ceased altogether or was greatly retarded and 

west bank of the Wabash and destroyed the Kickapoo villages at the mouth 
of the Vermillion River. This occurred in October, 1790, Beckwith's Illinois 
and Indiana Indians in Fergus' Historical Series. No. 27 p. 125. 

(19) Dillon's History of Indiana, pp. 262—267. 

(20) Dillon's History of Indiana, p. 272. 

(21) Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, p. 323; Blanchard's Dis- 
covery and Conquest of the Northwest, p. 261. 


many, living but slightly remote from, protection of military 
posts, abandoned their newly made homes for safety beyond 
the mountains. 

The spring of 1792 saw these Indian tribes triumphant in 
all this region, and, boasting of their ability to defeat the 
"thirteen fires," as they called our infant government, merci- 
lessly and without fear tomahawked and scalped or burned 
at the stake, all white prisoners falling into their hands. They 
tantalized the Americans as "squaws," and entertained no doubt 
of their ability to maintain the Ohio River as the boundary 
line between the United States and their country forever. 

The government, thus baffled in all its efforts to give pro- 
tection to its citizens, proceeded cautiously to- reorganize its 
Northwestern army for the purpose of again trying title to the 
empire northwest of the Ohio. Gen Anthony Wayne, a veteran 
general of the war of the Revolution, was, in the spring of 1792, 
appointed to the command of the army. His selection to this 
important position was made after great deliberation and with 
a full knowledge of the peculiar character of the man who had 
won for himself the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony," as well as 
the position which required calm deliberation and great cour- 
age to meet the situation. (22) 

Gen. Wayne remained at Ft. Washington over one year, 
recruiting his army and schooling his recruits in the knowl- 
edge most essential to the task before them, until on October 
7, 1793, he moved from his position northward as far as Green- 
ville, Darke county, Ohio, where he erected Ft. Greenville, and 

(22) Anthony Wayne was born at Easttown, Chester county, Pa., 
January 1, 1745. His ancestors were English stock, although settled in 
Ireland. His grandfather espoused the cause of William of Orange 
against James II and fought with the victors at the battle of the Boyne, 
After being educated at Philadelphia, Anthony settled upon a farm in his 
native county. He early took the part of his country against the British 
Crown, representing his native county in the legislature of Pennsylvania, 
meantime assiduously studying the art of war. Early in 1776 he raised 
the fourth regiment of Pennsylvania troops, became the colonel and 
joined the colonial troops in northern New York. His soldierly qualities 
and uniform success greatly attached him to Gen. Washington, through 
whose influence he arose to the highest preferments. 

He died at Presque Isle, (now Erie, Pa.), on December 15, 1796, while 
returning to his home from his service in the Northwest. Appleton's 
Cyclopedia of Am, Biog., vol. 6, p. 398. 


prepared to take up winter quarters. On Dec. 24th, a detach- 
ment under Maj. Henry Burbeck was sent forward to St. 
Clair's battlefield, distant about fifteen miles, which place they 
occupied on Chirstmas day, and erected a work called Fort Re- 
covery. The winter of 1793-94 was spent by the forces of 
Wayne at these points, within supporting distance of each other, 
still engaged in preparations for war with the Indians, but also, 
the meanwhile, using all possible endeavors to detach the Indians 
from the British interests and effect a treaty of peace. (23) 

The wilderness which surrounded Wayne teemed with his 
foes, ever alert for such an advantage as gave them their vic- 
tory over St. Clair. But the "Chief-Who-Never-Sleeps," as 
Little Turtle learned to< call Gen. Wayne, left no> open gap for 
his wily foe to enter. As a result every encounter had by 
him or by any detachment of his army with the Indians, wit- 
nessed their defeat. 

The coming of Wayne had been well watched and 
weighed by the Indians and their white allies. Either this or 
the effect of the continued ill-fortune before then attending 
the arms of his countrymen, determined Wells no longer to 
fight against the men of his own blood, but to desert his In- 
dian friends and ally himself with the army then invading their 
country. (24) Accordingly he invited his friend and patron, 
Little Turtle, to accompany him to a point on the Maumee, 
two miles below their village, long known as the big Elm, 
where, after the Indian fashion, he thus addressed him: 
"Father, we have long been friends. I now leave you to go to 
my own people. We will be friends until the sun reaches the 
mid-day height. From that time we will be enemies. If you 
want to kill me then, you may. If I want to kill you, I may." 
So saying he resisted all entreaties of his astonished friend 
and set out for the American lines. (25) There he was joy- 

(23) Annals of the West, p. 428. 

(24) Atter the defeat of St. Clair, Wells saw that the triumph of the 
whites was sure. Howe's His. Col. of Ohio, p. 323. 

(25) Ivossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, p. 307 ; Knapp's His. 
of the Maumee Valley, p. 95. 


fully received by Gen. Wayne and at once made a captain of 
spies. (26) 

During his life with the Indians under the tutorship of 
Little Turtle, he had become thoroughly learned in all the arts 
of their life and warfare and was a most accomplished hunter 
and warrior. It will, therefore, readily be seen that in a cam- 
paign in a country so well known to him and so little known 
to his general, his acquirements in wood-craft and his knowl- 
edge of the modes of Indian life and warfare, were substantial 
acquisitions to the army of Wayne. (27) 

About July 28, 1794, the army of Gen. Wayne, leaving 
garrisons in possession of these forts, moved northward by 
cautious and easy marches. Wells, as a leader of outposts and 
spies, was now of the greatest value to the national forces. 

The adventures of Wells, as captain of spies, as may well 
be imagined, were of the most daring kind. Few of his ex- 
ploits have come down to us. Borrowing from a writer (28) 
cotemporaneous with those times, we are informed that, at- 
tached to Cap't. Wells' command were the following named 
men: Robert McClelland, whose name has since been im- 
mortalized by the pen of Washington Irving, in his Astoria, 
was one of the most atheletic and active men that has appeared 
on this globe. On the grand parade at Ft. Greenville, where 
the ground was very little inclined, to show his activity, he 
leaped over a covered road wagon, being over eight and one- 
half feet high. Next, were Henry Miller, who, with a younger 
brother, Christopher, had been made captives by the Indians 
and adopted into that nation, when young. Henry Miller 

(26) H. W. Beckwith, in a note to the Ft. Wayne MS., Fergus' His„ 
Series, No, 26, p. 75, says that Wells entered government employ in July 
1792, which was soon after Wayne's arrival at Ft. Washington. 

(27) When Gen. Wayne, prior to the battle, sent for Capt. Wells and 
requested him to go to Sandusky and take a prisoner, for the purpose of 
obtaining information, Wells, who, having been bred among the Indians 
and perfectly understood Indian character, answered that he could take a 
prisoner, but not from Sandusky, because the Wyandotts would not be taken 
alive. Knapp's History of the Maumee Valley, p. 485. 

(28) The substance of the following pages of adventures was related 
by one McDonald, an early settler of Columbia, Ohio, who was himself a 
spy under Gen. Wayne, and is found in Howe's His. Col. of Ohio, page 
324 and in Knapp's History of the Maumee Valley, p. 97. 


lived with them until he was about twenty-four years of age, 
and although he had adopted all their manners and customs, 
he, at that age, began to think of returning to his relatives 
among the whites. The longer he reflected on the subject, the 
stronger his resolution grew to make an attempt to leave the 
Indians. He communicated his resolution to his brother, 
Christopher, and used every reason he was capable of to in- 
duce his brother to accompany him in his flight. All his argu- 
ments were insufficient. Christopher was young when made a 
captive; he was now a good hunter, an expert woodsman and 
in the full sense of the word, a free and independent Indian. 
Henry Miller set off alone through the woods and arrived 
safely among his friends in Kentucky. Capt. Wells was well 
acquainted with Miller during his captivity and knew that he 
possessed that firm intrepidity which would render him a valu- 
able companion in time of need. To these men were added 
Hickman, May and Thorpe, all men of tried worth in Indian 

Capt. Wells and his four companions were privileged 
characters in camp who were only called upon to do duty upon 
very particular and interesting occasions. They were permit- 
ted a carte blanche among the horses of the dragoons, and 
when on duty as spies, always went well mounted; while 
others in the same line of duty went on foot and were kept con- 
stantly on the alert, scouring the country in every direction. 

In June, 1794, while the army was in camp at Ft. Green- 
ville, awaiting orders to move into the Indian country, Gen. 
Wayne dispatched Wells and his corps with orders to capture 
and bring to camp an Indian, as a prisoner, in order that, by 
interrogating him touching the intentions of the enemy he might 
be better prepared to meet the difficulties of his undertaking. 

They crossed the St. Mary's river and thence to< the Au- 
glaise, both tributaries of the Maumee, without meeting with 
any straggling party of Indians. In passing up the Auglaise 
they discovered smoke a short distance away. Dismounting 
they tied their horses and cautiously reconnoitered the vicin- 
ity. Here they found Indians encamped on a high, open piece 
of ground, clear of brush or any undergrowth, rendering it dif- 


ficult to approach them without being discovered. While 
they were reconnoitering they saw, not very far distant, from 
the Indian camp, a fallen tree. They retired and again ap- 
proached the camp from another direction, keeping the fallen 
tree between them and the Indians. The tree-top being but 
lately fallen and in full leaf, served to completely cover them 
from the observation -of the Indians. With cat-like caution 
they approached the camp upon their hands and knees until 
they reached their cover, when they were within short rifle- 
range of the objects of their pursuit. The Indians were loiter- 
ing about their camp fire, roasting their venison, laughing and 
making merry, all unconscious of the approaching danger. 
Having arrived at their point of concealment, Wells and his 
companions, by a moment's consultation, settled the plan of at- 
tack. They determined to kill two of the enemy and make a 
prisoner of the third. To this end it was agreed that Wells 
and Miller should, with their rifles, kill two of them and that 
McClelland, who was as swift as a deer on foot, should catch 
the survivor. Wells was to shoot the man on the right and 
Miller the man on the left. Resting their rifles carefully upon 
the trunk of the tree, both aimed at the hearts of their victims. 
At a signal, both pieces sounded as one, and the two Indians 
fell dead in their tracks. Waiting only to witness the effect of 
this attack, McClellan, hatchet in hand, leaped toward the sur- 
vivor, intent only on performing his part of the tragedy by 
making him his prisoner. The Indian bounded off at his 
highest speed down the river. Headed off in this direction the 
fugitive turned and reaching the bank of the stream at a place 
twenty feet high, sprang into the oozy mud at the margin and 
sank to his arm-pits. McClellan came after and instantly 
sprang upon him as he was struggling in the mire and en- 
deavoring to extricate himself therefrom. The Indian drew 
his knife, McClellan raised his tomahawk and told him to throw 
down his knife or he would kill him instantly. He did so and 
surrendered to his captors without further opposition. By 
this time Wells and Miller had arrived at the top of the bank 
and found the two quietly sticking in the mud. As their pris- 
oner was evidently secure they leisurely selected a less precip- 


itous place in the bank, descended to the river and dragged 
the captive from the mud and tied him. He was sulky and 
refused to answer their questions in either language. One of 
the party went back for their horses, while those remaining 
washed the mud and paint from their prisoner. When re- 
lieved of both he was found to be a white man instead of an 
Indian, but still sulked and refused to speak or to> give any ac- 
count of himself. The party scalped the two dead Indians and 
set out for Wayne's headquarters with their prisoner. Henry 
Miller, one of the party, having some suspicions that the pris- 
oner might possibly be his brother, Christopher, whom he had 
left years previously to his Indian life, rode up along side of 
him and called him by his Indian name. At the sound of his 
name the man started, stared at his interlocutor and eagerly 
asked how he came to know his name. The query in the mind 
of Henry was at once explained. The prisoner, preserved from 
death by a mysterious providence, was indeed, his long lost 
brother. At the moment so> fatal to his companions, had 
Christopher stood either upon the right or left of the trio, he 
would have inevitably fallen and perhaps at the hand of his 
brother. The destiny of the race was even there with those 
Indians, witnessing their death and the survival of the white 

Capt. Wells and his party arrived in due time safely at Ft. 
Greenville and delivered their prisoner to the military author- 
ities. Still sulky, Christopher was secured in the guard 
house, where he was rigidly examined by Gen. Wayne touch- 
ing the situation and intentions of the savages. Desirous of 
saving him to the army and to civilization, Wells and Henry 
Miller were constantly with him and Urgent in their entreaties 
to him to give up his wild life and return to his relatives. Long 
persevering in his perverse sulkiness, he at length yielded to 
persuasion, became more cheerful and promised, if set at lib- 
erty, he would remain with the army. Capt. Wells and Henry 
at once bore his promise to the general and asked him to re- 
lease Christopher from his confinement. Wayne, suspicious of 
the fidelity of his prisoner, was loath to accede to the request, 
but finally consented, with the observation that should he de- 


ceive them and return to the enemy, they would be one the 
stronger. Accordingly, Christopher was set at liberty, pleased 
with his new situation. He joined Capt. Wells' company, was 
mounted upon a fine horse and fully equipped for service and 
continued through the war a brave and intrepid soldier. 

As soon as Capt. Wells and his company were rested they 
were anxious for another bout with the enemy. Early in July, 
1794, they left Greenville, their number strengthened by the ad- 
dition of Christopher Miller, with orders from Gen. Wayne to 
bring in prisoners. As usual, they were mounted upon elegant 
horses and painted and dressed as Indians. They arrived at 
a point near the Auglaise river where they met a single Indian 
and called upon him to> surrender. Notwithstanding they out- 
numbered him, six to one, he refused, levelled his rifle and, as 
they approached him on horseback, fired at one of their num- 
ber, missing his mark, when he ran from them. Gaining upon 
them in the thick underbrush, Christopher Miller and McClel- 
lan dismounted, pursued, and were about overtaking him,McClel- 
lan in advance, when the Indian attempted to strike the latter 
with his rifle. McClellan parried the blow and, as it was his 
wish to do the fellow no harm, he was kept at bay until Christo^ 
pher came up, when they closed in and made him prisoner 
without dealing him or receiving any injury. He was found 
to be a Pottawatomie cheif of great prowess and was safely de- 
livered to Gen. Wayne. 

The part taken by Christopher in this campaign secured 
him a place in the confidence of Capt. Wells, whose faithful as- 
sistant he continued to be. 

Upon one of Capt. Wells' adventures in the enemy's 
country and while upon the St. Mary's River, he discovered, 
not far away^ an Indian family, coming up the river in a canoe. 
He dismounted from his horse and concealed his men while he 
went to the river bank in full view of the party and called upon 
them to come to him. As he was dressed in their costume 
and spoke their language, they complied with his request, un- 
aware and unsuspicious of danger. The moment the canoe 
struck the shore, near where Capt. Wells stood, he heard the 
click of his comrades' rifles, as they were preparing to deliver 


their fire from their ambush upon the Indians. At this mo- 
ment, discovering- that the party was none other than his In- 
dian father, Little Turtle, and his family, Capt. Wells threw 
himself between his alert comrades and the family of his friend 
and shouted out his command to> desist from any hostile dem- 
onstration, informing them who the Indians were. "That 
family," said he to his men, "fed me when hungry, clothed me 
when naked and nursed me when sick and treated me as affec- 
tionately as their own children." This short speech, vehem- 
ently delivered, checked the ardor of his comrades, who were 
coming forward intent upon killing the party and moved them 
to sympathy with their leader. Dropping tomahawks and 
rifles, they went to the canoe and shook hands with the Indians 
in the most friendly manner. Capt Wells assured his friends 
they had nothing to> fear from his party, but that Gen. Wayne 
was approaching 1 the Indian country wi|th an overwhelming 
force and that the best thing they could do was to make peace 
with the white men, who did not wish to continue the war. He 
urged Little Turtle to keep out of the impending danger and 
bade the party farewell. They appeared grateful for Capt. 
Wells' clemency, pushed off from the shore and paddled rap- 
idly down the river toward the Indian town at the junction of 
the rivers a few miles away. 

Though having an enemy in his power, Capt. Wells, upon 
this occasion, by his magnanimous conduct, showed himself 
to be possessed of that benevolence of heart found only in the 
noblest of the species. 

Early in August, 1794, the army arrived at the confluence 
of the Auglaise with the Maumee River and set about building 
the fortification known as Port Defiance. Expecting shortly to 
engage the allied forces of the Indians and their British helpers, 
Wayne again sought information from the front touching the 
intentions and numbers of the enemy. Wells and his comrades 
were again dispatched, charged with the duty of bringing in a 
prisoner. Cautiously avoiding the large parties of Indians 
wending their way to the place of rendezvous, at Ft. Miami, 
then occupied by a detachment of British troops, under Maj. 
Campbell, Wells felt his way down the river to an Indian vil- 


lage not far from the fort. Wells and his party rode into the 
village as if they had just come from the fort and were friends 
to the inhabitants. Being dressed and painted in complete In- 
dian style, they rode through the village, occasionally stopping 
and talking to> the Indians in their own language. No suspi- 
cion of who they were was excited, the enemy believing them 
to be Indians from a distance coming to take part in the battle 
which they knew was shortly to be fought. After they had 
passed the village some distance, they fell in with an Indian 
man and woman or horseback who were returning to the town 
from hunting. They were made captives withouti resistance, 
by Wells, who, with his prisoners at once set off on his return 
to> Ft. Defiance. 

As they were rapidly proceeding up the Maumee River, 
a little after dark, they came near a large encampment of In- 
dians, who were merrily amusing themselves around their 
camp fires. Their prisoners were ordered to be silent under 
pain of instant death. They went around the camp fires with 
their prisoners until they had reached a point about one-half 
mile above on their road, where they halted to consult the sit- 
uation. They concluded to gag and tie their prisoners and 
ride back to the Indian encampment and give them a rally in 
which each should kill an Indian. They deliberately got down, 
gagged and fastened to trees their prisoners, and rode boldly 
into the Indian camp, where they halted with their rifles lying 
across the pommels of their saddles. They inquired from the 
Indians when last they had heard from Gen. Wayne and of the 
movement of his army; how soon and where it was expected 
the battle would be fought? The Indians who were standing 
near Wells and his party were very communicative, answering 
all questions without suspecting any deceit in their visitors. 
At length an Indian who was sitting at some distance from 
them said in another tongue, to one near him, that he suspec- 
ted that these strangers had some mischief in their heads. 
Wells, alert to discover the feelings of his auditors, overheard 
what was said by the Indian, and at once gave the preconcerted 
signal. Each man of the party fired his rifle into the body of 
an Indian at near range, at the same time putting spurs to their 


horses. The Indian, whose remark had discovered to Wells 
the suspicion of their true character, simultaneously with the 
words spoken by him, grasped his rifle and arose as did those 
near him. Their movement was anticipated by Wells and his 
party in their attack and escape. As they fled from the now 
aroused camp, each man hugged closely the neck of his horse 
so as to lessen the danger from the enemies bullets. They 
had not gotten beyond the light of the campfires before the In- 
dians first aroused shot at them. McClellan, laying close to 
the neck of his horse, was hit, the ball passing under his 
shoulder blade and coming out at the top of the shoulder. 
Wells was shot through the arm on which he carried his rifle; 
the arm was broken and his trusty rifle fell to the ground. All 
escaped but May who> was made a prisoner. The party, thus 
maimed, soon left their pursuers far behind and rode rapidly 
to where their captives were confined, mounted them on their 
horses and again set off for Ft. Defiance, a distance of about 
thirty miles, which distance must be accomplished before the 
wounded men could receive the much needed care of a sur- 
geon. As their march would be slow and painful, one of the 
party was dispatched at full speed to the post for a guard and 
a surgeon. As soon as the messenger reached the fort with 
the tidings of the wounds and the perilous situation of those 
heroic and faithful spies, very great sympathy was manifested 
in the minds of all. Gen. Wayne's feeling for suffering soldiers 
was at all times quick and sensitive. We can then well imagine 
how intense was his solicitude when informed of the sufferings 
and perils of his faithful spies to whom he owed so> much of 
his success. Without delay he dispatched a surgeon and a 
company of swift dragoons to meet, care for and guard to a 
place of safety the wounded and imperiled party. They arrived 
safely in camp at Ft. Defiance and the wounded recovered in 
due course of time. 

May, who unluckily became the prisoner of the infuriated 
Indians, was recognized by them as a former captive and 
adopted child of the red man, who had fled from their hospitali- 
ties, like Wells to join himself to their enemies. They were 
not long, therefore, in determining his fate. Soon after his 


capture he was fastened to a tree near the British post and rid- 
dled with Indian bullets, as Wells and the other members of 
the party would have been, had they been made captives. 

In pursuit of information needed by his general, Wells of- 
ten took the greatest risks in the face of the enemy, but his in- 
trepidity always proved equal to every dangerous emergency. 


Soon after, Wayne's army completed Ft. Defiance, as a 
place of deposit, moved down the Maumee in search of the 
enemy whom it encountered in large force on August 20, at a 
point known as the "Fallen Timbers," not far above the pres- 
ent Maumee City. A fierce battle was waged, lasting several 
hours, between the contending forces of civilization and bar- 
barism for the mastery in the northwest, both sides being con- 
fident of possessing the greatest strength. The American 
army was made up of regulars and volunteers from the fron- 
tiers, in both of which forces was a large mixture of veterans of 
the war of the Revolution, then recently closed and of veteran 
Indian fighters, all under the command of Gen. Wayne, in 
whom was reposed the most implicit confidence. The enemy 
was made up of fighters from all the tribes then living east of 
the Mississippi and north of the Ohio> Rivers, under the com- 
mand of the intrepid and versatile Little Turtle, who, by 
words and example encouraged his followers in the belief that 
they were invincible. The spell of confidence, however, gave 
way before the valor and courage of the Americans, and the 
motley horde of clouted savages, half-breeds and red-coats 
sought safety in flight to the surrounding forests or under the 
walls of the British fort, near by. (31) For his temerity in 
following and shooting down the vanquished red skins under 
the guns of- the British fort, Wayne was called to account by 
Maj. Campbell, the commander. A spicy correspondence en- 

0}O ) Capt. Wells, the wily, sagacious and intrepid warrior of the 
woods, led his party within so short a distance of the British works (Ft. 
Miami), as to ascertain that the Indians were encamped under their pro- 
tection. Knapp's His. of the Maumee Valley, p. 88. 

(31) The Indian nations opposed to Gen. Wayne's army were the 
Wyandotts, Delawares, Shawanese, Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawattomies, 
Miamis, Eel River tribes and Weas. Fergus' His. Series, No. 26, p. 37. 


sued between the two, but no act of hostility followed. (32) 

Wayne strengthened his post at Defiance and erected a 
fort at the confluence of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph's Rivers 
and retired for the winter to Ft. Greenville. (33) 

Early in the summer of 1795, Wayne concluded a treaty 
of peace with all the hostiles at Greenville, which secured to 
the frontiers fifteen years of peace and admitted a great influx 
of population which removed the frontier line from the line of 
the Ohio to that of the Wabash and Maumee. In this treaty 
Wells was made very useful by his commander as interpreter, 
he being master of all the various dialects in use among the In- 
dians. (34) 

Upon the return of peace, Wells returned to his family 
and red friends at Ft. Wayne, where he ever after continued to 
reside. A reservation of several hundred acres of land was 
given to him by the government a short distance below the 
fort upon which and near to his friend, Little Turtle, he lived, 
useful to both races. (35) 

In 1798 he accompanied Little Turtle in his journey to 
visit President Adams, at Philadelphia, where the party called 
forth much interest. He there met Volney, the celebrated 
French philosopher, and other men of renown. (36) 

The ties of friendship which united him to his foster 
father, Little Turtle, remained unbroken during their joint 

(32) For the correspondence in full which passed between the Amer- 
ican general and the British major, concerning his occupancy of American 
soil see Knapp's His. of the Maumee Valley, p. 91. 

(33) On September 14, Wayne's army moved from Ft. Defiance to the 
confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's rivers where it arrived on the 
17th. The next day Gen. Wayne reconnoiteredthe ground and selected the 
site of the fortress, which was completed and garrisoned October 22, and 
given the name of its projector, by Col. John Francis Hamtramck, who 
was left in command. Dillon's His. of Indiana, p. 355. 

(34) Wells was Indian agent at Ft Wayne in 1806, which appointment 
he held several years. Fergus' His. Series, No. 26, p. 56. Brice's His. of 
Ft. Wayne, p. 148. 

(35) After the treaty of Greenville, Wells rejoined his family and 
settled at the old orchard a s-hort distance below the confluence of the St. 
Joseph and St. Mary's rivers on the banks of a small stream thereafter 
called "Spy Run," and which still bears that name. The government sub- 
sequently granted him a pre-emption of some three hundred and twenty 
acres of land, including his improvements and the old orchard. lb. 

(36) Blanchard's Dis. & Conq. of the Great West, p. 262. 


lives, — the latter ever being mindful of his treaty obligations to 
the whites, entered into* at Greenville. 

Little Turtle died at Ft. Wayne July 14, 1812, on the eve 
of the war of that year. 

Capt. Wells was long Indian agent in the employ of the 
government and held the office of justice of the peace under 
appointment of Gen. Harrison, as governor of Indiana Terri- 
tory. His correspondence, published in the American state 
papers, shows him to have attained to a fair degree of scholar- 
ship for his station and times. 

Later in life he took to* himself an American wife, but 
whether during the lifetime of his Indian consorts, history is 
silent. His children, most of whom were by Wa-nau-ga-peth, 
the daughter of Little Turtle, were all well educated. His 
daughters married white husbands professional and mili- 
tary men, and left numerous descendants who are proud of a 
descent which bears the joint blood of Little Turtle and Capt. 
Wells. One son, William Wayne Wells, named in honor of 
his father's old commander, graduated from West Point Mili- 
tary academy in 1821 and subsequently became a first lieuten- 
ant in our army, which office he resigned in 1831. He died in 
1832. (37) All of Capt. Wells sons died childless. The de- 
scendants of some of his daughters yet live in the state of In- 

We now come to> the closing and if possible, the most 
tragic chapter in the life of Capt. Wells, rendered the most in- 
teresting to Illinoisans because its events transpired upon its 
own soil and within the limits of what is now its, chief city. 

War was declared by the American Congress against 
Great Britain on June 19, 1812, but the knowledge of this im- 
portant fact" was slow in reaching the frontier military posts. 
Not until August 9, did the intelligence reach Capt. Nathan 
Heald, in command of the American post at the mouth of the 
Chicago River. (38) Simultaneously with this news came an 

(37) Capt. Wells is sometimes erroneously spoken of as "William 
Wayne Wells ;" Annals of the West, p. 615. Blanchard's Dis. & Conq., p. 
261 ; Davidson & Stuve's His. of 111., p. 265. 

(38) Fort Dearborn, erected by direction of Gen. Henry Dearborn, 
Secretary of War, by the men of a company of U. S. infantry under com 


unconditional order from the timorous Gen. William Hull, in 
command at Detroit, to Capt. Heald, to distribute all of the 
United States property in the fort and factory, among the In- 
dians in the neighborhood and to evacuate the fort. The hope 
of Gen. Hull was undoubtedly to placate the Indians whose 
freindship he foresaw would be of great advantage in the com- 
ing storm; but, as will be remembered, the generous act was 
construed by the sagacious savages to be an act of cowardice, 
and aroused in them only contempt and hatred. Long before 
Win-ne-meg, the messenger from Gen. Hull, had delivered his 
dispatches, the news of the coming distribution had been 
spread to all of the Indians in the region, and parties from the 
Pottawatomies, Winnebagoes, Kickapoos and other tribes 
then living about Lake Michigan, began pouring into Chicago 
to share in the division of plunder from the fort. Had the or- 
der been promptly obeyed, loss of life would have undoubtedly 
been avoided; but preparations for the evacuation went slowly 
forward for nearly a week following the arrival of the messen- 
ger. In the meantime, news of the capture of the American 
post on Macinac Island, on July 17, had come to the gathering 
Indians, begetting in them a contempt for American soldiers. 
Capt. Wells at Ft. Wayne, heard the rumor of the in- 
tended distribution of goods and evacuation of the Chicago 
post, and rightly divining the 1 effect upon the Indians, feared 
greatly for the ultimate safety of the garrison and especially 
for that of his niece, the wife of the commander, Capt. Heald. 
(39) Taking with him, therefore, one white man William Jor- 

mand of Capt. John Whistler. After the evacuation of Capt. Heald, the 
structure, which was a stockade, made of split logs, with bastions at the 
corners and officers' quarters, was entirely destroyed by the Indians and 
the post abandoned until 1816, when, in June of that year, the post was 
reoccupied by a detachment of U. S. troops under Capt. Hezekiah Bradley, 
and the fort rebuilt, but in a form different from the original structure. 
In 1823 the military forces were withdrawn from the post but it was again 
occupied in 1828. Address by Hon. John Wentwortb, in No. 16 of Fergus' 
His. Series, p. 9. The palisades of the new post were removed in the 
spring of 1843 and their place supplied by a handsome fence. Historical 
Sketch to Fergus' Directory, p. 58. Hon. I. N. Arnold in Fergus' His. 
Series No. 10, p. 21, says that Capt. Whistler arrived July 4, 1821. 

(39) Howe's His. Col. of Ohio, p. 323. Mrs. Heald was a daughter of 
Col. Samuel Wells, of Kentucky, who was an older brother of Capt. Wil- 
liam Wells. Samuel Wells was a successful Indian fighter and prominent 


dan, a non-commissioned officer, and an escort of fourteen 
friendly Miamis, he made all haste for the fort at Chicago, 
where he arrived on August 14th, finding the post besieged by 
many Indians from far and near, wild with rage and disap- 
pointment at what they considered bad faith of the garrison. 
On August 13th, the goods in store, consisting of blankets, 
broadcloths, calicoes, etc., were distributed to the Indians, who 
anticipated that on the day following they would be further en- 
riched by receiving the arms, ammunition and liquors which 
they knew to be in store. Capt. Heald, informed of the treach- 
erous disposition of the savages, deemed it imprudent to> in- 
flame them with the taste of his liquors and to put into their 
hands the arms and ammunition. Accordingly on the night of 
the 13th, the liquors were carried through the sally port to the 
rivers and its waters were enriched by the absorption of the 
whole stock. The ammunition and arms w ( ere' sjimilatrly dis- 
posed of, greatly to the disgust of the Indians who set a much 
higher value on the goods thus destroyed than upon the valuable 
goods before then divided among them. On the morning of 
the 14th, the aroma of the spilled liquors filled the air and plainly 
told to them the story of the white man's deceit and greatly en- 
raged them, deepening still further, the hostile state of feel- 
ing. In this condition of things it was plain to be seen that 
there was no safety in the fort and perhaps less in the con- 
templated retreat ; and none knew it better than Capt. Wells. 
A council with the Indians, held on the day of the arrival 
of Wells' party, left no doubt as to their hostile intentions. 
They expressed their indignation at the destruction of what 
they deemed their own and openly threatened vengeance. On 

hi the military and social circles of his state. Address of Hon. John 
Wentworth in .No. 16, Fergus' His. Series, p. 14. Mrs. Heald was with her 
uncle at Ft. Wayne two or three years before the war, where she became 
acquainted with Capt. Heald. Their acquaintance ripened into mutual 
attachment. He taught her the use of the rifle, in which she became very 
expert. They were married at the home of her father, in Louisville, in 
1811, from which place she accompanied her husband to Ft. Dearborn, her- 
self riding a favorite mare. Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, p. 
304. Col. Samuel Wells was one of the rescuing party under Gen. Harri- 
son that marched to the relief of Ft. Wayne when besieged by the Indians 
in September, 1812. Beckwith's Notes to Ft. Wayne MS. in Fergus' His. 
Series No. 21. p. 76. Col. Samuel Wells removed to St. Charles, Mo., in 
1817 where he died, beloved by his neighbors. Annals of the West, p. 225. 
8 Vol. 12 


the morning of August 15th, the little garrison, consisting of 
fifty-four rdgular soldiers and twelve militia, besides women 
and children in wagons, passed from the fort near the mouth 
of the Chicago river, and at once took to the beach of the lake 
on their long retreat eastward as they hoped; but, as a short 
time proved, to the cruel death of most of them. Capt. Wells 
and his escort rode in front and was the first to observe the hos- 
tile designs of the disappointed Indians. He at once rode 
back to apprise Capt. Heald of the ambush prepared for them. 
Before time for preparation for hostilities had elapsed, the 
doomed company received a deadly volley from behind a low 
range of sand-hills, one and one-half miles from the fort. At 
the first fire the Miami escort under Wells showed their sym- 
pathy with the hostiles by a precipitate retreat, leaving the 
troops to face hundreds of painted and infuriated savages. 
Capt. Heald rallied his men upon the highest point and en- 
deavored to mass his wagons so> as to protect the sick, the 
women and children. The Americans fought with desperation 
but were so> far outnumbered and so> poorly prepared for the 
conflict, having but twenty-five rounds of ammunition, that 
the fates were against them. Capt. Heald capitulated with 
the Indians, the terms of which involved a surrender upon con- 
dition that the lives of the remainder of the party should be 
spared. Following the surrender, but in violation of its 
terms, the savages commenced an indiscriminate massacre of 
the women and children. Twelve children, belonging to the 
whites, were tomahawked by one young savage. Capt. Wells, 
seeing this, determined to avenge their death and rode off rap- 
idly for the encampment of the Indians, where they had left 
their squaws and children. He was pursued by several In- 
dians who killed his horse and disabled him; soon after which 
he was dispatched and scalped, but not before he had killed 
eight of the enemy. His head was cut off and carried around 
on a pole as a trophy of their victory and his heart was cut out 
and eaten by his murderers. (40) 

(40) The Indians drank the blood of Capt. Wells from a superstitious 
belief that they should thus imbibe his warlike qualities. Howe's His. 
Col. of Ohio, p. 323. 


The few who remained alive, were taken by their captors 
to different places and some finally made their escape, among 
whom were Capt. Heald and his wife, (41) whose experience 
and final escape are given in the official report of the Captain, 
made to the Adjutant General of the army of which the follow- 
ing is a copy: 

"Pittsburg, 23d October, 1812. 

"Sir: — I embrace this opportunity to render you an ac- 
count of the garrison of Chicago. On the 9th of August last I 
received orders from Gen. Hull to evacuate the post and pro- 
ceed with my command to Detroit by land, leaving it at my 
discretion to dispose of the public property as I thought prop- 
er. The neighboring Indians got the information as early as 
I did and came in from all quarters in order to receive the 
goods in the factory store which they understood were to be 
given them. On the 13th Capt. Wells, of Ft. Wayne, arrived 
with about thirty Miamis for the purpose of escorting us in, 
by the request of Gen. Hull. On the 14th I delivered the In- 
dians all the goods in the factory store and considerable quantity 
of provisions which we could not take away with us. The 
surplus arms and ammunition I thought proper to< destroy, 
fearing they would make bad use of it if put in their possession. I 
also, destroyed all the liquor on hand soon after they began to 
collect. The collection was unusually large for that place, but 
they conducted with the strictest propriety till after I left the fort. 
On the 15th at nine in the morning we commenced our march, a 
part of the Miamis were detached in front and the remainder 
in our rear as guards under the direction of Capt. Wells. The 
situation of the country rendered it necessary for us to take 
the beach with the Lake on our left and a high sand bank on 
our right at about one hundred yards distant. We had pro- 
ceeded about a mile and a half when it was discovered the In- 
dians were prepared to attack us from behind the bank. I im- 

(41) Accounts differ somewhat as to the exact manner of the death of 
Capt. Wells. See Wentworth's Reminiscences, No. 24, Fergus' His. Series, 
p.73. Wells' pipe of peace and his tomahawk, carried on this occasion, were 
subsequently recovered and now, by the gift of his descendants, repose 
in the archives of the Chicago Historical Society. Jb. 


mediately marched up with the company to the top of the 
bank, when the action commenced; after firing one round we 
charged and the Indians gave way in front and joined those on 
our flanks. In about fifteen minutes they got possession of 
all our horses, provisions and baggage of every description, 
and, finding the Miamis did not assist us, I drew off the men 
I had left and took possession of a small elevation in the open 
prairie, out of shot of the bank or any other cover. The Indi- 
ans did not follow me but assembled in a body on the top of the 
bank, and after some consultation among themselves, made sigm 
for me to approach them. I advanced toward them alone and 
was met by one of the Pottawattomie chiefs, called the Black- 
bird, with an interpreter. After shaking hands he requested 
me to surrender, promising to spare the lives of all the prison- 
ers. On a few moments consideration, I concluded it would 
be most prudent to> comply with his request, although I did 
not put entire confidence in his promise. After delivering up 
our arms, we were taken back to their encampment near the 
fort, and distributed among the different tribes. The next 
morning they set fire to the fort and left the place, taking the 
prisoners with them. Their number of warriors was between 
four and five hundred, mostly of the Pottawatomie nation, 
and their loss, from the best information I could get, was about 
fifteen. Our strength was fifty-four regulars and twelve mili- 
tia, out of which twenty-six regulars and all the militia were 
killed in the action, with two> women and twelve children. En- 
sign George Ronan and Doctor Isaac V. Van Voorhis, of my 
company, with Capt. Wells, of Ft. Wayne, are, to my great sor- 
row numbered among the dead. Lieut. Lina T. Helm, with twen- 
ty-five non-commissioned officers and privates and eleven 
women and children, were prisoners when we were separated. 
Mrs. Heald and myself were taken to* the north of the river St. 
Joseph, and being both badly wounded, were permitted to re- 
side with Mr. Burnett, an Indian trader. In a few days after 
our arrival there, the Indians all went off to take Fort Wayne, 
and in their absence I engaged a Frenchman to take us to 
Michilimakinac by water, where I gave myself up as a prisoner 
of war, with one of my sergeants. The commanding officer, 


Capt. Roberts, offered me every assistance in his power to ren- 
der our situation comfortable while we remained there, and to 
enable us to proceed on our journey. 

To him I gave my parole of honor and came to Detroit 
and reported myself to Col. Proctor, who> gave us a passage to 
Buffalo, by the way of Presque Isle and arrived here yester- 
day. I shall set out in a few days for Louisville in the state of 
Kentucky, where I shall remain till exchanged. The sergeant 
is with me. 

I have the honor to be with great respect, sir, your most 
obt. and humble servt. 

N. Heald, Capt. ist Infy. Regt. 
Thos. H. Cushing, Esqr., 

Adjt. Genl. U. S. Army, Washington City." 

The few persons wlx> survived the slaughter on the lake 
shore, including the Kinzie family and Mrs. Helm (41) wife of 
Lt. Helm, were assembled in the evening under the protection 
of friendly Indian chiefs who sought to protect them against 
(he fury of a new arrival of Pottawattomies, who, too late to 
participate in the general massacre of the garrison, would have 
made the destruction of the whites complete, but for the timely 
arrival of the half-breed, Billy Caldwell, who, by the use of 
great tact saved the further effusion of blood. (42) 

The day following the Indians burned the post and dis- 
persed with their prisoners, which included all the surviving 
whites, except the Kinzie family, Capt. Heald and wife and 
Mrs. Helm. (43) 

(41) The wife of Lt. Helm of the garrison participated in the mas- 
sacre and was taken prisoner. After the conclusion of peace and the re- 
habitation of the post she returned and gave her account of the terrible 
event which -drove from Chicago the last vestige of civilization. Mrs. 
Helm's account was put in writing by Mrs. Kinzie and published in 1836 
and afterwards transferred to the pages of her "Waubun." This account 
as there published is a most thrilling description of the notable event and 
forms the basis of all the accounts subsequently published, none of which 
approach it in startling narration. It may also be found in the Chicago 
Magazine of date April 15, 1857. 

(42) Davidson & Stuve's History of Illinois, p. 266 ; Brown's History 
of Illinois, p. 304. 

(43) Fergus' Directory, p. 58. 


It was not until after the close of the war, in 1816, that 
our forces again occupied the abandoned post and rebuilt the 
burned fort. Then, and not before, the whitened bones of the 
slaughtered company were gathered together and buried near 
the fort. It is said, however, that the mangled remains of 
Capt. Wells were gatHered up soon after the battle by the half- 
breed, Billy Caldwell, who was a friend of Wells, and buried. 


The records of the War Department fail to show that 
Wells was ever commissioned in the army and. there is no 
official recognition of him except that in an account book of 
moneys paid to scouts, spies and militia, Lieut. William Wells' 
company of Virginia militia appears to> have received pay for 
services rendered in 1793 and 1794: (45) and it may be fur- 
ther said that the only monument that existed for many years 
for the preservation of his memory was the name of a street in 
the city for whose earliest residents he gave his life. A few 
years since, however, by the liberality of a private citizen, a 
beautiful piece of statuary has been raised upon the supposed 
site of the massacre, consisting of a group of figures, in heroic 
size, representing Capt. Wells as a participant in one of the 
most startling episodes of the day. 

Edited by Dr. F. E. Weeks. 

We give extracts from a letter written by the father of 
Royal and Ephraim Gridley, of Clarksfield, which well shows 
the difficulties which some of the pioneers had to overcome to 
find a new home in the west. The writer died some time af- 
ter this letter was written, his "scuffle with the fever and ague," 
which he anticipates, having been too much for his endurance. 

(44) His mutilated remains remained unburied until the next day, 
when Billy Caldwell gathered up his head in one place and his mangled 
and dismembered body in other places and buried them in the sand. 
Annals of the West, p. 611. Billy Caldwell was the offspring of an Irish 
colonel in the British army and an Indian woman. Wentworth's Lecture 
on Early Chicago. No. 7 Fergus' Series, p. 14. 

(45) MS. Letter from the War Department. 


We correct the orthography. The letter was addressed to Mr. 
Ira Tremain, New Hartford, Oneida county, New York State, 
and the postage was fifty cents. The town of Paris, from 
which they started, was in Oneida county, N. Y. 

State of Indiana, County of Dearborn, Town of Rising Sun. 

June the 5th, 1818. 
Worthy Brother: — 

* * * I shall embrace this opportunity of informing 
you that my family are all well and give you an account of the 
dangers we escaped on our journey. After going through 
with our visit at Sullivan and Brother Fisher's we started on 
and had very good luck until we arrived at Olean Point [on 
the Allegheny river. — Ed.] Here we agreed to go on a raft. 
Some said a raft was as safe as a boat, others that had boats to 
sell said not, but experience proved the latter to> be true. Af- 
ter waiting two days the raft was ready. The man had three 
rafts containing 150,000 feet of boards and the channel was so 
narrow that they could not all three run abreast and the old 
man lashed two of them together and his son took charge of 
the single raft. We hove off at daybreak and had a good day's 
run and landed safe at night. The next morning we started 
early and about nine o'clock they run the single raft on to an 
island and stove her into three parts. We all landed and got 
the raft together at twelve o'clock and moved on. There had 
been a very good stage of water, but it was falling fast and the 
raft began to> rub the bottom in some places and before night 
we stuck fast. We went into> the water, pried her off and got 
her ashore and lay by for water. We waited one week for 
rain. The boats were meanwhile continually passing and we 
anxious to .go on our journey. Agreed we would built a boat. 
There was an elderly gentleman who fell in company with us 
before we came to the water who had formerly been a ship car- 
penter. He said he would assist us. This was at Broken 
Straw. We all hands went to work like men killing snakes 
and in one week we had her completed. She was forty-three 
feet in length, twelve in breadth and had a roof thirty feet long. 
Now it rains powerfully and the old man says we must help 


him on with his raft. Our family had now in the boat a con- 
venient place to cook and lodge, and we, having horses and 
wagons, agreed to lash the boat to the raft and assist the old 
man down with the raft. We had a good supply of provisions 
and whiskey and once more hove off for Pittsburg but the first 
day, the men that had charge of the single raft took pretty 
plenty of the O-be- joyful and run her onto another island and 
stove her all to vexation, as old Patrick says, and I began by 
this time to wish that the Devil had the raft, or some other Jus- 
tice of the Peace. She was stove this time on Tid-di-i-out Is- 
land. We run five miles before we could land. Then went 
back, put the raft together and came down to the other one. 
Then the old man swore he would couple the whole together. 
He did so. Having had considerable hindrances we agreed to 
start before day. We hove off on our journey at two o'clock 
in the morning with the three rafts abreast with the boat lashed 
the near side of her. [He was evidently more used to driving 
oxen than using nautical terms. — Ed] My father, Mr. Beld- 
ing, the old gentleman of whom I speak, and our wives and 
children were all fast asleep in the boat and we swiftly gliding 
down the current. Benjamin and I were at the fore end on the 
near side of the raft, the captain on the outside raft and fore 
oar. We were in swift water. I told him I thought we were 
running too close to< the river shore. He answered "throw 
out a little." I told him to step to the near side of the raft. 
He came to me and immediately sung out, "Heave out heavy, 
my darlings, by G — d, heavy!" There was so much noise by 
this time and the boat rubbing against the rocks they began to 
wake on the boat. At this critical moment the captain cried 
out, "She is gone! All hell cannot save her!" The women 
hearing this and the boat crashing against rocks, there was ter- 
rible screaming in the boat. True, indeed, all hell could not 
save her, but the over-ruling hand of a kind Providence saw 
fit to do it, thanks be to God. The raft pressed against the 
shore and the boat broke loose from, the raft and the raft 
pressed the boat up on the rocks and she stuck fast. My 
father came out of the door and asked where he was. I told 
him he was high and dry. The captain ordered the hind end 


of the raft hove ashore and himself,, Shubael and I leaped on 
to the rocks and ran up to the boat and found them all safe. 
The rock happened to be a smooth one. Had it not been so 
the boat could not have slipped up on to it, and it would have 
been dashed into ten thousand particles in the twinkling- of an 
eye. We had her off directly and under way. Nothing more 
worth remarking happened until we arrived at Pittsburg. It 
rained all day like a thunder shower. We landed here 
about 4 o'clock, p. m., and. the water rose from that till morn- 
ing at daybreak, sixteen feet, perpendicular. Here we had the 
piece of bone taken out of Ephraim's leg, that was loose when 
we came away. It was one inch in breadth and four in length. 
His leg is healed up and he can run and play as well as ever. 
We staid here two days for the water to' abate. It was with 
difficulty that we kept the raft. The first night there the man 
that owned the raft took on four families. I warned them of 
the danger I conceived there was in putting their families on 
the raft, especially in the high stage of water, but the flood 
wood having got considerable out of the river we started. 
The boat was some distance below the raft. Father, James 
Carrott and Benjamin went aboard the raft. When we saw 
them coming we hove off with the boat. Pittsburg lies in be- 
tween the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers ; here com- 
mences the Ohio river. There is a large island three miles be- 
low Pittsburg and the navigable channel was the right hand 
side. We steered on. I saw the raft bore off too much to< the 
left hand and concluded they were going that side of the island, 
but directly saw them heave in sight in the right hand side 
and saw there was but a part of the raft. Father said the man 
was studying his navigator and neglected the raft until it was 
too late to' save it. As they came around the point of the is- 
land there was a large tree that leaned over the river and lay a 
few feet above the surface of the water and an immense quan- 
tity of driftwood was lodged against it. The raft struck it and 
knocked the first two and third platform ten feet high and 
struck again with such force that it broke the tree and un- 
coupled the near side raft. The one went onto the island, the 
other two kept on. The people sustained very considerable 


loss of property, such as beds arid clothing, one chest of car- 
penter's tools and a new rifle gun. 

But letting other men's misfortunes alone — I have enough 
of my own. They came on and overtook us and we all landed 
in the mouth of the Big Beaver, 18 miles below Pittsburg. 
The wagons were back on the single raft or in the river — we 
knew not which — and one chjld six years old. Father and 
Carrot went, and we started the next morning for Cincinnati. 
We had no more bad luck for a number of days. We could 
not run more than one-half of the time, the wind blew so. 
One morning near Marietta, while we were at breakfast, Ma- 
bel, Samuel's oldest girl, fell into the river. Royal and she had 
got into the skiff. I ran out at the fore end of the boat and 
saw her about the center of the boat. I sprang into the skiff 
and her father immediately stepped onto the gunwale of the 
boat, put his hand upon the roof of the boat and sprang into 
the river and caught hold of the bow of the skiff. He was like 
to throw us all out. At the same time he knocked down a 
loose board from the roof and it struck the girl on her head 
and sunk her under the boat. Her mother stood looking on, 
but turned and went into the boat and gave her up to a watery 
tomb, but she came up again near the hind end of the boat and 
Cynthia got hold of her and pulled her in. She was strangled 
but little. We kept on and got to Cincinnati the 14th of No- 
vember. We waited here about a week and the rest came up 
with the raft and all hands were well. It is rising of 200 miles 
from Paris to Olean Point, 300 from that to Pittsburg, and 
500 from Pittsburg to Cincinnati. We had yet 40 miles to get 
to Rising Sun, where our connections were. Now we are for 
starting down the river again, and the wagons are on the raft 
one mile above town and you must take your mare and haul 
them down, Jared. I had sold my mare and drawing the last 
wagon, which was my brother's, I received all but a mortal 
wound. I had the mare fastened back to the wagon and rode 
her and carried the tongue in my hand. The iron on the end 
of the tongue went on with a socket. The iron for the ring 
to come against to hold back by run down an inch and three- 
fourths and then turned and run back five inches and a half 


and turned up one inch with a head on the end of it. It had 
got. bent so it stood a little toward me and it was very muddy. 
The mare had as much as she could pull. The toggle broke 
and stuck the iron into my thigh about half way from the 
knee to my body on the inside of the thigh and drew it in snug 
so that the wood of the tongue lay tight to my thigh. It 
twitched me off of the horse instantly and I lay under the ton- 
gue in the mud. Father came up and three or four other men 
and tried some to get it out. I told them they could not as 
the iron was crooked. They got a handsaw and sawed off the 
tongue with the iron in my thigh. It grated some. The hole 
was so big it came out very handy now. There came, in a few 
minutes, a surgeon who dressed my wound. He said it was 
very dangerous. He probed it with his finger and said it came 
near breaking the large artery as it ran up to my body. They 
put me into a skiff and carried me down to the boat. Remem- 
ber, I experienced pain about these times. I asked the physi- 
cian what he charged for dressing the wound. Not much, he 
said, as I was a traveler, only six dollars. Father and Shubael 
said I could not go on and they would have a house and I must 
stay. I said I would go, I had as leave be in a boat as any 
other place. The next day we started a little before night and 
run down in the evening and landed at the village of Rising 
Sun. My uncle's was yet four miles below. The next day 
they went down and provided cabins for us to go> into, and 
they as homesick creatures as you ever saw, but we went down 
and moved into the cabins on my uncle's farm who lives at 
West Point. My thigh was very sore. The doctor calculated 
to have it heal up in the blood, but it did not and after a few 
days run very much. Mr. B elding, the man that was in com- 
pany with us lived about sixty miles below here. He had been 
gone from home about four or five months but he said he 
would not leave until he knew how it turned out with me. He 
staid with me better than two weeks and nursed me daytimes 
altogether himself, and a fine nurse he was indeed, for which 
he would receive no compensation. Our people were afraid 
it would mortify. It smelled very bad. We did nothing to it 
but syringe in water such as cured Ephriam's fever sore with 


and in four weeks I could sit up and was pretty comfortable 
and in six weeks was completely healed. * * * I have 
been back up in Ohio 150 miles. There is fine land on the 
Miami but very sickly, which is the case on all the rivers in the 
state of Ohio and Indiana. I went to Russell Tremain's. 
* * * Almost every farmer wanted to sell his farm on ac- 
count of a distemper called the stomach sick, which is caused 
by the water or something the creatures get in the woods. A 
great many die with the complaint in a dry year. Using the 
milk of cows or eating the beef killed out of the woods pukes 
them to death. [This was called milk sickness in other parts 
of the country. — Ed.] The complaint prevails in many places 
in Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. I was sick enough of this 
part of the country and returned to my family. * * * The 
inhabitants (of Kentucky) are generally Tuckyhoes, Virginians 
and Pennsylvanians and depend on getting their meat out of 
the woods. Each man has his rifle, hunting shirt, tomahawk, 
two or more dogs, and the largest curse you ever saw. When 
I got well and began to look about and see the situation of the 
country, noi mills, no schools, but hoe cake and hog meat, 
Kentucky diet, I would have paid boot to have been in Red- 
field on a snow bank thirty feet high, but what is the use of 
crying for two shillings. I am not discouraged and feel as 
well as I ever did. I expect to have a scuffle with the fever 
and ague. I shall close by subscribing myself your affec- 
tionate friend and brother, 

Jar^d Gridl£y. 

Cynthia Grid^y. 


Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio. 

January 20, 1821. 
At a meeting of a number of persons residing in this vicin- 
ity, Piatt Benedict, Esquire, was called to the Chair and Wil- 
liam Gardner was elected Clerk of this meeting. 


And the following gentlemen enrolled themselves as Mem- 
bers or Friends of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the 
United States of America: 

Piatt Benedict, Luke Keeler, Amos Woodward, Wm. 
Gardner, Ami Keeler, William Woodward, Gurdon Woodward, 
Ezra Sprague, Enos Gilbert, John Keeler, John Boalt, Samuel 
Sparrow, Asa Sanford, Henry Hurlburt, E. Lane, William Gal- 
lup, D. Gibbs, Moses Sowers. 

On motion voted, that meeting organize itself into a Parish 
by the name of The Parish of Saint Paul's Church in Norwalk 
Huron County, Ohio. 

On motion the constitution of the Protestant Episcopal 
Church of the United States of America was read and adopted, 
and the following officers were chosen: 

E. Lane, Clerk. 

Amos Woodward, Senior Warden. 

Luke Keeler, Junior Warden. 

Piatt Benedict, John Keeler, John Boalt, Ebenezer Lane, 
Asa Sanford, Vestrymen. 

Piatt Benedict, Asa Sanford, Delegates to represent this 
Parish at the annual Convention of this Diocese to be holden at 
Worthington, on the first Wednesday of June next. 

Piatt Benedict, John Boalt, Amos Woodward, Samuel 
Sparrow, E. Lane, Lay Readers. 

And this meeting adjourned to Easter Monday at 4 o'clock 
P. M. 

On Sunday, January 21, 1821, the ordinance of baptism 
was administered to the following persons, by the Reverend 
Roger Searle. 

Louis A. Williams, age 3 years ; Theodore Williams, age 
1 year; children of James Williams. Sponsors: Jas. Williams, 
E. Lane. 

William Gallup, aged 1 year; child of William Gallup. 
Sponsors : W. Gallup, Sarah Gallup. 

Ebeneser Shaw Lane, aged 1 year; child of Eben'r Lane. 
Sponsors : E. Lane, Frances Ann Lane, Jas. Williams. 

490 the: forelands pioneer. 

On Monday, January 22nd, the ordinance of baptism was 
administered to the following children of Esra Sprague and 
Harriet Sprague, who alone were the sponsors, viz. 

Simon Hammot Sprague, Laura Sprague, Harriet Sprague, 
Caroline Sprague, Solomon Griswold Sprague , Louisa 
Sprague, by the Rev'd. Mr. Searle, at Florence. 

At Norwalk on the same 22d, Rev. Mr. Searle baptised 
one adult person, viz; Henry Hurlbert, in the presence of Mr. 
Luke Keeler and Mrs. Almira Keeler, witnesses. Also the fol- 
lowing infant children of John Boalt and Ruth Boalt, his wife, 

Amanda Boalt, Clarissa Boalt, Martha Boalt. The parents 
and Henry Hurlbert and wife, sponsors. 

Also Edward Hurlbert, the infant child of Henry Hurlbert 
and wife. The parents and John Boalt and wife, sponsors. 

At a meeting of the Parish, held at the Court House in 
Norwalk, Easter Monday in 182 1, the following officers were 
elected for the year ensuing. 

Eben'r Lane, Clerk. 

Amos Woodward, Luke Keeler, Wardens. 

Samuel Sparrow, Gurdon Woodward, Piatt Benedict, John 
Keeler, Noah Hill, Vestrymen. 

John Boalt, Piatt Benedict, Delegates to the annual con- 

On Monday the nth of February, 1822, the ordinance of 
baptism was administered to the following children of Samuel 
B. Lewis and Anne Lewis: 

Charles Lewis, Angeline and Betsey Ann, by the Rev. Mr. 
Searle. The parents, sponsors. 

On the 13th day of February, 1822, Lucy Woodward and 
Abishai Woodward, children of Gurdon and Mary Woodward, 
were baptised by the Rev. Mr. Searle. Mary Woodward, 
Rachel Woodward and Amos Woodward, sponsors. 

On Sunday, February 17, 1822, divine services were ad- 
ministered by the Reverend Mr. Searle and the following per- 
sons were baptised, to-wit: 


Piatt Benedict, an adult. Witnesses: Amos Woodward, 
E. Lane. 

Frances Elizabeth, a daughter of Ebeneser and Frances 
Ann Lane, an infant aged 5 months. The parents, sponsors. 

The holy communion was likewise administered. 

On Monday, February 18, 1822, at a special Vestry Meet- 
ing of the Parish of St. Paul's Church, Norwalk, Ohio, Huron 
County, Ohio, held in pursuance to previous notice at the 
house of Piatt Benedict, Esq. The Rev. Roger Searle, Chair- 
man. Voted, that the Wardens and Vestrymen of this Parish 
are requested to solicit Mr. Rufus Murray to perform divine 
service in this Parish when he is properly qualified agreeably 
to the Canons of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 

On the 19th dav of February, 1822, the following children 
of Noah Hill and Sukey Hill were baptised by the Rev. R. 
Searle, to-wit: 

Benjamin Lord, Mary Ann, Hester Caroline and George 
Spencer, to whom the parents were sponsors. 

At a regular parish meeting of the Parish of St. Paul's, 
Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio, held at the Court House in 
said Norwalk, on Easter Monday, 1822, at 4 o'clock, P. M. 
Piatt Benedict was elected moderater and the following officers 
were elected for the year ensuing: 

Ebeneser Lane, Clerk. 

John Keeler, Amos Woodward, Wardens. 

Luke Keeler, Samuel Sparrow, Noah Hill, Vestrymen. 

M. W. Beech, or Luke Keeler and Samuel Sparrow, Dele- 
gates to represent this Parish at the Episcopal Convention for 
the Diocese of the State of Ohio. 

On the 14th day of May, 1822, divine service was perform- 
ed by Mr. Rufus Murray and Henrietta Colwell an infant child 
of James and Sarah Williams, was baptised by him. 

On Sunday, June 23, 1822, divine service was performed 
by the Rev. Mr. Hall. 

On Sunday, June 30, 1822, divine service was performed 
by the Rev. Mr. Hall. 


Easter Monday, 1823, at a regular meeting of the Parish 
of St. Paul's Church in Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio, the 
following officers were chosen for the year ensuing. 

,E. Lane, Clerk. 

Amos Woodward, Piatt Benedict, Wardens. 

Luke Keeler, Ebeneser Boalt, John Keeler, Vestrymen. 

Mr. Rufus Murray, Piatt Benedict, Delegates to the Con- 

April 27th* (823. Divine service was performed at Nor- 
walk, and Ann Elizabeth an infant child of Henry and Almira 
Hurlbert, was baptised by the Reverend Mr. Searle. 

January 25th, 1824, Sunday. Divine service was per- 
formed, and the holy communion administered by the Rev. 
Roger Searle. 

January 26th, 1824. Mary Amelia, infant daughter of 
Lewis and Rebecca Keeler was baptised by the Rev. R. Searle. 
The parents and Eri and Sally Keeler were sponsors. 

Likewise Isaac Marvin, the infant child of Eri and Sally 
Keeler was baptised. The parents and Lewis and Rebecca 
Keeler were sponsors. 

January 27th, 1824. Sarah Matilda, infant child of 
William and Sarah Gallup was baptised by the* Rev. Mr. Searle. 
Piatt Benedict (acting as proxy of W. Gallup, he being absent) 
and Sarah Gallup and Sarah Matilda Williams, were sponsors. 

April 4th, 1825. At a regular meeting of the Parish of St. 
Paul's of Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio, on Easter Monday, 
the following persons were elected officers for the ensuing year: 

E. Lane, Clerk. 

Amos Woodward, Piatt Benedict, Wardens. 

Samual B. Lewis, John Keeler, Luke Keeler, Ebeneser 
Boalt, Vestrymen. 

Piatt Benedict, Amos Woodward, Delegates to the Con- 

On Sunday, June 12, 1825, divine service was performed 
by the Rev. Roger Searle. 



April 3, 1816 the land upon which the business part of 
Norwalk is located was deeded to Elisha Whittlesey by William 
and Abigail Taylor ; see Records of deeds (old series) Vol. 2, pp. 
125 and 126. 

This deed was in fact in trust as appears by paper No. 2 
given in Vol. 11 N. S. of the Pioneer, page 260. 

October 16, 1816 Elisha Whittlesey executed the first plat 
of Norwalk and dedicated the same in words and figures as 

Town plat of Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio. Beginning 
on the west line of land set off to Win. and Abagail Taylor, in 
the fourth section of Norwalk or town No. 4 Range 22, from the 
north line of 'the section thence north 56° East sixty four rods 
thence south 34° east forty rods, thence south 56° west sixty four 
rods thence north 34° west forty rods with variations of the 
compass of 2° 25' from the cardinal points — one road parallel 
with the first line sixty four rods, two rods in width, one road 
parallel with the second course forty rods, two rods in width, one 
road parallel with the third course sixty four rods, two rods in 
width, one road parallel with the fourth course forty rods, two 
rods in width, which is laid off in the following lots, streets 
and alleys, excepting those mentioned above — commencing two 
rods from the point first mentioned south and east and running 
parallel with the first mentioned road, lots 36 and 35, each four 
rods in width and eight rods in depth, bounded west on the 4th 
mentioned road, north on the first mentioned road east on an 
alley two rods in width running parallel with the fourth men- 
tioned road, across the plat 2 rods in width, south on lots 5 and 6 
then the alley last mentioned, then lots 34 and 33 bounded 
west on the last mentioned alley north on the road first mentioned 
east on an alley 2 rods in width, parallel with the west alley 
extending across the plat, south on lots 3 and 4 then lots 31 and 
32 bounded jvest on the last mentioned alley, north on the first 
mentioned road east on a street four rods in width running 
parallel with the last mentioned alley, across the town plat, south 
on lots 1 and 2, then the street last mentioned, then lots 30 and 
29 bounded west on the last mentioned street north on the road 
first mentioned, east on an alley parallel with the alleys afore men- 
tioned two rods in width extending across the plat, south on 
lots 23 and 24, then the alley last mentioned north on the road 
first mentioned, then lots 28 and 27 bounded west on the alley 

9 Vol. 12 

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last mentioned, north on the road first mentioned, east on 
an alley running across said plat two rods in width, south 
on lots 21 and 22, then the alley last mentioned. Then lots 
26 and 25 bounded west on the last mentioned alley, north on 
the road first mentioned east on the road secondly mentioned, 
south on lots 19 and 20. Then west parallel with the above 
lots, lots 19, 20, 21, and 22, 23, 24 progressively, commencing 
east on the road secondly above mentioned, south on a street 
four rods in width running parallel with the road first mentioned 
the length of the plat, lot 20 bounded west on the last mentioned 
alley. IyOt 21 bounded east on the same alley. Lot 22 bounded 
west on the alley secondly above last mentioned. Lot 23 boun- 
ded east by the same alley. Lot 24 bounded west by the 4 rod 
street running across said plat. And on the north by lots 25, 26, 
27, 28, 29, and 30 progressively. Then the street last mentioned 
then lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 bounded south on the main street, 
north on lots 31, 32, 33, 31, 35 and 36 progressively. Lot 6 
bounded west on the first mentioned road. Lot 5 bounded east 
on the alley secondly mentioned. Lot 4 bounded west on the 
same alley. Lot 3 bounded east on the alley thirdly above men- 
tioned. Lot 2 west on the same alley. Lot 1 bounded east on 
the cross street. Lots 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 
18 progressively running east, bounded north on the main street, 
south on lots 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48 progress- 
ively running east and the last mentioned lots are bounded 
south on the road thirdly mentioned. Lots 7 and 37 bounded 
west on the road first mentioned lots 8 and 38 bounded east 
on the first mentioned alley, Lots 9 and 39 bounded 
west on the same alley. Lots 10 and 40 bounded east on the 
alley secondly above mentioned. Lot 12 and 42 bounded east 
on the cross street. Lots 13 and 43 bounded west on the same 
street. Lot 14 and 44 bounded east on the alley thirdly above 
mentioned. Lots 15 and 45 bounded west on the same alley. 
Lots 16 and 46 bounded east on the alley fourthly above men- 
tioned. Lot 17 and 47 bounded west by the same alley. Lots 
18 and 48 bounded east on the road secondly above mentioned. 
The roads, streets and alleys are given for public uses. Lot 13 
is given for a site to build a court house. Lot 12 a meeting 
house, lot 1 for an academy or college and lot 24 for a gaol. 

Know all men by these presents that I, Klisha Whittlesey, 
for myself my heirs and assigns do justly and absolutely remise, 
release and forever quit claim the above mentioned roads, streets, 
alleys and the four lots last mentioned for the public use as 


above mentioned. In witness whereof I have hereunto set my 
hand and seal this 16th day of October, A. D. 1816. 

Elisha Whittlesey (L,. S.) 
In presence of 

Samuel W. Phelps 
Sam'l B. Carpenter. 

State of Ohio, j 
Huron County. } 

Huron, Oct. 16, 1816. 

This day personally came before me Elisha Whittlesey the 
signer and sealer of the foregoing instrument and acknowledged 
the same to be his free act and deed. 

Jabez Wright Associate Judge. 

Received October 17, 1816. Recorder in Vol. 2, pages 17, 18 
and 19, by Ichabod Marshall, Recorder for Huron county. 

A half-tone photo engraving of this plat is given on page 494 
of this issue. 

June 8, 1818, Elisha Whittlesey and wife deeded the whole 
of this plat containing forty-eight lots to David Underhill, Levi 
Cole, Peter Tice, Piatt Benedict and Daniel Tilden excepting 
lots 1, 12, 13 and 24. Paper No. 12 on page 278, N. S. Vol. 11 
of the " Pioneer " is a copy of this deed. 

May 22, 1819 Elisha Whittlesey executed an addition to the 
town plat of Norwalk, and dedicated the same in words and fig- 
ures as follows : 

Addition to the town plat of Norwalk, Huron county, Ohio, 
beginning distant from the southwest corner of lot No. twenty- 
four in the town plat of Norwalk, as recorded in vol. 2 page 17 
N. 54° East thirty rods. Then on said course four rods to an alley 
— thence north 36° west sixteen rods. Thence south 54° west 
four rods. Thence S. 36° E. sixteen rods to place of beginning to 
be lot No. ^6. Then an alley of two rods in width to extend from 
Main streef, thence north 36° west sixteen rods. Then begin- 
ning at the southeast corner of said alley at its intersection with 
Main street and running N. 54° E. seventeen chains and fifty 
links. Thence N. 36° west four chains. Thence S. 54° west 
seventeen chains and fifty links to the first mentioned alley. 
Thence S. 36° east with the side of said alley to the place of 
beginning to be divided into four blocks of four lots in each of 
equal quantity with an alley of two rods in width on' Main street 


and extending back four chains which lots are to be numbered 
from the east westerly from No. fifty to sixty-five both inclusive in 
regular succession. Then beginning one chain twenty-five links 
south 36° east from the southwest corner of lot sixty-six. 
Thence running N. 54° E- nineteen chains. Thence south 36° 
E. three chains and seventy-five links. Thence south 54° west 
nineteen chains. Thence N. 36° west three chains and seventy- 
five links to the place of beginning to be divided in four blocks of 
lots of four lots in each and four alley and a single lot, each lot of 
one chain in front on Main street and three chains 75 links in 
depth, each alley on Main street of fifty links in width and 3 chains 
75 links in depth, which lots are numbered as follows ; thirty 
three opposite to sixty-six and proceeding in regular succession 
to No. forty-nine inclusive, an alley of fifty links in width to 
encircle the said eight blocks and the extreme ends from Main 
street of lots thirty-three and sixty-six agreeable to the map 
herewith returned and annexed Main street to be one chain 
twenty-five links in width running north fifty-four degrees east 
nineteen chains. 

E. Whittlesey (L,. S.) 
May 22, 1819. 

State of Ohio, 

L ss. 


Huron County. 

May 22, 1819. 

Personally appeared Elisha Whittlesey and acknowledged 
the foregoing map of an addition to the town plat of Norwalk 
as the same is delineated and protracted together with the fore- 
going discription of the street, alleys and lots to be his free and 
voluntary act and deed, and by him laid out for the purposes as 
therein represented and expressed before me. 

Stephen Meeker, 
Associate Judge. 

Received August 9th and recorded the 24th, 1819, in the 
records of Huron county, state of Ohio. Vol. 2, page 734. 

By Ichabod Marshall, 


A half-tone photo engraving of this addition plat is given 
on page 494 of this issue. 

These are the only plats on record in the recorder's office of 
Huron county in any way relating to the land embraced by said 
plats and yet it is a patent fact that no such allotment has 


existed within the memory of the oldest inhabitants as called for 
by the first plat of 1816. 

On inspecting and comparing these plats it will be noticed : 

First — That the addition starts thirty rods easterly from the 
southwest corner of lot No. 24 (Taber Block corner) which fixes 
its starting point at the west lines of present lots Nos. 33 and 66 
on which the Brugman Block and Brady's cigar store respect- 
ively are now located. 

Second — That the first plat of 1816 calls for forty-eight lots 
and six north and south two-rod alleys, whereas in fact there 
are only twenty-four lots and two two-rod alleys now known as 
Hester street and L,inwood avenue. 

Third— That Main street in the first plat, is only four rods 
wide instead of five as it is in fact and as it is in the addition 
of 1819. 

These discrepancies between the facts and the record have 
been the cause of many days spent in diligent search by many 
interested persons through the old records and files of the Huron 
county recorder's office for light upon the subject. E. G. 
Boughton and C. L,. Kennan, thoroughly competent abstractors, 
and the writer have given much time to this search. 

To Mr. Boughton I am indebted for the first trace of value 
in the search. Some ten years ago in searching the records he 
came across the record of an old deed of partition between 
Underhill, Tice, Benedict and Tilden executed in 1820, contain- 
ing the following recital, "as altered in conformity with the 
order of the court." A copy of this deed will be found in Vol. 
11 N. S. of the Pioneer, page 280, paper No. 13. 

This turned the search to the county clerk's office and 
resulted in his discovering a journal entry, of which a certified 
copy is as follows : 

Certified Copy of Journal Entry. 

The State of Ohio, | j h c f Common pleag 

Huron County, ss. j 

October term, 1819, Journal, Vol 2, page 18. Certified copy 
of Journal entry. 


Saturday, October 23, 1819. 

Court opened pursuant to adjournment. Present, Hon. 
George Tod, president, Jabez Wright, Stephen Meeker and Ezra 
Sprague, associate judges. 

"Upon application by petition of Piatt Benedict, Levi Cole, 
Peter Tice, David Uuderhill and Daniel Tilden, proprietors of 
the town plat of Norwalk, to alter the same. 

The said petition being read and heard by the court and 
there being no objection made thereto, the same is granted by 
the court." 

The court adjourned without day. 

George Tod, President. 
The State of Ohio, ) „ 
Huron County, j 

I, C. D. Miles, clerk of the court of common pleas, within 
and for said county, and in whose custody the files, journals and 
records, of said court are required by the laws of the state of Ohio 
to be kept, hereby certify that the foregoing is taken and copied 
from the Journal of the proceedings of the said court within and 
for said county, and that said foregoing copy has been compared 
by me with the original entry on said Journal, and that the same 
is a correct transcript thereof. 

In testimony whereof, I have hereunto subscribed my name 
officially, and affixed the seal of said court, at the Court House, 
in Norwalk, in said county, this 16th day of December, A. D. 

[Seal] C. D. Miles, Clerk. 

"Only this and nothing more." 

The most diligent search by different incumbents of the 
county clerk's office, Mr. Boughton, Mr. Kennan and myself 
have failed to find any further or other official record either in 
the clerk's or recorder's offices, relating to the matter. 

The court files from 1818 to 1821 have been examined by 
the writer, paper by paper, in search for the petition upon which 
that order was granted, without finding it. 

The "statute of limitations" protects the present owners of 
the affected property from annoyance, but it is very desirable 
that petition be found, both on account of its intriusic and his- 
toric value. 

The late James Williams, Sr., may have been the attorney 
who prepared that petition and a copy may possibly be found 
among his papers if preserved. 


But upon the probability that Elisha Whittlesey was the 
attorney in the case and having from personal acquaintance 
with him in my youthful years learned of his remarkably 
methodical business habits, on Dec. 5, 1899, I visited Canfield, 
Mahoning county, his former home, and there made the acquaint- 
ance of Dr. J. Truesdale, an antiquarian of note and personal 
friend of Mr. Whittlesey, and from him learned that no represen- 
tative of the Whittlesey family remained there, but that Mr. 
Whittlesey's papers were stored in a fire-proof brick office 
erected by his descendants for the sole purpose of preserving 

Having procured the key we visited the place together. It 
was a clear, bright, cold morning; snow had fallen the day and 
night before and covered the ground with a six inch mantle, 
clean and spotless as virtue ; but there were no conveniences 
for warming the cheerlessly damp, musty, unused office. We 
went up town to a hardware store, rented an oil-stove and 
wheelbarrow and together, triumphantly headed a procession 
with small boy in the rear, down Main street an eighth of a mile 
to the office. It was too cold for a kodak shooter to be around, 
or this paper might have been accompanied by a half tone 
photo cut of a tall, straight, clear-eyed, silver-haired gentleman 
of the olden times, with light, vigorous step and pleasant man- 
ner, carrying his 80 years with the grace and dignity of a Webster, 
marching through the deep untrodden snow beside that Irish 
chariot, steadying the oil-stove, with his youthful companion, 
junior by fourteen years, harnessed between the thills, pushing 
the thing along. But the photo was not. 

" Of all sad words of tongue or pen, 
The saddest are these, ' It might have been ' " 

That day and evening was devoted to a search of the hun- 
dreds of milldewed, dust covered files of papers left by Elisha 
Whittlesey, now nearly forty years in his grave. But his system- 
atic method was there yet. Nearly three hundred papers of his- 
toric value, relating to the Firelands, were selected and are now 
in my possession, by permission, to be selected from for future 


Among them and in a large package labled " Norwalk Papers" 
were the "Town Plat of Norwalk" the " Map of an Addition 
to the Town Plat of Norwalk, Huron County and State of Ohio " 
hereinbefore given and commented upon, and with them in that 
same package another map marked " Town Plat of Norwalk 
with Adjoining Out Lots " This heading is followed by an " N. 
B." consisting of surveyor's notes dated " Norwalk December 23, 
1819," signed " Icabod Marshall." 

A half tone photo engraving of this third plat is given on 
page 495 of this issue. 

No official or legal authentication of this map has been dis- 
covered, other than what appears upon its face. 

The following cogent facts and circumstances are in part, 
" the best attainable evidence " that it is the original plat of 
Norwalk as changed by the order of court of common pleas of 
October 23, 1819. 

First — That the first plat of 1816 was changed. 

Second — That it identically agrees with the allotment in 
numbering, streets and alleys as they have actually existed for 
over eighty years, and with the names of original owners of lots 
as shown by many deeds and mortgages on record. 

Third — That Icabod Marshall was Recorder of Deeds at the 
date of the map, and that it is in his hand- writing. 

Fourth — That it is corroborated by an " Abstract, of all the 
conveyances of E. Whittlesey in 4, Sec. of Norwalk," dated Jan. 
1, 1835, in the hand writing of Icabod Marshall, found in the 
same package with the three maps or plats aforesaid. This 
abstract is two voluminus for insertion here, but may be pub- 
lished hereafter. 

Fifth — Icabod Marshall was the first county surveyor of 
Huron county in 1815 and was county recorder from 1816 to 

It will be noticed that Underbill, Cole, Tice, Benedict and 
Tilden owned 44 of the 48 lots of the plat of 1816, which 44 lots 
by this changed plat were reduced to 24, but at the date of that 
change Mr. Whittlesey held legal title to the 34 lots in the addi- 
tion of May 22, 1819 and to the " adjoining out lots " shown in 
the 3rd plat of Dec. 23, 1819. 


Also notice that the addition of May 22, 1819, is in no parti- 
cular changed, except the omission of a two rod alley at the east- 
ern end. 

The abstract of 1835 shows that Mr. Whittlesey accepted the 
plat of Dec. 23, 1819 by deeding away the out lots therein shown 
in substantial accordance with their plat descriptions. 

The conclusion is fairly established that Mr. Whittlesey was 
a consenting participant to this changed plat ; and that the 
change was fully agreed upon between him, Underhill, Cole, 
Tice, Benedict and Tilden so early as May 22, 1819. Otherwise, 
so practical a man as Mr. Whittlesey would not have bounded 
lots 33 and 66 in plat No. 2 by a 2 rod alley on the east unless 
the 2 rod alley on the west was to be abandoned. 

The two 4 rod lots shown in plat No. 3 without numbers, 
resulted from the abandonment of two 2 rod alleys. They are 
now known as lots Nos. 197 and 198. 

Why this changed plat was not recorded is but speculation. 
All who knew are gone. 

Courtesies from the venerable Dr. Truesdale, John R. 
Fowler, postmaster, I,. W T . Fowler editor Mahoning Dispatch 
J. W. Canfield of Canfield, Ohio; George B. Whittlesey, assistant 
general freight agent of the Erie Railroad Co. of Cleveland O.; C. 
D. Miles, county clerk, T. M. Edsall, county recorder, John 
Laylin, county surveyor, and Frank O. Ronk, deputy county 
auditor, of Norwalk, have materially facilitated the preparation 
of this paper. 




The cut, on opposite page made from a sketch by H. G. 
Breckenridge the artist, is a fair likeness of the property just 
purchased by the Whittlesey Academy, The Library Association 
and the Historical Society from F. B. Case. The house is an old 
land-mark and has been owned by some of the most prominent 
citizens of Norwalk. 

It was built in 1836 or 1837 by the late Dr. W. F. Kittredge, 
one of the foremost physicians of northern Ohio, and for many 
years president of the First National Bank, of this city. 

Among those who have since owned the property were 
Cortland L- Latimer, once a prominent banker of this city, Wil- 
liam Case, once auditor of Huron county, and Hon. C. B. 
Stickney, Huron county's first probate judge, all of whom have 
passed away. 

The house will be placed in repair at once, after which the 
Library Association, will occupy the east portion, and the Fire- 
lands Historical Society the west part, o r wing, of the building, 
as shown above. 


Readers of The Firelands " Pioneer" will remember that 
for over forty years, we have been, financially, a poverty stricken 
nomad, housing our valuable collection of historic publications, 
manuscripts and relics wheresoever individual generosity, from 
time to time permitted. 

Many times in debt for printing the " Pioneer," but always 
persevering in the work of collecting and recording history. 

Interest received from the Catherine Gallup legacy of $500 } 
has helped out our income sufficiently to keep free of debt since 
1881, but nothing more. 

The movement for a home started at the annual meeting of 
June 16, 1891 (N. S. Pioneer, vol. 10, p. 9), and followed up since, 
resulted in the following subscriptions for a home : 

G. T. Stewart, $200; C. H. Gallup, $100; Lizzie F. Gallup, 
$500 ; Rush R. Sloane, $500, total, $1,300. 


Of this sum $500 has been applied under the terms of a 
perpetual lease which we now hold and leaves us $800 to invest 
in repairs; trusting Providence for furniture and fittings. In 
the fullness of time, from love of the historic past and welfare 
of posterity, some heart may throb in unison with our work and 
provide a suitable fireproof building in place of the wooden 

The lease we hold reads as follows : 

C. H. Gaujjp. 


Whereas, The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
a corporation organized under the laws of Ohio, by reason of its 
occupancy of original lot No. one (1)„ of the first lotting 
of the village of Norwalk, Ohio, as recorded in volume two of 
records of deeds of Huron county, Ohio, on page 17, whereby 
said lot was dedicated "For an Academy or College," has 
accumulated a fund of four thousand dollars, which it has 
invested in part payment for a fee simple title to inlot number 
191, in the city of Norwalk, Ohio; 

And Whereas, said investment is properly chargeable with 
and was made for the purpose, so far as may be, of fulfilling the 
trust created in and by said dedication ; 

Therefore the said The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and 
Sciences, party of the first part, in consideration of the sum of 
five hundred dollars ($500.00) received from the Firelands His- 
torical Society of Norwalk, Ohio, incorporated under the laws of 
Ohio, for the purpose of collecting, preserving and publishing, 
in proper form, historical information and especially the facts 
constituting the full history of the Firelands, and adjacent parts 
of Ohio, obtaining and preserving an authentic account of their 
resources and productions, of their natural and archaeological 
relics, curiosities and antiquities, and other scientific and historical 
collections, party of the second part, and of the covenants and 
agreements hereinafter contained, and for the further and more 
especial consideration of the educational purposes of said society, 
hereby grants, leases and conveys to said The Firelands His- 
torical Society, the use and occupancy for the period of ninety- 


nine years renewable forever of the west part of the present 
building on said lot No. 191 and the joint use and occupancy 
together with the Young Men's Library and Reading Room 
Association of Norwalk, Ohio, of all lawns and walks on said lot, 
subject to the joint use of all committee and ante-rooms and wash 
rooms, in said building by said first party. 

The said The Firelands Historical Society, covenants and 
agrees with said The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences, 
that it will pay all taxes, rates and assessments, during the continu- 
ance of this lease, payable in respect of said premises herein 
demised, and will keep said building at all times insured against 
fire, for the benefit of said first party, and will at all times keep 
said building in good repair at its own expense. 

Provided, always, and these presents are upon condition, 
that if there should be any breach by the said The Firelands 
Historical Society of any of its agreements or covenants, or if 
said The Firelands Historical Society shall substantially abandon 
the use or occupancy of said building, or shalluse or occupy the 
same or any part thereof, for any purpose other than such as are 
provided for in its articles of incorporation, or shall sell, assign 
or transfer or attempt so to do, any of its rights or interests, ac- 
quired in said premises, or any part thereof, by these presents, or 
shall sub-lease or attempt to sub-lease said premises or any part 
thereof, then this lease and these presents shall determine and be 
null and void and said premises and all repairs, improvements 
and additions thereto, shall revert to and become the property of 
said The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences at its option. 

Except, however, that the said The Firelands Historical So- 
ciety may allow the Young Men's Library and Reading Room 
Association to occupy and use for any of the objects or purposes 
mentioned in the preamble to its constitution, such part of said 
building as may be mutually agreed upon by said Society and 
said Association. 

In the event of the destruction of the present building on 
said lot, by fire or otherwise, or its removal for the purpose of 
erecting a new structure, then this lease shall end and the future 
respective rights, uses and liabilities of all parties in interest, 
shall be determined by negotiation between the parties, provided, 


however, that in event of such destruction or removal of said 
building, said The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences 
agrees to return and pay to said The Firelands Historical Society, 
if it shall so demand, said $500.00 paid as part consideration for 
this lease, but without interest, on release of all claims or de- 
mands whatsoever. 

And, whereas it is contemplated that the remainder of the 
building on said premises will be leased to and be used and occu- 
pied by The Young Men's Library and Reading Room Associa- 
tion on the same terms and conditions as are in these presents 
contained, and that said building will be more or less extensively 
altered or repaired ; 

Now, be it further provided and agreed, that all repairs and 
alterations of said building so occupied by each of said lessees, 
shall be at its separate expense under the direction of a building 
committee of three (3) members, to be appointed, one by The 
Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences, and one by each The 
Firelands Historical Society and the Young Men's Library and 
Reading Room Association, and when they fail or are unable to 
decide unanimously as to the matters in their control, all such 
undecided matters shall be referred to and decided by the said 
The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciences. 

In witness whereof, the parties to this lease set their hands 
and seals this 13th day of November, A. D. 1899. 

The Whittlesey Academy of Arts and Sciencies of Norwalk, 
Ohio, by L. W. Wickham, Pres., and S. A. Wildman, Secy. 

The Firelands Historical Society of Norwalk, Ohio, by S. 
A. Wildman, Vice Pres., and A. Sheldon, Secy. 

Signed and acknowledged in presence of 

U. S. Rev. Stamp. | A. M. Beattie, 

D. D. Benedict. 

j U. S. Rev. Stamp. > 

{ p.oo. 

State of Ohio, 

Huron County, 

Before me, a notary public in and for said county, personally 
appeared the above named L. W. Wickham, President, and S. 
A. Wildman, Secretary, of The Whittlesey Academy of Arts 
and Sciences of Norwalk, Ohio, and S. A. Wildman, Vice Presi- 
dent, and A. Sheldon, Secretary, of the Firelands Historical So- 


ciety of Norwalk, Ohio, and acknowledged that they did sign 
and seal the foregoing instrument, and that the same is their free 
act and deed. 

In witness whereof, I have hereunto set my hand and official 
seal at Norwalk, Ohio, this 13th day of November, A. D. 1899. 

[Notorial Seal.] A. M. Beattie, 

Notary Public. 


By Hon. Rush R. Sloane. 

It is impossible to realize that one hundred years have not 
passed since the Territorial Legislature of the "Northwestern 
Territory" first convened at Cincinnati, and organized for business. 
It was not until this year 1798 that the Territory contained five 
thousand people, and, as a right, was admitted to the second 
grade of government, as provided in the ordinance of 1787. 
Since then, in less than one hundred years, changes have taken 
place unequal ed in the history of the world. At that time 
the territory of Ohio included the whole of the Northwestern 
Territory, in the next year the Northwestern Territory was di- 
vided by setting off the territory of Indiana. And in 1802 oc- 
curred the next change in our civil institutions, which changed 
the territory to a state. The progress of which has been on- 
ward and upward, and its sons and daughters are proud to say, 
"I was born in Ohio." 

In progress, in promotion of the greatest happiness to its 
people, in energies which changed a wilderness to a garden, in 
improvements, which developed and bound together the re- 
motest parts, our State challenges a parallel to our history. 

It is a matter of regret that this has not been written. 
Valuable articles have been furnished but- we have no authentic 
history of the State. 

Do not understand me as condemning or criticising At- 
water's, or Taylor's, or King's History of Ohio* — all of them 

10 voi.12 


valuable so far as they go, but not full and complete as are the 
histories of Indiana or Illinois and some other states. 

That these histories are not more complete is more to be 
regretted because the eye witnesses of the early events in our 
State have passed away, and even the earlier descendants of the 
first settlers are rapidly disappearing. 

The grave is daily robbing us of those familiar with events 
in our history about which accurate information will soon be 
forever lost, unless the knowledge of such people can be in 
some way preserved. 

The history of any work of public benefit, ought to be 
handed down; "this academy/' "that institution," "that public 
road," long a medium of communication, its history should be 
perpetuated. We should obtain accounts of these events and 
rescue them from oblivion. It is due to ourselves, to our poster- 
ity, to the world. 

That we recognize this fact is shown by the existence of 
this Historical Society. We this year close our first century as 
descendants of the territory and state of Ohio. 

And in this connection it is my willing tribute to our hon- 
ored and able President to say, his fidelity to our Society, his 
untiring devotion to the perpetuation of early history in Ohio, 
has been constant and most praiseworthy. With him it has 
been a matter of pride and duty, and in doing what he has done so 
well he has erected to his memory a monument more enduring 
then granite. 

It is now several years since The Norwalk "Reflector/' 
The "Leader" of Cleveland and The Sandusky "Register" 
were all led into the mistake of publishing the following: 


The Work on a 104 Mile Pike Cost Only $216.— The Old 

Columbus- Sandusky Road — Interesting Figures 

From Fifty- Year Old Records. 

Special Dispatch to the Leader.. 

Norwalk, O., January 12. — An interesting docitment was 
brought to light in the County Surveyor's office yesterday. In 


unearthing some old papers one of the original drawings of the 
old Sandusky and Columbus turnpike was discovered. 

The drawing was made March 7, 1844, by Azariah Root, Jr., 
the surveyor of the road, and contains much valuable and in- 
teresting data. 

It shows that the act authorizing the establishment of the 
road was passed by the Legislature in 1842, and that Philip J. 
Price, George Freese and John Lugenbal were appointed com- 
missioners to view the road, and one Brown was appointed the 
surveyor. On account of sickness in his family Freese was un- 
able to* serve, and George Reigle, of Crawford county, was ap- 
pointed in his place. Brown also declined to act as surveyor, be- 
cause he was then engaged in surveying the Wyandot Indian 
lands, and Azariah Root, Jr., of Marion county, was appointed 
to that position. 

The commissioners, besides receiving $1.50 a day for their 
work as commissioners, were also appointed on the surveying 
corps, Price and Reigle acting as chainmen, and Lugenbal as 
marker. For this work they received seventy-five cents a day 
each. Root, the surveyor, received $1.50 a day, and John 
Barklow, who had charge of the baggage wagon, received a 
like amount. 

Price put in twenty-four days as commissioner and twenty 
days as chainman ; Riegle put in twenty days as commissioner 
and twenty as chainman; Lugenbal put in twenty-one days as 
commissioner and twenty days as marker; Root, put in twenty- 
nine days as surveyor, and Barklow, put in twenty days in charge 
of the baggage wagon. Their work amounted to $216, divided 
among several counties through which the road passed as follows : 
Franklin, $23.66; Delaware, $49.47; Marion, $37.18; Crawford, 
$37- 6 5 ,* Seneca, $31.73 ; Huron, $16.63 and E rie > $19-68. 

The road extended from the north end of High street, 
Columbus, to the "village of Sandusky," a distance of 104 miles 
and 232 rods, passing through the towns of Worthington, Waldo, 
Delaware, BuCyrus, Chatfield and Attica. 

And the economy of the earlier days was editorially com- 
mented upon in contrast with that of the present. 


Not doubting the facts would appear in due time, I have 
waited, but as no explanation has been offered, I will in as brief 
a space as possible, give the history of one of the most valuable 
and important public works, ever chartered and completed in our 
State and with only one exception (that of the road from Warren 
in Trumbull county, Ohio, to Lake Erie), the first Turnpike road 
ever constructed in the State of Ohio. 

An act, to incorporate a company to construct a Turnpike 
from Columbus to Sandusky city, was passed by the General As- 
sembly of the State of Ohio, January 31, 1826. 

A copy of the original act in pamphlet form, is now in my 
possession. It must be remembered that at that time, it was an 
unbroken wilderness from Columbus to Lake Erie at Sandusky. 

The only restriction in the charter as to location was that it 
should run through the town of Delaware, Ohio. And as soon 
as each ten miles of the road was completed, measuring from the 
margin of Sandusky Bay, in Sandusky City, as aforesaid, then 
the company might erect a gate or gates and collect tolls allowed 
by the act. Then section 9, gives the tolls as allowed. 

The corporators accepted the charter. They were twenty- 
six in number. The capital stock was fixed at one hundred thou- 
sand dollars, and divided into shares of one hundred dollars, each. 
The stock was fully subscribed and the road was surveyed and 
located. Colonel Kilbourne was the surveyor, and Orange 
Johnson of Columbus was one of the most zealous commis- 
sioners, and during the active existence of the company, was its 
principal agent. 

Both Mr. Johnson and Col. Kilbourne, I frequently saw at 
my father's house in Sandusky. 

My father was quite a stockholder in the company and I 
herewith exhibit an original printed call for full payment of the 
stock, subscribed by him, signed by Hon. Joseph Ridgway, 
President of the Columbus & Sandusky Turnpike Company, 
made September 26, 1828, when I was eight days old. 

John N. Sloane : — The Board of Directors of the Columbus 
and Sandusky Turnpike Company, at a meeting thereof, on the 
25th instant, ordered and directed, that the whole stock sub- 
scribed to said company, should be called in — Thou art therefore 


hereby required to make payment in full on each share of said 
stock, now owned by thee, to E. B. MERRYMAN, Treasurer of 
said company, at Bucyrus, Crawford County, Ohio, on or before 
the 20th of 12th Month next. (December), 
By order of the Board, 

President of the Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike Company. 
[Sign.] Ninth Mo., 26th, 1828. 

The names of the stockholders of this company in Erie (then 
Huron) county, were Z. Wildman, I. B. Stuart, C. Bush, A. Root, 
A. C. Corbett, John N. Sloane and G. Anderson. 

By an act of Congress passed on 3rd of March, 1827, 31,840 
acres of the public land were granted to the State of Ohio, in 
trust for the use of the company to aid in the construction of 
the road. 

These lands sold for $40,000.00. The construction of the 
road was pursued with vigor and in 1834, was completed. It 
made nearly a direct line from Columbus to Sandusky, passing 
through what are now the large towns of Worthington, Delaware', 
Marion, Bucyrus, Attica. Also Strong's Ridge (Lyme), Seven 
Mile House. In length it was 104 miles. Its total cost was $701 
dollars per mile. It was built at a time when a man's wages were 
75 cents a day, and those of a man with a team of horses or yoke 
of oxen were $1.50 per day. For years the road was a much 
traveled highway and the nearest road and communication be- 
tween Lake Erie at Sandusky and the Ohio River at Cincinnati. 

About 1842, people on the route began to complain about 
paying tolls, on the ground that the line of road, had not been 
constructed in accordance with the requirements of the charter. 
The governor of the State, Hon. Thomas Corwin, in accordance 
with the charter appointed Nathan Merryman, of Bucyrus, to ex- 
amine the road, who reported that in his opinion the road was 
completed agreeably to the provisions of the act of incorpora- 

In the early spring and after very heavy rains the road in many 
places was for some days nearly impassable, paying tolls at such 
a time, seemed a heavy burden and was a grievance. The people 
began to tear down the toll gates. Agents of the company would 


immediately re-erect them. At length after the defeat of Gov- 
ernor Corwin in 1842, a democratic Legislature having been 
elected, the subject was presented to the general assembly. After 
quite a contest, and in defiance of the justice of the claim for 
compensation made by the company, on the 28th of February, 
1843. "The Act"mcorporating the company was uncondition- 
ally repealed, with the provision making it unlawful thereafter to 
erect or to keep up any gate or to collect tolls on the road. 

It was at this juncture, that commissioners appointed for the 
purpose had a state road surveyed and located on the bed of "The 
Columbus and Sandusky Turnpike" which had been con- 
structed by private capital and had for many years been in success- 
ful operation between Columbus and Sandusky city. 

Later, on the 12th of March, 1845 "An act" was passed es- 
tablishing such state road a public highway. 

Toll gates had been kept up and toll exacted notwithstanding 
the repeal of the charter of incorporation, until the passage of 
the act of March 12, 1845. Immediately, thereafter, the gates 
were torn down and were never afterward re-instated by said 

The company insisted these acts of the legislature were un- 
constitutional and that their road had been constructed accord- 
ing to the requirements of its charter and they relied most im- 
plicitly upon the formal acceptance of this road after its construc- 
tion by the state agent Dr. Meriman of Crawford county. 

The company applied to the legislature for relief. Reports 
were made to repay the stockholders. In 1847 the subject was 
referred to Hon. Henry Stanberry, Attorney General of the 
state and he made a report that a great wrong had been done the 

The Senate also passed a bill authorizing the company to bring 
suit against "The State of Ohio" but the bill failed in the house. 

I might add that about the year 1848 The Erie and Crawford 
Plank Road Company was organized and a plank road was built 
from Sandusky to Lyme on the line of this old turn pike and a 
toll gate was erected and tolls exacted until some fifteen years 



By G. T. Stewart. 

In our already large and fast increasing intellectual treas- 
ury of the published collections of the Firelands Historcal So- 
ciety, (now compressed in about 3500 pages of the "Pioneer"), 
there is a rich and varied store of original literature, reaped from 
the old fields of historic research in this part of Ohio, and con- 
tributed by the early settlers and their descendants. If in all this 
they seem to have overlooked themselves and to have gathered 
too little from the lives and labors of such world famous sons of 
the Firelands as the great scientist and inventor, Thomas A. Edi- 
son, the eminent traveler and author, George Kennan, and others 
who have made their birth-places here honored by their achieve- 
ments, it must be considered that most of these are yet in the 
midst of their careers, and time may add much of value to the com- 
pleted records and beneficent result of their lives. It must also 
be considered that the mission of this Society has no limitations 
to the past or present, but extends to the progress, development 
and destiny of the Firelands, through all future history. In this 
wide and far reaching view, we have as it were, but just begun 
the roll call of the sons and daughters, of the Firelands who have 
gained, or who will hereafter attain eminence in the world of 
science, arts, and belles-lettres. Other stars are now rising be- 
fore us, as new lights in our literary firmament. For example, 
a young daughter of the Firelands, Marian Warner Wildman, 
has lately taken the highest prize awarded in a contest of col- 
lege graduates, for the best poem, published first in the "Century 
Magazine"" of this month. Her father, Hon. Samuel A. Wild- 
man, is one of the ablest judges of our Courts, and was a gal- 
lant officer of the Firelands Volunteers, in the great civil war for 
the Union. He has been one of the most valued contributors to 
the columns of the "Pioneer/' and to the success of this Society. 
While we look forward for such to fill the places of honor in our 
future publications due to their talent and worth, we will not for- 


get to honor others, who while yet in their youth and living on the 
Firelands over half a century ago, won early fame in the annals 
of American Literature. Frances Auretta Fuller was » born at 
Rome, New York, May 23, 1826. Her sister, Metta Victoria 
Fuller, was born near Erie, Pennsylvania, March 2, 1831, and 
died in Hobokus, New Jersey, June 2, 1886. Her husband, Or- 
ville James Victor, is a son of the Firelands. He was born at 
Sandusky, October 23, 1827, and was educated at the old Nor- 
walk Seminary, where he graduated in 1847. He resided many 
years at Sandusky and from 185 1 to 1856 was one of the editors 
of the Sandusky "Daily Register". He was married to' Metta 
Victoria Fuller in July, 1856, and removed to New York City. 
He had editorial charge there of the Cosmopolitan Art Journal, 
and the United States Journal, conducting both periodicals until 
i860. He edited a popular Biographical Library to which he 
contributed Hie histories of John Paul Jones, Anthony Wayne, 
Ethan Allen, Israel Putnam, Winfield Scott, Abraham Lincoln, 
and Giuseppe Garibaldi. In 1863-4 he was in England, and there 
published his work entitled "The American Rebellion, its causes 
and objects; Facts for the English people." At New York he 
published in four annual volumes, a "History of the Southern Re- 
bellion," followed by "Incidents and Anecdotes of the War," and 
"History of American Conspiracies." He afterwards edited the 
magazine of "To-day," the "Western World," a weekly paper; 
and, in 1872 to 1880, the "New York Saturday Journal." He 
yet lives in honored and busy old age, at the former residence of 
his deceased wife, Hobokus, New Jersey, with his office open at 
156 Broadway, New York City. These three authors whose 
life histories were inwrought by birth or marriage relations, 
filled an important place in the early literature of the Firelands. 
The parents of Frances and Metta removed with their family of 
five children, to Wooster, Ohio, in 1839, where the two sisters 
enjoyed the benefits of an excellent female seminary for several 
years, and there first developed their literary aspirations. Their 
father then went into business at the village of Monroeville, on 
the Firelands, in charge of a hotel there known as the Monroe 
House, in the building now occupied by the firm of F. H. Drake 


& Son; and the family residence continued there through many 
years. The public mails then were carried by the stage coach 
lines from all directions ; the hotei was the popular rendezvous of 
travel and news, and the landlord was a leading citizen; but 
though the toils and turmoils of such a home seemed illy adapted 
to lives of self -culture and literary attainment, the two brave girls 
pressed forward, hand in hand, through all difficulties. It is a 
high proof of genius that it not only subdues obstacles in its path, 
but converts them to its own use. Out of the adverse influences 
of hotel life in those days, Frances drew the inspiration from 
which she wrote "The Postboy's Song." Never before had the 
rough stage driver been sung into Parnassus. The old stage 
coach and the old stage tavern, with all their surroundings, 
passed away from the Firelands many years ago; but that gem 
from the hand of the landlord's daughter, will long sparkle and 
shine in the crown of our best literature. The wild prairies, 
which in the days of the first Pioneers, stretched to the west and 
north of Monroeville, and those of the farther west, were swept 
by annual fires and were vocal with traditions, which Metta 
voiced from her poetic lyre in her song of "The Red Hunters." 
Both these poems we here present to the readers of the 
"Pioneer." Those were among their early productions at Mon- 
roeville. The free public press , which here has always been 
the foster-parent of American Literature, gave prompt welcome 
and wide circulation to their poetic and prose effusions. Frances 
appeared in the New York "Home Journal" in 1848 when it was 
published by Nathaniel P. Willis and George P. Morris, and at 
once took rank with their ablest contributors. She was soon fol- 
lowed there by her sister Metta, who had assumed the nom de 
plume of "Singing Sybil." Mr. Willis then wrote of the two 
sisters editorially, in that paper, as follows: "We suppose our- 
selves to be throwing no shade of disparagement upon any one in 
declaring that in "Singing Sybil" and her not less gifted sister 
Frances, we discern more unquestionable marks of true genius, 
and a greater portion of the unmistakable inspiration of true 
poetic art, than in any of the lady minstrels — delightful and 
splendid as some have been — that we have heretofore ushered to 


the applause of the public. One in spirit and equal in genius, 
these most interesting and, brilliant ladies— both still in the 
earliest youth — are undoubtedly destined to occupy a very dis- 
tinguished and permanent place among the native authors of this 
land." As "Grace Greenwood/' "P'anny Forester," and "Edith 
May," were then popular writers for that paper, editorial honor 
was thus awarded over them to the Fuller sisters, who were then 
hailed and popularly known as "The Sisters of the West." In 
the year 1850, they united in a volume of their poems, published 
in New York, entitled "Poems of Sentiment and Imagination 
with Dramatic and Descriptive Pieces." This was followed by 
two books from Metta, in 1853, one published at Buffalo, enti- 
tled "Fresh Leaves from Western W T oods," and the other at 
Cleveland, entitled "The Senator's Son," a "Plea for the Maine 
Law," of which thirty thousand copies were printed in England. 
When she was in her fourteenth year, she wrote a story of the 
"Silver Lute," which was widely published and praised, and 
which first introduced her to the "Home Journal." She was au- 
thor of "The Tempter," a sequel to the "Wandering Jew/* "The 
Lost Glove," "Mother and Daughter," "The Two Mormon 
Wives," "The Gold Hunters," "Dead Letter," "The Figure 
Eight," "Passing the Portal," "Blunders of a Bashful Man," and 
a number of other novels and sketches, which had a wide circu- 
lation. In 1859-61 she edited "The Home Monthly Magazine," 
and until her death was a welcome contributor to various journals 
and publications. Frances was first married to Jackson Barritt, 
of Pontiac, Michigan, in 1853. After his death she was married 
in 1863, for her second husband, Henry C. Victor, 1st assist- 
ant engineer in the U. S. Navy, and brother of her sister's hus- 
band, Orville James Victor. In the following year they went to 
the Pacific coast, where she was contributor to the "Overland 
Monthly" and several newspapers of San Francisco and Sacra- 
mento for two years. Then removing to Oregon, in 1865, she 
there published "The River of the West," "Life and Adventures 
in the Rocky Mountains," "All Over Oregon and Washington," 
"The New Penelope and Other Stories," and important contribu- 
tions to the "History of California." One of her most famous 


early productions was "Azlea a Tragedy," written in 1846. She 
was especially successful in her many poems, and was praised by 
Edgar A. Poe, as "the most imaginative" of the female poets of 
the United States. 

A full catalogue of all the published writings of these three 
brilliant authors, whose stars of fame first rose over the Fire- 
lands, would too much expand this already extended notice. 

By Frances Fui^er Victor. 

The night is dark and the way is long, 

And the clouds are flying fast; 
The night wind sings a dreary song, 

And the trees creak in the blast; 
The moon is down in the tossing sea, 

And the stars shed not a ray; 
The lightning flashes frightfully, 

But I must on my way. 

Full many a hundred times have I 

Gone o'er it in the dark, 
Till m}- faithful steeds can well descry 

Each long familiar mark; 
Withal, should peril come tonight, 

God have us in his care! 
For without help, and without light, 

The boldest well beware. 

-Like a shuttle thrown by the hand of fate, 

Forward and back I go ; 
Bearing a thread to the desolate 

To darken their web of woe ; 
And a brighter thread to the glad of heart, 

And a mingled one to all; 
But the dark and the light I cannot part, 

Nor alter their hues at all. 


Now on, my steeds ! the lightning's flash 

An instant gilds our way; 
But steady! by that dreadful crash 

The heavens seemed rent away. 
Soho! here comes the blast anew 

And a pelting flood of rain ; 
Steady! a sea seems bursting through 

A rift in some upper main. 

Tis a terrible night, a dreary hour, 

But who will remember to pray 
That the care of the storm controlling power 

May be over the post boy's way? 
The wayward wanderer from his home, the sailor 
upon the sea, 

Have prayers to bless them where they roam — 
Who thinketh to pray for me? 

But the scene is changed ! up rides the moon 

Like a ship upon the sea; 
Now on my steeds ! this glorious noon 

Of a night so dark shall be 
A scene for us; toss high your heads 

And cheerily speed away ; 
We shall startle the sleepers in their beds 

Before the dawn of day. 

Like a shuttle thrown by the hand of fate 

Forward and back I go; 
Bearing a thread to the desolate 

To darken their web of woe; 
And a brighter thread to the glad of heart, 

And a mingled one for all; 
But the dark and the light I cannot part, 

Nor alter their hues at all. 


By Metta V, Fuixer Victor. 

Out of the wood at midnight, 

The swift red hunters came; 
The prairie was their hunting ground, 

The bisons were their game. 
Their spears were of glist'ning silver, 

Their crests were of blue and gold ; 
Driven by the panting winds of heaven, 

Their shining chariots rolled. 

Over that level hunting ground — 

Oh, what a strife was there! 
What a shouting — what a threatening cry- 

What a murmur on the air ! 
Their garments over the glowing wheels 

Streamed backward red and far; 
They flouted their purple banners 

In the face of each pale star. 

Under their tread the autumn flowers 

By myriads withering lay; 
Poor things ! that from those golden wheels 

Could nowhere shrink away! 
Close, and crashing together, 

The envious chariots rolled, 
While, anon before his fellows 

Leaped out some hunter bold. 

Their hot breath, thick and lowering, 

About their wild eyes hung, 
And, around their frowning foreheads, 

Like wreaths of nightshade clung. 
The bison ! ho, the bison ! 

They cried and answered back; 
Poor herds of frightened creatures, 

With such hunters on their track! 


With a weary lumbering swiftness, 

They sought the river's side, 
Driven by those hunters from their sleep 

Into its chilling tide. 
Some face their foe with anguish 

Dilating their brute eyes — 
The spears of silver strike them low, 

And dead each suppliant lies. 

Now, by the brightening river 

The red hunters stand at bay; 
Vain the appalling splendor — 

The river shields their prey! 
Into its waves, with baffled rage, 

They leap in death's despite — 
Their goldein wheels roll roaring in, 

And leave the withered night. 

Norwai/k, Ohio, June 23, 1899. 
Hon. V. H. Darton, Geologist, 

Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey, 
Washington, D. C. 
Herewith I send you, as requested, copy of original record of 
"Citizens well No. 1, Norwalk, Ohio," put down in 1887, under 
my supervision. I yet have the collection of "borings" — 121 

The memoranda under the head of "Classification" were en- 
tered by and are in the handwriting of Hon. Edward Orton at 
that time State Geologist of Ohio, excepting those entries marked 
* entered by myself. 

This well was never "cased" but has 85 feet of 8-inch 
"drive pipe," permitting it to be kept closed. It is full of water, 
yet furnishes gas for illuminating the Norwalk Machine Works. 

Yours truly, 




Box. Depth. Classification. 

i 10 feet Drift. 

2 22 feet Drift 

3 6o feet Drift 

4 75 feet (Water) * Drift. 

5 76 feet Drift 

6 85 feet Ohio Shale; black 

7 122 feet Ohio Shale; black 

8 190 feet Ohio Shale; blue-grey 

9 210 feet Ohio Shale; black. 

10 235 feet Ohio Shale; black. 

11 235 feet Ohio Shale; (Calcareous and silica). 

12 240 feet Ohio Shale ; black. 

13 260 feet Ohio Shale ; black. 

14 288 feet. .... .Hamilton Limestone 

15 293 feet Hamilton Limestone. 

16 298 feet Hamilton Shale. 

17 357 feet Hamilton Shale 

18 370 feet Hamilton Shale. 

• ( 377 gas ; small flow. ) * 

19 440 feet Coniferous Limestone. 

20 500 feet Coniferous Limestone. 

21 550 feet Lowex Helderberg. 

22 575 feet Lower Helderberg. 

23 580 feet Lower Helderberg. 

(589 Water, small flow.)* 

24 600 feet Lower Helderberg 

25 ^ 615 feet (with gypsum) 

(630 salt water, small flow.) * 

26 653 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

27 662 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

28 667 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

29 670 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

30 695 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 


31 712 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

32 717 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

33 721 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

34 736 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

35 751 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

36 761 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

37 820 feet (Gas, small flow) ^Helderberg Lime. 

38 825 feet. . . . * . (Gypsum bearing) Low. Held. Lime. 

39 893 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

40 925 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

41 970 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

42 1 02 1 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone 

43 103 1 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

44 1075 feet Lower Helderberg: Limestone., 

45. . . . . . 1077 feet (Gypsum Lower Held. Limestone. 

46 1082 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

47 1 133 feet Lower Helderberg Limestone. 

48 1 148 feet Lower (Petrolif.) Held. Limestone. 

49 1 153 feet Lower (Gypsif.) Held. Limestone. 

50 1 165 feet Lower (almost pure Gyp.) Held. L. 

51 1 190 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

52 1 197 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

* (Gas at 1200 — 7000 ft. in 24 hrs.) 

53 1227 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

54 1245 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

55 1255 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

56 1275 feet Niagara Limestone — probably. 

57. ..... 1290 feet Niagara Shale. 

58 1300 feet Niagara Shale. 

59 1310 feet Niagara Group. 

60 1358 feet Niagara Group. 

61 1364 feet Niagara Group. 

62 1369 feet Niagara Group. 

63 1374 feet Niagara Group. 

64 1380 feet Niagara Group. 

65 1405 feet Niagara Shale. 

66 1435 feet Clinton Group. 


6? 1458 feet Clinton Group. 

68 1470 feet Clinton Group. 

6g 15 10 feet Clinton Group. 

70 1520 feet Clinton Group. 

71 1528 feet Clinton Group. 

72 1690 feet Medina Shale. 

73 1695 feet Medina Shale. 

74 1760 feet Medina Shale. 

75 1770 feet Medina Shale. 

76 1800 feet (Trace of oil)* Hudson River Shales 

77 1865 feet Hudson River Shales. 

78 1875 feet Hudson River Shales. 

79 1900 feet Hudson River Shales. 

80 1980 feet Hudson River Shales. 

81 2036 feet Hudson River Shales. 

82 2050 feet Hudson River Shales. 

83 2079 f eet Hudson River Shales. 

84 2085 feet Hudson River Shales. 

85 2130 feet Hudson River Shales. 

86 2170 feet Hudson River Shales. 

87 2196 feet Hudson River Shales. 

88 2225 feet Hudson River Shales. 

89 2255 feet Hudson River Shales. 

90 2275 feet Hudson River Shales. 

91 2304 feet Hudson River Shales. 

92 2330 feet Utica Shales (small show free oil)* 

93 2355 feet Utica Shales. 

94 2380 feet Utica Shales. 

95 2410 feet Utica Shales. 

96 2440 feet Utica Shales. 

97 "2500 feet Utica Shales. 

98 2545 feet Utica Shales. 

99 2562 feet Utica Shales. 

£00 2580 feet Utica Shales. 

101 2597 feet Utica Shales. 

102 2609 feet Utica Shales. 

103 2624 feet Utica Shales. 

11 Vol. 12 




Monarch of air, from cloud-capped steep, 
We see thee with proud pinion sweep; 
With towering crest and mounting wing, 
Upburst to greet the glad day spring, 
Pouring abroad thy fearless cry, 
Beneath the arches of the sky; 
Back flashing from thy kindling eyes, 
The fires that in its azure rise. 

iiv. . 'i 

Upward, but whither? Dost thou yearn 
Earth's presence from thy sight to spurn, 
Soaring with vision strong and clear, 
To track the sun-sheen to its sphere? 
Or some grand eyrie wouldst thou try, 
Far where yon planet's splendors lie? 

Our fathers saw thy hovering form, 
Above them, through the battle storm, 
And from their arms consigned to thee, 
The standard of their liberty. 
Up then, brave bearer, spread its folds 
Where ever-living sunlight rolls; 
And let no traitor's touch here blight 
Its glory blooms, red, blue and white. 



Rev. F. Rupert, pastor of St. Paul's church in Norwalk, has 
recently published an outline history of St. Paul's, St. Peter's 
and St. Mary's churches in this city, and the early history of 
St. Alphonsus, Peru (once Vredenburgh), containing seventy-six 
pages, embellished with excellent likenesses of Father Rupert, 
Rev. John A. Michenfelder, and eleven views of the former and 
present Catholic churches, schools, cemeteries and pastoral resi- 
dences here. It is ably written and full of valuable facts, rem- 
iniscences and statistics of the Catholic churches, pastors, 
teachers and pioneers in this part of the Firelands. 

In N. S. Vol. XI. of the " Pioneer," p. 220, is given a cut of 
the fine St. Paul's Catholic church building in Norwalk. — [Ed. 


104 2645 * eet Trenton at 2650 to 2725. 

105 2657 fejet Trenton. 

106 2662 feet Trenton. 

107 2665 feet. .... .Trenton (trace oil and gas)* 

108 2669 feet Trenton. 

109 2675 feet Trenton. 

no 2681 feet Trenton. 

in 2688 feet. .... .Trenton. 

112 2695 f eet .... Trenton (Shells.) 

113 2700 feet Trenton. 

114 2708 feet Trenton. 

115. ..... . 2715 feet Trenton. 

(Small half -shell of shell fish.) 

116 2718 feet Trenton. 

117 2,^22. feet Trenton. 

118 2725 feet. .... .Trenton. 

119 (At 630 ft. salt; 1 part salt, to 6* parts brine. )* 

120 (Specimens of washings at 2304 to 2357.)* 

121 (Specimens of rock bro't from 1165 to 1190.)* 

At 2725 the 20 ft., 4 in. "bailer" came up full of first quality 
lubricating oil; next trip bailer lost and not recovered; shot at 
2705 with 80 quarts nitro-glycerine — large flow gas for short time 
— well filled with water — "string fishing tools" and 1200 feet sand 
line with 15 ft., 3 in. "bailer" lost in well and not recovered. 
March 1888 well blew out water 80 feet high and then large 
quantity of gas. 

"Bore" of well 5S/3 in. to bottom, rimmed out to 8 in. to 
depth of 800 ft. — 800 ft., 2 in. tubing with "packer" inserted and 
in place at time of flow of water and gas in March, i\ 



By G. T. Stewart. 

The following two poems were written over a third of a 
century ago, after the adoption of the Anti-Slavery Amend- 
ment of the National Constitution. 


July 4, 1866. 

The cruel sin which held in sway, 
Through tears and blood, our land, 
; j., In blood and tears is washed away 

From each repentant hand. 

The chains are broke, the whips are burned, , 

The prisons into churches turned. 

Henceforth we give our hearts above, 

Our hands unto each other ; 

And, with a world embracing love, 

Call every man our brother. 

The arm that draws the sword of hate, 

Must meet that sword's avenging fate. 

By Freedom's battle angels led, 

Her foes beneath us put, 

God's eagle soaring overhead, 

Hell's serpent under foot, 

We bear the banners of the free, 

To usher in earth's jubilee. 



Hiram Abbott was born in Butler county, Ohio, in 1818, and 
came to Wakeman in 1836, and lived there until his death May 
29, 1899. He married Charlotte Knickerbocker in 1840. 

William Augustus Adams was born in Huron, Erie county 
(then Huron county), Ohio, February 24, 1818, one of the five 

Wm. A. Adams at Eighty Years of Age. 

children of Seth Allen and Rhoda Mowry Adams, who came 
from New York state and settled in Huron a short time previous 
to the birth of the subject of this sketch. The country was new 


and the young man was brought up inured to all the hardships 
of the pioneers. 

William A. Adams lived on the farm until 1866, when he 
sold out and moved to Hudson to educate his children. He 
married Caroline Stuart in 1844, and of their four children, Allen 
S., residing at Kansas City, is the only survivor. The wife's 
death occurred in 1866, at the home of Luke Stowe in the old 
neighborhood, the family being on their way to Milan for the 
usual Thanksgiving family reunion. 

This changed the plans of the family, and while the son 
remained in college the father and daughter were with relatives 
in Milan until 1868, when Mr. Adams married Mrs. S. L. Mowry, 
at Norwalk, O., and at once moved to Clarksfield, Huron county, 
where he bought a large farm and resided upon it for fourteen 
years, until 1882. He then moved to Michigan, living in the 
little city of Eaton Rapids until his death, which occurred on 
Thursday, February 16, 1899. The remains were taken to Ohio, 
where the interment took place near his birth-place, on Tuesday, 
February 21st. He is survived by the widow and one son and 
five grandchildren. Allen S. Adams married Rose Stiles, of 
Clarksfield, daughter of ex-County Commissioner W. W. Stiles. 
They have living at their home in Kansas City, Kansas, one 
daughter and one son. Martha M. Adams married Murray 
Stiles, son of W. W. Stiles. She and her husband moved to 
Kansas City, where both died, leaving two sons and one daugh- 
ter. One daughter, Bessie, born to him by his second wife, died 
in 1893 and was taken to Milan for burial. 

Charles Kellogg Adams was born in Fairfield township 
Sept. 28, 1826. In 1850 he married Martha W. Smith. He 
died in Fairfield township, where his whole life was spent, 
March 1,1899. 

Alvin Anderson was born in the state of New York July 28, 
1800. His parents were of Scotch origin. In 1820 he mar- 
ried Harriet Baldwin, of Newark, N. J. In 1838 they settled 
on a farm east of Bellevue. The wife died in 1882 and the hus- 
band in 1893. He gave freely of his means to churches and 
colleges. ~~ 

Rachel Augusta Andrews, wife of Dr. Benjamin Andrews, 
died Saturday afternoon, June 10, 1899. Funeral services were 
held at her late residence, 227 Berkeley Place, Brooklyn, Tues- 
day, June 13th, at 4 o'clock p m. and the remains interred at 
the Green's Farms, Connecticut, Wednesday morning, on arrival 
of the 10:04 train from New York. Mrs. Andrews was a lady 
well known and highly esteemed by a wide circle of friends in 
this community, being the oldest daughter of the late Judge 


Bbenezer Andrews, a prominent Milan operator during the 
years of her greatest business activity. 

Salina Hardy Andrews, daughter of William and Prudence 
Hardy, was born in the town of Berlin, October 21, 1844; was 
married to Emerson Andrews, October 15, 1866; died September 
9, 1899, aged 54 years, 10 months and 19 days. Three sons 
were born to them, William, Albert and Beston, two of which,with 
the husband and two grand-children, survive her to mourn her 
loss. With the exception of three years her life was spent in 
Berlin township. 

Dennis Ashley was a son of Luther Ashley and Eunice 
Smith, and was born at Deerfield, Mass., January 30, 1810. 
Luther Ashley was a son of James Ashley, who was descended 
from Robert Ashley, who came from England to Massachusetts 
about 1630. Dennis Ashley married Lurany Bliss in 1830. 
He had come to Greenfield township with his parents in 1817. 
He died at his home in Greenfield September 27, 1892. 

Fanny Baker was a daughter of Rodney and Emily Baker, 
and was born at Olena, O., March 15, 1838. In 1858 she was 
married to Charles Reuben Leggett. Her home was at Nor- 
walk and she died June 6, 1899. 

Mrs. Sarah S. Baker was born in Wayne county, O., in 
1823, and came to Norwalk in 1832. She was married to 
William Baker in 1860, and they lived in Norwalk for many 
years. They moved to Delta, O., in 1882, where she died in 

Joseph S. Barnum was a son of Bbenezer M. Barnum and 
Betsy Nickerson, and was born in Clarkfield, February 8, 1823. 
In 1845 he was married to Sally Bacon, of Ripley township. 
In 1853 they moved to Missouri, where he died in 1899. His 
parents came to Clarksfield in 1819. 

John B. Baumeister passed away September 11, 1899. He 
was one of the oldest citizens of Sandusky. His wife died nine 
years ago, but five sons survive him. They are John, Otto, 
Frank and Albert of this city, and Cornelius of St. Joseph, Mo. 
Mr. Baumeister was born in Augsburg, Bavaria, June 23, 1818. 
He spent his youth there, and served three years in the Bava- 
rian army, being honorably discharged in 1847. In 1848 he 
came to America, and spent one year in Canada. The following 
year he came to Sandusky and for fifty years had lived here. 
Shortly after coming here, the terrible cholera epidemic broke 
out, but though Mr. Baumeister stayed here, and nursed many 
sick people, he was not stricken with the disease. At the out- 
break of the war, he enlisted as a musician with Charles Baetz 


and Cornelius Schnaitter. Afterwards he engaged in the tailor- 
ing business, and made army uniforms for officers who were 
stationed at Johnson's Island. 

Martin Beebe was a son of George Beebe, who emigrated 
from Massachusetts to Michigan at an early day. He was born 
in Lenawee county, Mich., in 1836. He went with his parents 
from Michigan to Norwich township in 1840. In 1865 he was 
married to Mary L. Barret, of Clarksfield. He studied medicine 
and practiced at Wakeman and Oberlin, and in 1869 moved to 
Clarksfield, where he carried on a farm and practiced his profes- 
sion until his death in 1890. 

Stewart E. Bell died March 11, 1896, at the home of his 
daughter, Mrs. Arthur Phinney, in Sandusky, Ohio. He was 
born in Middleberry township, Hartford county, Connecticut, 
November 25th, 1809. He was the son of Elizur Stewart Bell 
and wife Polly. His father, with a party ot eighteen families, 
left Connecticut for Ohio in September, 1815, making the jour- 
ney with oxen, cows and wagons — Mr. Bell's father being the 
only one of the party having a horse ; one other of the party, 
Mr. Beatty, father of General Beatty, having a very long eared 
donkey, which gave much amusement to the children during the 
journey. After spending about six weeks on the way, they 
arrived in Sandusky the latter part of October. Mr. Beatty 
owned a large tract of land in the vicinity of Sandusky, and sold 
parcels of it to the members of the party. Mr. Bell's father 
purchased 140 acres at $4 per acre. Mr. Bell's father was a ship 
carpenter and soon after his arrival he built a schooner, which he 
named "Polly of Huron," after his wife. The boat was built 
about a mile and a half from the lake shore and it took forty 
yoke of oxen — all there were in the counties — to haul it to the 
lake. The hauling was done in one day. He died in October, 
1816, and his widow subsequently married a man by the name of 
Munger but lived with him but a short time. Mr. Stewart E. 
Bell, on May 8, 1834, married Elvira Dibble, who was born in 
Connecticut but emigrated from the city of New York with a 
brother to Sandusky in 1832. They first located on Hancock 
street, but later bought a house on Adams street, where they 
resided till 1870, when they moved to their country home about 
two miles from Sandusky on Columbus avenue. Mr. Bell was a 
ship carpenter, following the trade of his father. In 1849 he 
caught the gold fever and went to California, where he remained 
about sixteen months. During the fore part of his stay there he 
worked at his trade, making the first boat ever built at Sacra- 
mento Harbor ; for which he received sixteen dollars per day 
and board. He afterwards went to the mines, but before secur- 


ing much gold he was called home by sickness. After the death 
of his wife in 1887, Mr. Bell lived with his daughter, Mrs. Arthur 
Phinney, at whose home he died as above stated, aged 87 years. 
His wife, Elvira Dibble, was an active member of the Under- 
ground Railway and assisted many runaway slaves on their way 
to Canada. Two sons and one daughter survived him. Both 
sons reside in Columbus, Ohio, and his daughter, Mrs. Phinney, 
died January 7, 1898. 

Mrs. Mary Lockwood Benedict, whose picture appeared among 
the G. G. at the left of the group of sisters, was the youngest 
child of Stephen and Sarah Lockwood, of Norwalk, Conn., and 
was born April 36, 1799, and died January 22, 1885, nearly 86 
years old. In early life she became a christian and united with 
the Congregational church. At the time when foreign mission 
work was becoming of great interest in this country and christ- 
ian people were giving largely to the work, Mary B. Lockwood 
longed to respond to the call. She had very nice jewelry, and her 
consecrated heart prompted her to lay it all on the altar to help 
on the Lord's work among the heathen. This she did, but 
because the friends who gave some pieces objected to her giving 
them away, she retained a few articles. 

September 1, 1823, she married Rev. Henry Benedict, who 
was teaching in Saugatuck, Conn, (later Westport.) He was for 
years pastor of the Congregational church in Westport after 
having served as pastor in Congregational churches in New York 
city, Norwalk, Conn., from 1828 to 1832 Cincinnati and other 
places, and lastly for about fifteen years in Port Chester N. Y. 
He died at Saratoga Springs July 19, 1868, where he went 
annually for a change and much needed rest. Mrs. E- S. Ailing, 
who was at her grandfather's, Stephen Lockwood, attending 
school in Norwalk, Conn., because of very limited opportunities 
in our Norwalk, Ohio, and was present at the wedding, reports 
the following incident: Rev. Mr. Baton was pastor of the 
Congregational church there and it was known that Henry 
Benedict and Mary Lockwood were to be married after the 
service. Mr. Baton, about closing with the benediction, appeared 
to have forgotten what the people were evidently waiting for, and 
Mr. Benedict went forward to remind him of the marriage service 
which was to follow, and it was then and there consummated. 
Although Mrs. Benedict never resided in Ohio, she inherited an 
interest in the Firelands, and made frequent visits to the homes 
of her brothers and sisters who resided here. Their children 
were Henry M. of N. Y. city (dead); Sarah Benedict Taylor of 
Oakland, Cal.; Frank Lockwood, who died in Galveston, Texas ; 
Blias Cornelius of New York city ; Mary Esther, now Mrs. 


Peters, of N. Y. city ; Elizabeth Betts now Mrs. Mead, N. Y. 
city ; Helen M. now Mrs. Todd, of N. Y. city. 

John Blanchard, for nine years editor-in-chief of the Minne- 
apolis " Times," died this morning, September 12, aged 57 years. 
He was born in Sandusky, O. In 1841, he came west, locating 
at Monticello, Iowa, where he published the Monticello "Express" 
for 13 years. In 1884 he become editor-in-chief of the Dubuque 
" Times " and served a term as state oil inspector under Gover- 
nor Larabee. In 1889 he came to Minneapolis, and in the follow- 
ing year became editor of the Minneapolis " Times, " which 
position he held at the time of his death. 

J. D. Bradish was born in St. Lawrence county, N. Y., March 
24, 1826. Both parents died when he was young and he lived with 
his grandparents. In 1830 they came to Milan and lived there a 
few years, then moved to Kenton, Ohio. In 1844 he came 
to New London township and learned the trade of black- 
smith at Barrett's Corners. In 1847 he married Margaret 
Gifford, of Clarksfield, and they lived at Berlinville for five 
years, then came to Clarksfield, where he died October 17, 1898. 
His widow and three children, Mrs. Nettie Hastings, Mrs. Abby 
pool and E. J. Bradish, survive him. 

John Book was born in Switzerland, February 3, 1813. He 
came to Ridgefield township with his patents in 1831. In 1848 
he was married to Rose Zipfel. He died in 1899 on the farm 
where he had lived since 1831. 

John Buckingham, late of Norwalk, Ohio, was born No- 
vember 10, 1790, in or near Lebanon, Conn. He went to the 
Wyoming Valley, Pa., about 1811. Married Sarah Ebert at 
York, Pa., April 2, 1813. He resided at Tunkhannock and 
Montrose, Pa., until 1829, when he removed to Norwalk, Ohio, 
and many years after that to Clyde, Ohio. He was a brother of 
the Henry Buckingham who settled in Norwalk a few years ear- 
lier. John Buckingham died January 5, 1875, aged 85. In bus- 
iness he was a merchant and farmer. His widow, Sarah Buck- 
ingham, died at Clyde, Ohio, August 15, 1881. His most 
immediate descendants now living are the children of his daugh- 
ter Mary S. and his son Jerome. His daughter Mary in 1835, at 
Norwalk, married Joseph M. Root of that place, and who was a 
member of Congress from 1845 to 1851. Their children now 
living are Sarah, wife of Judge Charles E. Dyer of Milwaukee, 
Mrs. Amelia Bromwell, Miss Martha Root and Miss Elizabeth 
Root of Chicago. His son, Jerome Buckingham, engaged in the 
practice of law in 1844 at Newark, Ohio, where he still resides 
at the age of 79 years. 





Elizabeth Buckingham, a daughter of John and Sarah Ebert 
Buckingham, was born at Tunkannock, Pa., March 13, 1818, 
and died at Clyde, Ohio, August 15, 1857, unmarried. She was 
a sincere and devoted christian, always manifesting her faith and 
charity by acts of personal attention to those who were in pov- 

Elizabeth Buckingham. 

erty or affliction. She was a most loving and devoted daughter 
and sister, and her greatest happiness consisted in her efforts to 
add to the comfort and happiness of others. 

Allen Lindsley Buckingham passed away Saturday, Novem- 
ber,, 25, 1899, aged 65 years. Deceased was born in Nor- 
walk, Ohio, July 14, 1834, and his boyhood was passed in Nor- 
walk. He was of old New England stock, a descendant of the 
Plymouth Rock Pilgrims, and his ancestors, among whom was 
Governor Bradford, came over on the Mayflower, from Auster- 
field, England. He came to this coast by way of the Isthmus 


when 22 years old, and arrived in Oregon in October, 1856, com- 
ing to Portland on the same steamer with H. S. Jory, of South 
Salem. Later he returned to the East, and he made several 
trips back and forth. He was in business in Kansas for a num- 
ber of years. Twenty-three years ago, in Indianola, Iowa, he 
was joined in matrimony to Miss Liddie Frost, who survives 
him. For the last nineteen years he has resided in Salem con- 
tinuously. He was in the grocery business in South Salem for 
many years, and has successfully conducted a number of differ- 
ent enterprises. Besides the widow, three children survive, 
George aged 21, Roy 19 and Bessie 13. Deceased was a brother 
of Mrs. S. A. Clark and Mrs. C. S. Woodworth, both of whom 
have preceded him to the other shore. He was an uncle of Mrs. 
S. C. Dyer. A brother, Henry Buckingham, lives at Kingfisher, 
Oklahoma. — From the Salem, Ore., Journal. 

George Buckingham, father of Allen L. Buckingham, whose 
death is mentioned above, was one of the founders of the "Re- 
flector" in 1830, and was a nephew of John Buckingham above 

Jane Russell Burn was born in New York state in 1821 and 
came to Fitchville township with her parents in 1832. She 
taught school in this county, then went to California, but re- 
turned. She died in Bronson township January 29, 1899. 

Elizabeth H. Carl was born in Cortland county, N. Y., June 
15, 1818. She came to Ruggles township about 1840 and was 
married to Daniel Carl in 1841. She lived in Ripley township 
for many years. She died at her home in New London Febru- 
ary 10, 1899. 

Eliza Case was born in Ripley township February 5, 1829. 
In 1846 she was married to Wm. Howard, Sr. She died Decern- 
ber 18, 1898. 

John J. Clark was born in Madison county, N. Y., July 
10, 1811 and came to Norwalk in 1836. In 1847 he married 
Charlotte Smith and lived in Olena since that time. He died 
March 7, 1899. 

George W. Clary died at his home in Florence township, 
Erie County, Ohio., January 12, 1899, Mr. Clary was born in 
Peru township, Huron county, O., October 28, 1818, and was the 
son of Elihu Clary and wife Pearly. Mr. Clary was one of the 
first three men to locate in Peru township, the other two being 
Henry Adams and William Smith — the three having begun the 
work of erecting a small cabin on lot five, section one, June 15, 
1815. Adams was from Marlboro, Vt., and Clary and Smith 
from Deerfield, Mass. They boarded with Bildad Adams in 


Greenfield township (grandfather of the writer of this Obituary), 
for a few days, while they completed the erection of the small 
cabin in which they kept bachelor's hall till October, when they 
erected a larger log house, and Mrs. Clary, who arrived the 
twenty-third of that month, became the housekeeper and contin- 
ued in that capacity till the iollowing spring, when they separ- 
ated. Mr Clary and family settled on lot eighteen, section one, 
where they resided for some years and where George W. was 
born, the family subsequently moved to the village of Macks- 
ville in the same township, and kept a tavern, where Mrs. Pearly 
Clary died, June 18, 1830. Alter the death of his wife Mr. Elihu 
Clary went to New York state and lived near Albany. He mar- 
ried a second wife in that state and subsequently returned to 
Ohio, but soon moved to Bedford, Monroe county, Mich, where 
he died in September 1871. He was born in Montague, Mass., 
in 1788. Mr. George W. Clary, after the death of his mother, 
when twelve years old went from Peru to Florence, Erie county, 
and began clerking in a store. From Florence he went to Birm- 
ingham and clerked in the store of Boalt & Leonard. He con- 
tinued as a clerk in stores till he arrived at the age of twenty- 
two, when he opened a store in Florence with Joseph Pierce as a 
partner. After two years he sold his interest to his partner and 
and then in 1842 he purchased the farm near Birmingham on 
which he resided during the remainder of his life. 

He married September 26, 1844, Eliza Chandler, who 
was his home companion during the remainder of his life, nearly 
fifty- five years. They had two children, both boys — Fred born 
in 1845, and George born in 1848. They both died prior to the 
death of their father— George in 1879 and Fred in 1887. Their 
widows having remarried are now Mrs. Newton Andress of Ber- 
lin Heights, and Mrs H. J. Thompson of Birmingham. His 
surviving descendants consists of his widow, Mrs. Eliza Chandler 
Clary; his four grand-children, Frank and Mark Clary of Birm- 
ingham, and Charles Clary and Mrs. Myrtle Elson of Berlin 
Heights, and three great-grandchildren. Mr. Clary was honored by 
election to township offices also to the office of commissioner of 
Erie county, "all of which he filled to the satisfaction of his con- 

Dorcas Clawson was a daughter of Ezekiel Phillips, and was 
born in Greene county, N. Y., November 2, 1826. She came to 
Hartland with her parents in 1831. She was married to John F. 
Clawson in 1843 and lived in Hartland then Clarksfield. She 
died January 15, 1899. 

Mrs. Harriet Close was born in North Fairfield, O., January 
10, 1827, and was married to Mr. Close in 1846. She died May 
27, 1899. 


E. H. Curtiss was a son of Charles and Jemima Curtiss, and 
was born in Monroe county, N. Y., October 6, 1828. His wife 
was Martha E. Phillips, of Kansas. In 3832 he moved to Rug- 
gles township. In 1850 he moved to Wisconsin, to Kansas in 
1857, and enlisted in the union army in 1861. In 1877 he moved 
to New London and died in 1891. 

Huldah F. Davis was a daughter of James Ford and Lucy 
Rumsey and was born in Bronson township, September 27, 1838. 
In 1869 she was married to Benjamin Davis, who died in 1878. 
Her home was in Fairfield township and her death occurred 
July 12, 1899. 

Jane McCann Delamater was a daughter of John McCann and 
Elizabeth Crapsey and was born in Clinton, Dutchess county, N. 
Y., February 11,1811. In 1833 she was married to Benjamin Dela- 
mater and they came to the Firelands in 1837. She died in 
Norwalk, June 30, 1899. 

Mrs. Sarah Delmater was born in Fayette, N. Y., November 
13, 1808. In 1826 she was married to Leonard Delamater and 
they lived in Fayette, N. Y., until 1835, when they moved to 
Erie county, O. In 1848 they moved to Norwalk township. 
She died in Norwalk January 23, 1899. Her husband died 
in 1874. 

Jane Denman was a daughter of Joseph and Adeline Archer 
and was born in New York city May 3, 1826, and came to Flor- 
ence township with her parents in 1837. In 1847 she was mar- 
ried to Edward Denman, of Florence. She died at her home in 
Wakeman township June 16, 1899. 

William Denman was a son of John Denman and Marinda 
Blackman and was born in Florence township August 10, 1822. 
In 1853 he was married to Cordelia Hough and after her death 
he married Julia Partello, in 1869. He died in 1892. His father 
came on foot from New York state to Florence in 1816. 

Joseph Eddy was born in Chatham, Conn., September, 1815, 
and died in Perkins township, Erie county, O., May 3, 1898. 
He was the son of Roswell and Hannah Eddy, and was two years 
old when his parents located in Erie county on lands in Perkins 
township, where he lived on the same lands, the old homestead 
farm, for over eighty-one years, and by industry and economy 
accumulated a comfortable competence. He was married in 
1841 to Caroline Akins, who died in 1883. They had three chil- 
dren, all girls, the first born dying at the age of six years. The 
other two survived him, one being Mrs. Truman B. Taylor and 
the other Mrs. Frank A. Akins, both residents of Perkins town- 
ship, the latter residing on the old homestead farm. 



Lydia Ells was a daughter of Elihu and Sarah Ells and was 
born in Harpersfield, N. Y., July 6, 1819. She came to the Fire- 
lands in 1836 and in 1838 was married to Homer T. Smith. She 
died at her home in North Fairfield, October 18, 1898. She was a 
school teacher in early life and many of the early settlers in Fair- 
field township, who are yet living, remember her as their teacher. 

Catharine Foster, widow of the late William T. Foster, died 
February 15, 189- at her residence, corner of Washington and 
Meigs streets. Deceased had resided in Sandusky ior just 
about a half a century. She was 78 years of age. Mrs. Foster 
leaves a family of six daughters and two sons, who are Mrs, 
Edward Montgomery, of Detroit, Mrs. E. S. Smith, of North 
Amherst, O., Mrs. James Henry, Mrs. James B. Sanderson, Mrs. 
Jacob Sartor, Mrs. George Maley and Henry Foster, of Sandusky, 
and Daniel Foster, of Cleveland. 

Clarissa Benedict Gallup. 
(See Vol. 13 O. S.,p. 103.) 

12 Vol. 12 


Stephen M. Fuller died Wednesday evening, February 14, 
1899, at his residence on State street, Norwalk, O. Mr. Fuller 
was born at Rochester, N. Y., October 17, 1832, and in early life 
was left parentless. His father died before his birth, and eight 
years later his mother, also, died. He then came to Berlin, Erie 
county, where he lived a short time with an uncle and then 
returned to Rochester, where he resided until he was 23 years of 
age. He then came west again and settled at Birmingham, 
where he was united in marriage November 11, 1858, to Miss 
Mary P. Denman. In 1868 he moved to Norwalk and engaged 
in the hardware business with the late David Higgins. Later he 
engaged in the shoe business with the late Otis J. Sherman, and 
continued in that business until his death, with the exception of 
a year or two, when he was assistant cashier of the First National 
Bank of Norwalk. He leaves to mourn his demise a wife and 
three daughters, Mrs. T. D. Cone and Mrs. C. N. Smith, of 
Toledo, and Mrs. C. B. Wilcox, of Sandusky. 

David Gibbs. David Gibbs, for nineteen years, from 1821 
until his death in 1840, clerk of the courts of Huron county, Ohio, 
was born June 14, 1788, at Windsor, Connecticut, seven miles 
above Hartford, at the junction of the Connecticut and Windsor 
rivers. His father was Captain Samuel Gibbs, of Scotch descent, 
a soldier in the Revolutionary army and afterwards master and 
part owner of a staunch vessel sailing out of New York in the 
European trade. His mother was Nancy Harsen, who was born 
in New York, and was of Holland Dutch descent. David Gibbs 
moved with his father's family to Norwalk, Connecticut, when a 
lad of about fourteen years, where he grew to manhood. He 
studied law, was admitted to practice, May 20, 1810, he married 
Elizabeth Lockwood, daughter of Stephen and Sarah Lockwood, 
of Norwalk, Connecticut. When the war of 1812 broke out, he 
enlisted, and was given a commission as 1st Lieutenant in the 
37th Infantry of the regular army, serving at Fort Griswold, 
New London, Connecticut. 

In 1811, with a view to moving west, he made a trip to Ohio 
with Judge Sherman (father of Senator John Sherman and of 
General W. G. Sherman). Judge Sherman decided to settle near 
Lancaster Ohio, but Mr. Gibbs returned to Connecticut, living 
for a time in Bridgeport. In 1815, he made another trip to Ohio 
and the following year, with his family, he removed to Norwalk, 
Ohio, where Stephen Lockwood, his wife's father, owned a large 
tract of the " sufferers' lands" on the " Firelands. " 

David Gibbs and his little family reached Norwalk after a 
long and venturesome journey, described in the Firelands 
Pioneer, Vol. XI, October, 1874, page 83. His first home was in 



a double log cabin mentioned in that article, and pictured in this 
number from the recollections of those who saw it many times. 
His farm was at the corner of East Main street and Old State 
road, the corners being known as Gibbs's corners, until later, when 
they were called " Alling's Corners." He was appointed clerk 

David Gibbs at Age of About Twenty. 
(Taken from a Water Color Painting.) 

of the courts in 1821, and performed the duties so acceptably 
that he was successively re- appointed, holding the office at the 
time of his death, which occurred March 16, 1840. His age was 
51 years, 9 months and 2 days. 

The pioneer house, occupied in 1816 by David Gibbs and 
Henry Lockwood with their families, was a double log house, 
with a covered passage way through the center. The front rooms 
on each side were eighteen feet square, with bed-rooms back 



about eight or nine feet square; there was also a small pantry. 
There were sleeping rooms in the upper loft, divided by hang- 
ing partitions. There was a cellar underneath which was often 
flooded after a brisk rain. The small windows were at first 
covered with greased paper instead of glass. The nearest neigh- 
bor was Abijah Comstock, who lived 1^ miles north on the road 

Abijah Comstock built, in 1809, the first house in Norwalk township on the pres- 
ent John F. Randolf farm in section 2. Benjamin Newcomb the second, about 1811, 
on the present Asher Cole farm in section 4. Samuel B. Lewis the third, in 1815, on 
the present Perry Tillotson farm in section 1. The above cut is a memory sketch of 
the fourth, built in 1816 by David Gibbs and Henry Lockwood. 

to Milan. On his farm was a never failing spring on which the 
few neighbors depended for their supply of drinking water. 

One part of this house was afterwards used by Ralph and' 
George Lockwood as a store. The old cabin stood on the east 
side of the Old State road, near the site of the John Copsey 
residence. It remained many years after it ceased to be used 
as a dwelling. 



MaryJLockwood Benedict. Mrs. Elizabeth Lock wood Gibbs. Mrs. Esther Lockwood Saunders. 
(See Benedict.) (See Vol. 11 O. S., p. 83.) (See Saunders.) 

Sisters of Henry, Ralph and George Lockwood. 


Descendants of David Gibbs and Elizabeth Lockwood 
of Norwalk, Ohio, 1816. 

David Gibbs, born June 14, 1788; died March 16, 1840; 
married May 20, 1810, Elizabeth Lockwood, born March 24, 
1791 ; died October 4, 1873. 


1. Eliza Lockwood Gibbs, born February 16, 1811 ; mar- 
ried, September 1835, Pruden Ailing. 

2. David Gibbs, died 1816, in infancy. 

3. David Gibbs, Jr., born January 12, 1817, died April 6, 
1897 ; married April 10, 1843, Eliza Bacon, born June 11, 1820, 
died February 2, 1899. 

4. Roswell Gibbs, born December 2, 1818, died July 30, 
1880; married August 27, 1850, Mary Jay, born April, 1833. 

5. Charles Gibbs, born October 25, 1820 ; died May 15, 
1896 ; married March 1, 1849, Lavinia Campbell. 

6. James Burnett Gibbs, born May 21, 1822 ; died August 
3, 1850. 

7. Ralph Marvin Gibbs, born July 1, 1824 ; died August 
16, 1854; married April 22, 1846, Mary Higgins. 

8. Mary Louise Gibbs, born April 6, 1831 ; died November 
28, 1832. 

9. Sarah Louise Gibbs, born September T, 1835 ; mar- 
ried Augustus Mowry, September 7, 1857, died August 10, 1859; 
married Wm. A. Adams, died February 16, 1899. 


(1. Eliza Lockwood Gibbs Ailing.) 

10. William G. Ailing, born June 15, 1836; married April 
10, 1867, Lettie Spore. 

11. Charles P. Ailing, born February 19, 1838 ; married 
March 10, 1863, Ruhama Wakeman. 

12. David G. Ailing, born January 8, 1842 ; died May 3, 
1899 ; married May 4, 1869, Juliette Coleman. 

13. Elizabeth Ailing, born September 8, 1843; married 
January 21, 1864, Theodore C. Laylin. 

14. Mary P. Ailing, born June 14, 1845. 

15. Jane M. Ailing, born December 10, 1848; married 
October 2, 1873, E- J. Smith. 

16. Sarah L. Ailing, born April 13, 1851 ; married March 
10, 1887, J. E. Cleveland. 

17. Stephen Cory Ailing, born January 5, 1853 ; died Feb- 
ruary 10, 1876. 



(3. David Gibbs, Jr.) 

18. Elizabeth Gibbs, born July 16, 1844 ; married Novem- 
ber 17, 1862, Frederick Tyler. 

19. Henry Bascom Gibbs, born April 30, 1847 ; married 
November, 1870, Mary Louise Smith. 

20. David Gibbs, born August 21, 1851. 

21. Francis Lockwood Gibbs, born July 1, 1853; married 
December, 1875, Emma Brigham, died March, 1885 ; married 
Grace Jackson. 

22. Susan Bacon Gibbs, born August 7, 1857 ; married 
August 2, 1876, Fowler A. Seaman. 


(4. Roswell Gibbs.) 

23. Thomas Jay Gibbs, born May 31, 1851 ; married June 
30, 1881, Anna Reed. 

24. Louise Gibbs, born September 6, 1853 ; died August 
28, 1871. 

25. Clara Gibbs, born April 10, 1855 ; married, 1878, Mil- 
lard F. Smith. 

26. Wm. Roswell Gibbs, born September 20, 1859 ; married 
October 21, 1880, Emma Skinner, died June 16, 1890. 

27. Ralph Lockwood Gibbs, born December 22, 1867 ; died 
April 18, 1873. 

28. Elizabeth Gibbs, born July 18, 1876; died July 10, 


(5. Charles Gibbs.) 

29. Emma Gibbs, born April, 1858 ; died April, 1874. 


(7. Ralph Marvin Gibbs.) 

30. Charlotte Townsend Gibbs, bom March 13, 1847. 

31. Cecilia Elizabeth Gibbs, born December 3, 1848. 

32. James Gilbert Gibbs, born August 7, 1852; married 
June 30, 1880, Caroline Lovell Wickham. 

33. Mary Farr Gibbs, born August 8, 1854. 



(9. Sarah Louise Gibbs.) 

34. Grace Elizabeth Mowry, born September 14, 1858; 
died Nov. 28, 1874. 

35. Bessie Adams, born July 18, 1876 ; died June 15, 1893. 


(10. William G. Ailing.) 

36. Arthur Lewis Ailing, born ; married Fannie 



(11. Charles P. Ailing.) 

37. Mary Ailing, born ; Married A. A. Fengar. 

38. Howard Ailing, born ; married Clara Lockwood. 


(12. David G. Ailing.) 

39. Marjorie Ailing, born December 25, 1873 ; married 
April 25, 1890, Harry Lyon. 


(13. Elizabeth Ailing Laylin.) 

40. John Laylin, born December 23, 1868 ; married Octo- 
ber 3, 1895, Mabel Parker Gallup, born September 17, 1870. 

41. Elizabeth G. Laylin, born February 24, 1871 ; married 
Dudley French. 

42. David Laylin, born June 17, 1880. 


(15. Jane M. Ailing Smith.) 

43. Ralph Augustus Smith, born September 1874. 

44. Arthur Smith, born March 1881. 

45. Sarah Louise Smith, born August 12, 1886. 


(19. Henry Bacon Gibbs.) 

46. James McLain Gibbs, born December 28, 1871. 

47. Jane Gibbs, born June 1875 ; married 1896, Joseph 


48. David Gibbs, born December 1876, 

49. Thomas Gibbs, born . 

50. Louise Gibbs, born April 1883. 


(21. Francis Lockwood Gibbs.) 

51. Susan B. Gibbs, born . 

52. Henry B. Gibbs, born . 


(22. Susan Bacon Gibbs Seaman.) 

53. Esther Vera Seaman, born July 4, 1883. 


(25. Clara Gibbs Smith.) 

54. John Roswell Smith, born March 9, 1879. 


(26. Wm. Roswell Gibbs.) 

55. Anna M. Gibbs, born December 12, 1883. 

56. Margaret Gibbs, born April 30, 1886. 


(32. James Gilbert Gibbs.) 

57. Esther Preston Gibbs, born Dec. 13, 1881. 

58. Ralph Lockwood Gibbs, born March 9, 1888. 


( 36. Arthur Lewis Ailing.) 

50. Worthington Ailing, born — . 

60. Fannie Ailing, born . 



( 37. Mary Ailing Fengar.) 
61. Ruhama Fengar, born 1892. 



( 38. Howard Ailing.) 
62. Amy Ailing, born . 


(40. John Laylin. ) 

93. Helen Elizabeth Laylin, born Julv 7, 1896. 

94. Ruth Iyaylin, born Mar. 14, 1898. 


( 41. Elizabeth G. Laylin French.) 

65. Edith French, born . 

66. Bessie French, born . 


( 47. Jane Gibbs Menefee.) 
67. Joseph Menefee, Jr., born 1897. 

Capt. David Gibbs died suddenly Tuesday morning at his 
home in LeMars, Iowa, where he has lived the past thirty years 
engaged in the banking business. He was in his eighty-first 
year and was born in Norwalk, Ohio, in 1817, his birth being 
the first recorded *in this township. His father, Capt. David 
Gibbs, Sr., was one of Norwalk's original settlers and was clerk 
of the courts up to his death in 1840. 

The younger Capt. David Gibbs was deputy county clerk 
for many years. He afterward lived in Dayton, Lima, Elmore, and 
other Ohio towns, removing to Iowa some thirty years ago. He 
married in 1843 Miss Eliza Bacon of Dayton, who survives him. 
He leaves also five children, Mrs. Lizzie Tyler, Mrs. Susan Sea- 
mans, and Messrs. Henry, David and Frank Gibbs. Capt. Gibbs 
was a veteran ol the late war, serving in command of a company 
in the 21st O. V. I. He was the oldest of five brothers, all well 
known in Norwalk fifty years ago, and was the last survivor, 
viz., Capt. David Gibbs, just deceased; Roswell Gibbs, form- 
erly of Troy, Ohio; Rev. Charles Gibbs, graduate of Kenyon 

* Before the days of official records of births and deaths, Thomas, son 
of Abjiah Comstock was born on the John Randolph farm in section 2 of 
Norwalk on Dec. 12, 1812.— [Ed. 



ollege and of Yale theological seminary, Congregational min- 
ster, last charge Cedar Falls, Iowa ; Rev. James B. Gibbs, grad- 
ate of Yale college and Yale theological seminary, died soon 
fter graduating, aged 28 years ; Ralph M. Gibbs, died of cholera 
i Norwalk, 1854, aged 30 years ; father of James G. Gibbs. 
wo sisters are all that are left of the original lamily circle : Mrs. 
Sliza L. Ailing, of East Main street, who is now 86; and Mrs. 

Captain David Gibbs. 

vouise Adams, .of Eaton Rapids, Mich. Four of the brothers 
ire survived by widows; the other brother, Rev. James B. Gibbs, 
vas not married. 

His last visit to his birth-place was in the fall of 1893, 
ipending several days renewing acquaintances with many old 
riends of his younger days and, as he repeated many times, he 
lever enjoyed a visit more than that one. The Sprague 
imbrella works interested him greatly, as the factory is located 
>n the farm where he was born and where he grew up to man- 


hood. One by one the men identified with Norwalk's early 1 
have passed away until scarcely any are left ; but the men 
of such honorable and useful pioneers as Capt. David Gibbs 
long remain as an inspiration to the generations that come a 
them.—. Reflector, April 8, 189-j. 

Ephraim Gridley was a son of Jared Gridley and Cyn 
Tremain and was born in Jefferson county, N. Y., March 
1811. In 1818 he went to Rising Sun, Indiana, with his pare 
The father soon died and the family went back to New \ 
State. In 1835 he came to Clarksfield and in 1838 he was i 
ried to Julia Kinney, of New York state, and they livec 
Clarksfield until the death of the wife in 1873. He live( 
New London for a few years. In 1883 he was married to I 
Araminta Bonestel. He died in Clarksfield June 6, 1899. 
page 482 this issue. 

Henry C. Halladay died June 10 1899, at his home at 
three miles south of Huron. The deceased was born in Gr< 
field, Huron county, Ohio, March 30, 1832, and when two y 
of age, with his parents removed to Huron. This town; 
has been his home continuously since, and he was one of the 
known men in this section. In all his dealings his name si 
fied all that is held by bond. He was a tiller of the soil, an( 
such, was very successful in gathering unto himself a hands< 
competence. He leaves a wile, three daughters and one son 

Mrs. Mary Hamilton was a daughter of Gurdon Woodv 
and Amy Savage and was born in Bellevue in 1833. She 
married to Rev. Moses Hamilton in 1860, and died at her h< 
in Beilevue June 16, 1899. Her husband was born in Irel 
in 1829 and came to Ohio in 1848. He died December 17, 1 

Clarissa Hand was a daughter of Robert Fletcher and 
born in Courtland county, N. Y., August 9, 1821. She cam 
Clarksfield with her parents in 1886. She was married to J 
G. Hand in 1841 and they settled in Wakeman township in li 
where she died October 30, 18S8. 

Henrietta Haskins was a daughter of Gershone and He 
Shelton, and was born in Oxford, Conn., April 24, 1818. 
came to Wakeman with her parents in 1827. In 1838 she 
married to Joseph Haskins. She died at her home in Wakei 
township June 16, 1899. 

John A. Hettle of Peru township, Huron county, Ohio, 
born March 20, 1816, in Germany, and died October 2, li 
He came to the Firelands in 1834, and married Noven 
15, 1847, Margaret Horn. The following children were b 



them: Anna M., John F. (died recently), Edward A. and 
ank A. He was a man of industry and thrift, and was a faith- 
l life-long member of the Catholic church. 

Lucinda Hildreth Hester was the eldest daughter of Benjamin 
ildreth and Susan Colgrove, and was born in Tompkins county, 
Y., August 21, 1816. In 1833 she came to the Firelands with 
r father's family. She had gained so good an education that 
e was engaged to teach school soon after she came here and 
e followed the occupation until her marriage. She was mar- 
id to John S. Hester in 1842, and they lived in Norwich town- 
ip until her death, November 6, 1899, having lived for fifty- 
ven years in the same home with her husband. She was a 
>man of blessed memory. 

Martin Hester 
(See Vol.10 0. S.,p. 39.) 

Mary Stough Hester! 
(See Vol. 6 0. S. p. 118.) 

Dr. G. S. Hill, son of Noah and Sukey Hill, was born in 
rlin, O., November 21, 1821, and died in Wilmington, O., 
>vember 5, 1899, in the closing days of his seventy-eighth year, 
i December 30, 1850, he was united in marriage to Louise 
rquhar at Wilmington, O., and to them were born five chil- 
tn — one, Flora Louise, dying in infancy ; the others — Emma 
Edwin R., Geo. F. and Bertha — surviving. The deceased 
is engaged in the practice of medicine for nearly sixty years. 


Norman A. Hine died December 12, 1898. Mr. Hine was 
born in Berlin township, Erie county, O., February 19, 1849 
and was the son of Lorenzo and Nancy Hine, who were among 1 
the early settlers of Berlin township. July 31, 1893, Mr. Hine 
married Miss Lizzie Fox of Milan, and settled near the old 
homestead where he was born. They had three children; one. 
Earl, died November 8, 1897 ; the other two, Wilber and a baby 
girl were left to the care of the young widow. The funeral was 
held at the house and was largely attended by relatives and 

Benjamin H. Hinkley was the youngest son of Joshua and 
Hannah Chase Hinkley, and was born in Tompkins county, N. 
Y., in December, 1810. In 1830 he was married to Maria Paine 
and they came to Bronson township in 1832 and settled on the 
farm where he lived the rest of his life. He died March 1, 1894. 

Peter Hohler of Bronson township, Huron Co., O., was bora 
July 12, 1815, at Baden, Germany, of John Hohler and wife; 
He died December 3, 1889. He was married in 1842 to Mar- 
garet Glassner, also a native of Germany, and moved to the 
Firelands in 1834. He was highly respected by his neighbors 
and held the office of township trustee, assessor and other offices 
of trust. He was a life long devoted member of the Catholic 

Mrs. Hannah M. Howe was born in Connecticut, but came 
to Huron county when a child. About fifty-eight years ago she 
was married to L. A. Howe, and they lived in Norwalk for many 
years, but moved to the Old State Road, where she died in De- 
cember, 1898, in her seventy-eighth year. 

Jason Lester Hudson was born in Huntington, Ross county,! 
Ohio, November, 3, 1834 ; died June 16, 1899. He was an old 
resident of Huron, staying at the Soldier's Home, and was 
instantly killed by the westbound Lake Shore train No. 141 at 
Slate Cut. 

Wilber F. Jefferson was a son of David Jefferson and was 
born in Berlin township February 2, 1839. His wife was Anna 
Arnet. He died at Norwalk in March, 1899. 

James Clark Judson was a son of Andrew Judson and Char- 
lotte Clark. He was born in Connecticut April 10, 1795, He 
married Betsy Burr, who was born December 16, 1798, and was 
a daughter of John Burr, who came to Florence in 1825. Mr. 
Judson came from Connecticut to Florence in 1825, alone, but 
brought his family the next year. He and his wife both died in 
1885. Their children who are living are Mrs. Nancy Butler, oij 
Norwalk; Albert W. Judson, of Sandusky; Mrs. Antoinette 
Bissell, of Clarksfield ; and Mrs. Elizabeth Spore, of Florence. 


Reuben June, son of Joseph and Sally June, was born at 
Stamford, Conn., December 19, 1825, and came with his parents 
to Hartland township in 1832. In 1848 he was married to 
Amanda Cole and their home was in New Loudon. He died at 
the Soldier's Home at Sandusky January 15, 1899. Served in 
the civil war for three years. Charles June, a brother of Reu- 
ben, was born in 1831 and came to the Firelands with the rest of 
the family. He was a soldier and died at the National Soldier's 
Home May 23, 1899. 

Eliza L. Knapp was a daughter of Joseph and Lottie Barker, 
who were pioneers of Fitchville township. She was born in 
Fitchville in 1841. In 1863 she was married to Edward S. 
Knapp, who died in 1888. She died in Fitchville December 29, 

William V. Latham died at his home, 816 Adams street, 
Sandusky, O., December 18, 1898. Mr. Latham was born in 
Connecticut in 1826. During the excitement over the gold dis- 
coveries in 1849 he decided to go to the gold fields of California. 
A series of misfortunes forced him to abandon his plans after 
reaching the Isthmus of Panama, and from there he went to New 
Orleans, and thence to Sandusky. His first business venture 
in Sandusky was that of manufacturing candy under the firm 
name of Pernutt & Latham. He soon left that business and 
engaged in pursuit of his trade, that of a tailor, and opened a 
merchant tailor establishment, which was continued from that 
time to 1895. Outside of his store business he became inter- 
ested in vineyards on the peninsula in 1863, and was interested 
in vineyards and peach orchards from that time to his death, and 
accumulated a considerable fortune therefrom. In 1856 he mar- 
ried Miss Mary Bouton, who, with two children, survives 

John M. Latimer was a son of John M. and Mary Latimer, 
and was born in Peru township March 10, 1838, He married 
Mary Ryerson. He was a member of the 101st O. V. I., and 
was promoted to major. In 1872 he was elected sheriff of Huron 
county and served two terms. He died at Norwalk in 1899. 

Calista Lawrence was a daughter of Josiah and Lucretia Todd, 
and was born in Tompkins county, N. Y., March 6, 1812. She 
was married to Timothy Lawrence in 1831, and came to Bronson 
in 1833. She died February 17, 1899. She was a lineal descend- 
ant of Jonathan Edwards, the noted divine of New Fftigland. 

George Lawrence was a son of Samuel Lawrence and Han- 
nah Dibble, and was born in Cayuga county, N. Y. , March 1, 
1805. In January, 1831, he married Rhodena Smith, and in 


September of the same year they moved to Bronson township 
He was a carpenter by trade and built many houses, barns, 
churches, etc. He built the Presbyterian church at Peru, in 
1835, and he was told that he could not raise it without a supply 
of whisky on hand; but he did, nevertheless, and the helpers 
were satisfied with the abundance of the lunch which his wife 
had prepared, in place of the whisky. His death occurred Jan- 
uary 7, 1899. 

Philander H. Lewis was born in Greenfield township, June 
28, 1829. In 1857 he went to Texas and engaged in school 
teaching. In 1863, when they began to impress men into the 
Confederate service he escaped to Mexico and reached New 
York. He enlisted in the 11th Ohio Cavalry and served at Ft. 
Laramie. In 1866 he moved to Juneau, Wis., and engaged in 
the practice of law. He died December 16, 1898. 

Mrs. Elvira (Hackett) McConnell was born in New York 
state in 1819 and came to Berlin township with her parents in 
1838. She was married to James McConnell in 1842 and they 
lived in New London. She died January 2, 1899. 

Roger McDonald was born in Scotland in 1820 and came to 
Huron in 1840. He lived there and in Peru for four years. In 
1844 he married Charlotte Parrott, of Ripley, and they went to 
Indiana. In 1849 he went to California, overland, and remained 
there eighteen months, and then returned to Ohio, settling in 
Bronson township. In 1885 he moved to Fairfield village and 
died there November 5, 1898. 

Judge John Mackey was born in Warren county, N. J., Tan- 
uary 7, 1818, and died in Sandusky, O., May 20, 1899, in" his 
eighty-second year. He was the seventh child of Lewis Mackey 
and wife Margaret Campbell. He lived with his parents where 
born till 1837, when the family migrated with horses and wagon 
over the mountains of Pennsylvania to Ohio and located on a 
farm just north of Milan, Erie county. He received a reason- 
able education in the common schools and at an academy in 
Milan, and after teaching for two winters he left the farm and 
entered the law office of Lucas S. Belcher at Sandusky. He was 
admitted to the bar at Fremont O., in 1846, and after a short 
time spent in establishing the first daily newspaper in Erie 
county, the Sandusky "Mirror," he devoted his entire time to 
the practice of the law, He was elected prosecuting attorney 
of Erie oounty for the terms from 1852 to 1856, and for the 
terms from 1860 to 1862. In April, 1880, he was appointed to 
the common pleas bench to fill the vacancy caused by the death 
of Cooper K. Watson, and in the following fall was elected to 
fill the unexpired term and thereafter to the full term of five 




a O 

HH (11 

13 Vol. 12 


years. After the expiration of his term of office, he returned 
to the practice of law and continued actively engaged therein 
until a short time prior to his death. In 1849 he married Vio- 
lette Mackey, who died December 7, 1893. They had five child- 
ren, one of whom died in infancy. Four survive him : E. B. 
Mackey of Chicago, 111., J. E- Mackey, M. D., Trinidad, Col., 
and Mary S. and Denver J. of Sandusky, O., the latter being 
engaged in the practice of law. Judge Mackey was a member 
of the Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

Paul B. Mead was born in Genoa, N. Y. February 5, 1816, 
and came to Norwalk in 1834. In 1835 he was married to Miss 
Mary Rule. In 1868 they went to Kent, O., where the wife 
died in 1895, and Mr. Mead in 1899. 

William G. Meade was a son of Alfred Meade and Betsy 
Bargar, and was born in Cayuga count} 7 , N. Y., September 3, 
1808. His grandfather Meade was o{ Scotch ancestry, and was a 
soldier in the Revolution, and his father fought in the war of 
1812, and was severely wounded at Eundy's Lane. In 1827 Mr. 
Meade was married to Hannah Smith, and in 1833 they came 
to Bronson township and settled on the farm which was their 
home for many years. He was a carpenter and built many 
houses. He was also a very successful farmer, and received the 
prize for the best kept farm in the county. He died in 1893 on 
the farm he had lived on for sixty years. 

Andrew Miller died Wednesday morning, December 21. 
1898, aged fifty eight years. Mr. Miller with his parents located 
in Sandusky O., in 1846, when six years old, and resided there 
during the remainder of his life, fifty-two years. A few years 
since he held the office of city street commissioner. A widow, 
one son and seven daughters survive him. 

Benjamin Moore, was a son of Henry and Susannah Moore, 
and was born in Union county, Pa., May 19, 1814. He came 
to the Firelands in 1836, and 1837 was married to Anna Weiker, 
of Bellevue. He died June 11, 1892 at his home in Bellevue. 

Rosanna Morehouse was a daughter of Chester King and 
Jemima Smith, who came from Hartford, Conn., to Florence in 
1819. She was born in Florence and married Edwin Fuller, 
and they lived in Norwalk. He died many years ago, and she 
was married to David E. Morehouse in 1884. She died at Nor- 
walk July 16, 1899. 

Adam Montgomery, a well known resident of Sandusky, 
died at his home, 1226 West Adams street, September 15, 1899, 
at 4:30 o'clock, aged 65 years. ■ Mr. Montgomery had lived in 
Sandusky many years, and was well and favorably known to all 


the old residents. He was a marble cutter by trade and con- 
ducted a shop on West Adams street. Three children— two sons 
and one daughter — survive. The funeral was held on Monday 
afternoon at 2 o'clock. 

Edward Mullowney another of the pioneers of Sandusky, has 
made the long journey from whence there is no return. Feb- 
ruary 10, 1899, Edward Mullowney, an aged and respected 
citizen, passed away. His death occurred at the family res- 
residence, No. 610 Decatur street. Mr. Mullowney had reached 
the advanced age of 77 years, and had lived in that city for 
over a half century. A wife, two sons and four daughters sur- 
vive him. 

Lucien Nobles was a son of Elisha and Roxana Nobles and 
was born in Oswego, N. Y., in 1818. In 1838 he married Marcia 
Handley. He came to the Firelands with his .parents and a 
large family of brothers and sisters. He died at his home in 
New London August 13, 1898. 

Marcia Nobles, a daughter of John and Roxana Handley, 
was born at Ridgeville, O., June 29, 1823. She was married to 
Lucien Nobles in 1838 and came to New London the same year. 
She died June 3, 1898. 

Margaret (Dewitt) Olcott was born in Cayuga county, N. Y., 
January 1, 1821. She was married to Benjamin Olcott in Bron- 
son in 1839. She died at her home in Bronson in 1899. 

Dr. Henry W. Owen was born in New York state December 
17, 1820, and moved with his parents to Fairfield township when 
a child. He studied medicine in Willoughby and after gradua- 
tion settled in Tiffin, then lived at Mt. Vernon and after serving 
as assistant surgeon during the war, he located at North Fairfield, 
where he lived until he was elected county auditor in 1874, when 
he moved to Norwalk. In 1890 he went to Detroit to live with 
his only surviving son and died there in January, 1899. 

Louisa Hildreth Owen was born in Ulysses, Tompkins county, 
N. Y. , October 3, 1820. She came with her parents to Fairfield 
township in 1833. She was married to Parvis W. Owen in 1837 
and they settled on a farm in New Haven township, where they 
lived for several years, then returned to the state of New York. 
In 1870 they came to Norwalk, where she died November 23, 

Martha Park was a daughter of Francis Pilgrim and Orpha 
Murray and was born in Bronson township October 13, 1835. 
She was married to Joseph Park in 1859 and lived in Bronson 
until her death on January 11, 1898. 


Welcome 0. Parker, father of R. T. Parker, and who had 
been making his home with the family of his son for some 
months, died suddenly of appoplexy Wednesday, December 6, 
1899. At 10 o'clock the same evening Mary Parker Williams, wife 
of Theodore Williams, Jr., and daughter of Mr. and Mrs. R. T. 
Parker, also passed away at her parent's home, and almost hand 
in hand with her aged grandfather she crossed the river to join 
that innumerable throng and to meet and be with the loved ones 
gone before. Welcome O. Parker was born at Burlington, Vt., 
June 12, 1821, and came to Ohio at an early age. He first re- 
sided at Vermillion. Later he had a dry goods store at San- 
dusky, whence he came to Norwalk in 1850 to engage in the 
same business. While a resident of this city he was elected to 
the Ohio state senate and served his constituents with ability. 
Later he moved to Toledo, where he resided until the death of 
his second wife, a few months ago, when he returned to Norwalk. 
He leaves two children, Mrs. J. S. Rodgers of Toledo, and R. 
T. Parker of Norwalk, at whose home he died. 

Frederick H. Patch was a son of Charles Lewis Patch and 
Catherine Husted, and was born in Danbury, Conn., in 1811. 
He came to Milan with his parents in 1832 and they moved to 
Clarksfield the next } 7 ear. He married Charlotte Lucas and lived 
in Clarksfield, Milan and Norwalk and finally moved to St. Louis, 
Mich., where he died November 19, 1898. 

Alvah M. Peck was a son of Ira and Celina Peck, and came 
to Clarksfield with his parents in 1818, when two years of age. He 
was married three times, his first two wives being Pamela and 
Fannie Post, of Hartland, and his last wife was from Rochester, 
O. He died at his home in Rochester, where he had lived many 
years, January 2, 1899. 

Rebecca Phillips was a daughter of Sheldon Barnes and was 
born in Wakeman October 22, 1827. She was married to Abram 
Phillips in 1852. She died at her home in Wakeman December 
29, 1898. 

Arthur Phinney, A. M., was born in Gorham, Maine, March 
28, 1837, and was the son of James Phinney and wife, Cynthia 
Mosier. He died at 4 a. m. Sunday, May 21, 1899. He entered 
Dartmouth College in Septembr, 1860, but at the close of the 
Freshman year he left that college and entered the class of 1864 
at Yale and was graduated with that class. After graduation he 
received an appointment in the scientific department of the San- 
itary Commission and in connection therewith was for a time lo- 
cated in New York city, Norfolk, Va., and Washington, D. C. 
In 1867 he located in Sandusky, where he was principal of the 


high school from the autumn of 1867 to the spring of 1870. 
He subsequently studied law in Sandusky and at Michigan Uni- 
versity, Ann Arbor, and was admitted to practice by the Supreme 
court at Columbus in December 1872, since which he has been 
engaged in the practice of law in Sandusky to the time of his 
last sickness and death. He married Sarah E. Bell July 15, 
1868. She died January 7, 1898, and he had failed in health 
from that time to his final sickness. On Tuesday, May 23, 1899, 
a meeting of the Erie County Bar was held, just prior to the 
funeral on that day, at which appreciative addresses were made, 
one of the speakers, Judge I. P. Pugsley of Toledo, having been 
his college classmate. Three daughters survive him, Nellie, 
Jessie and Helen Bell, the first named being the wife of Prof. 
Stephen F. Weston of Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio, the 
other two being single. He was a member of the Western Re- 
serve Society of the Sons of the American Revolution. 

Sarah E. Bell Phinney died January 7, 1898. She was the 
daughter of Stewart E. Bell and wife, Elvira Dibble, and was 
born May 20, 1840, in Sandusky, Ohio, where she resided during 
her entire life. She was married to Arthur Phinney July 15, 
1868; her husband and three daughters survived her. 

Jackson N. Pinney was born in Berlin township in 1835. 
He served during the Rebellion for four years and received injur- 
ies which caused his death in July, 1899. He had lived in Nor- 
walk for the last twenty years of his life. 

Amelia A. Place was born in Fairfield township March 17, 
1834, and lived there until 1871, when she was married to Alonzo 
Crawford and then moved to Nebraska, where she died April 6, 

Philo Porter was a son of Philo T. and Polly Porter and 
was born in New London township February 28, 1831. He left 
the Firelands in 1853 and died at his home in Wisconsin June 
17,1899. His parents were pioneers in New London, coming 
there in 1816. 

Daniel Prosser was born in Yates county, N. Y., and came 
to New London township with his parents in 1832. In 1842 he 
married Elizabeth Smith, of Clarksfield, and lived in New Eon- 
don until 1853, and then lived in Clarksfield until 1857, then 
went to Michigan. He died in Wakeman township March 11, 

Orrin Rice was born in New Haven township 1823. He was 
a resident of Huron most of his life. He moved to Cleveland 
a few years ago and died there January 19, 1899. 


John W. Roorback was a son of John Roorback and Ann 
Spooner. He was born in Orange county, Ind., January 12, 1824. 
He came to New London township with his parents in 1830. In 
1855 he married Rebecca J. McConnell, and in 1878 Eva Doty. 
He died January 14, 1896. 

Asher F. Rowland was a son of Oran Rowland and Betsy 
Husted. He was born in Clarksfield August 4, 1836. He 
moved to Norwalk in 1852 and died there in June, 1899. 

Loren W. Rumsey, son of George and Lowena Rumsey, w r as 
born at Jerusalem, Yates county N. Y. October 8, 1828. He 
came from Danbury, Conn., with his parents to New London 
township in 1837. In 1857 he married Mary White. He died 
in New London August 17, 1899. 

Rev. Stephen Sanders was born in Norwalk, Fairfield county, 
Conn., in 1789, was educated at Princeton, N. J.; received a call 
from S. Salem, Westchester, N. Y., as a candidate for the pulpit 
of the Presbyterian church at that place, where he preached eleven 
years, when ill health compelled him to withdraw from the 
ministry and he died at Milan O., in 1834. 

Esther Lockwood Sanders was born in 1797 at Norwalk, Conn. 
Married in 1829, Rev. Stephen Sanders and died at Milan, O., in 
1877. (Her picture appears in this issue with Mrs. Gibbs and 
Mrs. Benedict.) Harriett Lockwood Sanders was born in 1824 
at S. Salem, N. Y., in 1846 married Isaac O. Walker, in 1853 
removed to Buffalo N. Y. where Mr. Walker died in 1858. Leroy 
Wharton was born in 1826 at S. Salem, N. Y. ; married Eliza 
Skinner in 1856 at Milan O. Stephen L. Saunders born in 1832 
at S. S.,N. Y. ; married Theresa Kentz in 1866. LeGrand 
Saunders was born in 1834 at Milan, O., and married Mary Min- 
use in 1860. Children of Harriet and Isaac O. Walker : Henry 
Stephen, born at Milan O., May 28, 1847, John Jay, born in 1850 
at Milan O., William Isaac, born in 1852 at Milan O., Frederick 
Albert, born in 1854 in Buffalo, N. Y., Jennie Hetta, born in 1858 
at Milan O. Children of LeRoy Wharton Saunders : Harriet 
Lockwood, Mary Skinner, Elizabeth, Kittie, Stephen, Howard, 
Adelphia. Children of Stephen Saunders : May Allen, Guy. 
Child of LeGrand Saunders and Mary, his wife : Bell Saunders. 
Children of Henry S. and Fannie Walker: Mildred Elwell, 
Zetta Bell, Harriet Lockwood, Isaac Cushman, Henry Garfield, 
Fannie, Leslie. John Jay died in 1877. Child of William and 
Marion Walker : Miriam Dwight Walker. 

Eliza Savage was a daughter of Martin and Mary Hester 
and was born in Columbiana county, Ohio, January 7, 1812. 
She came to Bronson township with her parents in 1827. 


In 1832 she was married to James Wilson, who died in 1839. 
In 1853 she was married to Elisha Savage, who died in 1893. 
Her residence was in Bronson, until late years, when she lived 
in Berea, O. Her death occurred January 27, 1897. 

Experience Scott was a daughter of James Harvey Hand 
and was born in Cattaraugus count} 7 , N. Y., March 2, 1833. In 
1837 she came to Fitchville with her parents and to Clarksfield 
soon aiter. She was married to Giles C. Scott in 1849 and they 
lived in Clarksfield, where she died February 10, 1899. 

Mrs. Hannah Sears died at her home on the county line 
road Wednesday, September 6, 1899, and the funeral was held 
Friday at 2 o'clock, Rev. William Jones of St. Louis, former pas- 
tor of Berlin Heights, officiating. Hannah Hotchkiss was born 
in Durham, Green county, N. Y., November 1820; she was 
married to John Sears October 29, 1846. To them were born 
three children, Mrs. Libbie Crane, Grenville M., and Mrs. 
Gussie Tillinghast. Mr. and Mrs. Sears moved to Ohio in 1851, 
and made their home on the farm where she has ever since 

Eliza Selover was born in Tompkins county, N. Y., Febru- 
ary 9, 1819. In 1835 she came to Ripley township with her 
mother and seven brothers and sisters. In 1838 she was mar- 
ried to W. C. Adams and they settled on a farm in Greenfield 
township but moved to Fairfield township after a year. In 1895 
Mr. Adams died. Mrs. Adams died in Clyde, November 20, 

Rev. Silas D. Seymour was born in 1812 and came to the 
Firelands about 1825 and lived at Greenwich many years. He 
attended school at the Norwalk Seminary and afterwards entered 
the ministry, being admitted to the North Ohio Conference in 
1841 and remained in the active ministry for forty years. He 
was noted as a revivalist and converted many people. In 1882 
he moved to Texas where he preached until his death in 1898. 

David Smith came from the state of New York to Milan, 
then Avery, in 1808, but returned and came again in 1810 with 
his family. He helped build the block house. He settled on 
what was^known as the Parker farm, a short distance west of 
Milan, on the Monroeville road. He was a lieutenant of militia 
at the time of the war of 1812, and went with a few militiamen 
as a guard for several families who went to Mansfield after 
Hull's surrender. While they were in camp one night, a tree 
was felled for the oxen to browse on, and it fell into the camp 
and killed Mr. Smith's baby. After a time his family came back 
to Milan, but went from there to Spear's Corners, then Berlin, 
then to Spear's Corners again, then to Oxford township in 1834. 


He died in 1855. His first wife was Jerusha Lamb. He was 
married a second time to a widow T Sweet. The children by the 
first wife were Truman, Hiram, Newcomb, Jerusha, Louisa, 
Charlotte, Ann, David and Abner. The second wife had three 
children, James, Phebe and George. Abner and Ann live at 
Milan, Mich. ; Jerusha (Brooks) lives in Indiana ; Phebe (Root) 
lives in Milan, C. ; George lives at Clarksfield, O. The rest are 

William T. Smith was a son of Willis R. Smith and Ann 
Underhill and a grandson of Daniel Smith, of Westchester 
county, N. Y. He was born in Cayuga county, N. Y., June 17, 
1823, and came to Greenwich township with his parents in 1824. 
In 1855 he married Asenath Roscoe, of Greenwich. He died 
May 10, 1893. His family and ancestors were Quakers. 

Mrs. Mary Sprague died at her home in Florence, Sunday, 
January 8, 1899, aged 67 years. Mrs. Sprague was the widow 
of Solomon Sprague, and the mother of Collins and Ezra 
Sprague, who survive her, of Florence, O. 

John L. Spurrier was a son of Lot and Elizabeth Spurrier, 
and was born in Oswego county, N. Y., May 29, 1823. He 
came to Cleveland with his parents in 1835; to Abbott's Bridge, 
in Milan township, in 1836 and to Clarksfield in 1840. In 1846 
he married Althea Sexton, of Clarksfield, and they lived in 
Clarksfield until the death of Mr. Spurrier, April 29, 1899. 

Mrs. Delia Stapleton, one of the very few surviving pio- 
neers of Huron township, died Monday, January 23, 1899, at 
the home of her youngest child, Curtis Stapleton, in Mulberry, 
Mich., a small station about forty miles west of Toledo. Last 
fall Mrs. Stapleton went to visit her son in the above-named 
place, and while on this mission she died. Mrs. Stapleton was 
born in Huron township nearly 84 years ago, and her entire life 
has been spent in that vicinity. 

William K. Starr was a son of Smith Starr and Joanna 
Gray and was born in Clarksfield, January 16, 1825. His par- 
ents came to Clarksfield in 1817, when there was but one other 
family here. In 1848 he married Jane Arnold of Sandusky 
and always lived in Clarksfield. He died December 30, 1898. 

Hiram P. Starr was a son of Perez Starr and Nancy Randall. 
He was descended from Dr. Comfort Starr, who came from Eng- 
land to Boston soon after the settlement of that city. Perez 
and his brother, Thomas, came to Ohio in 1810, and Perez set- 
tled in Birmingham in 1817. Hiram was born there October 
10, 1822, and died there May 12, 1897. In 1856 he married 



Ann Jane Page, and after her death, Mrs. Charlotte Jenkins, 
in 1872. She died and he married Amaretta Norton. See " Fire- 
lands Pioneer," N. S. Vol. X, page 147. 

Jonathan Hoyt Sterling was a son of Nathaniel and Polly 
Sterling and was born in Fairfield county, Conn., August 8, 
1808. In 1836 he married Mary Ann Smith of Onandaga 
county, N. Y., and they came to Ripley township the same 
year, but moved to Fairfield township in 1839. He died June 
4, 1899, his wife having died in 1888. 

Abby N. S. Stewart. Abby Newell Simmons was born at 
Greenfield township, Huron county, Ohio, on January 20, 1832, 

Abby N. S. Stewart. 

and was the only daughter of Harlon K. and Anna Ide Sim- 
mons, early settlers and leading pioneers of that township. She 
was married to Gideon T. Stewart at Greenfield, on March 30, 
1857, and died at her residence in Norwalk, on February 12, 
1899, leaving her husband, four children — Charles H. Stewart of 


Cleveland, Mary Abby, Harlon L., and George S. Stewart of 
Norwalk — and her brother, Alonzo L. Simmons of Fairfield 
township, surviving her. 

The Cleveland L,eader correspondent then wrote of her : 

" Mrs. Stewart was one of the best known women in the 
city, and she was especially known because of her kindness to 
the poor. Her whole life was devoted to the cause of charity 
and good deeds. Her interest in the young people was very 
strong and by them she was greatly beloved." 

Another correspondent wrote : 

" Especially will she be missed and mourned by the young 
people. The writer's memory goes back to his boyhood days, 
and he recalls with pleasant thought the many happy hours 
spent as one of the neighbors' children, in the house over which 
this good mother presided with so much gentleness, so much 
cheerfulness, so much love and affection. There were always a 
pleasant smile and a kind word of welcome for every boy and 
girl who congregated there on play days, and a deep interest was 
taken in all their games. The latch string was always out for 
the young lads and misses, and they were given free rein to 
romp at will all over the spacious home from attic to basement 
and from larder to parlor. No noise or confusion could ruffle 
the gentleness of the mother of the household — she enjoyed it 
as much as did the children. Those who were wont to gather 
there on those occasions learned as children to love and admire 
her, and as men and women they have looked up to her with 
veneration. All who knew her will remember her with great 
reverence, but to the younger generation will her memory be 
most dear. " 

She was in her youth a good pianist and vocalist, very social 
in her home welcomes, fond of reading and intelligent in her 
studies and opinions. She took part in the famous Woman's 
Temperance Crusade of 1874, and was a founder of the Norwalk 
Christian Temperance Union, which until her death, held its 
meetings in her parlors. 

Sarah Diana Stiles was a daughter of David Tyler and Sally 
Post and was born at Hector N. Y., April 20, 1825 ; she came to 
Sandusky with her parents in 1833 and to Clarksfield the next 
year. In 1843 she was married to William Stiles, of Clarksfield 
and they lived in Clarksfield, where she died February 23, 1899. 
Her husband and two daughters, Mrs. Rose Adams and Mrs. 
Retta Spurrier, and a son, Vernon B., survive her. 

Maranda Cherry Strickland was born in Cambridge, Pa., in 
March, 1830, and came to Huron county with her parents in 


1834. In 1853 she was married to J. R. Strickland and they 
lived in Norwalk for thirty years. She died January 25, 1899. 

Dennis G. Taylor. Dennis G. Taylor died November 3, 1896, 
at the home of his son in Perkins township, Brie count}', Ohio. He 
was born May 4, 1821, on the farm where he died, residing on 
that same farm during his entire life. Mr. Taylor was a reliable 
man of good habits, and an industrious successful farmer. He 
was not a politician and never sought office, but he was honored 
by being elected a member ot the board ot county commission- 
ers, the office seeking him. The fact of his having resided 
during his entire existence on the same farm would indicate that 
his was a steady, unbroken, satisfactory pathway through life. 
Mr. Taylor was the youngest son of Jesse and Julia House Tay- 
lor, who, with thirteen others, emigrated from Glaslowburg, Con- 
necticut, to Ohio in 1815, and located in what is now known as 
Perkins township, Erie county. They came in large covered 
wagons, drawn by cattle, and were six weeks on the way. For 
part of the distance they had to cut their passage way through 
dense forests. His ancestors were among the earliest settlers of 
New England and were founders and patriots of the United 
States. Mr. Taylor married Phoebe A. Wright, September 
26, 1844, by Bishop Edward Thompson of the Methodist Epis- 
copal church. Their happy married life was extended beyond 
the golden wedding period of fifty years — she dying about six 
months thereafter, and he about two years. They had but one 
child, Truman B. Taylor, born February 1846. He is president: 
of the Citizens National Bank of Sandusky, but resides on the 
original farm in Perkins township located by his grandfather in 

Phoebe A. Wright Taylor. Phoebe A. Wright, wife of 
Dennis G. Taylor, and daughter of Benjamin B. and Nancy Wright 
was born in Galen township Wayne county, N. Y., November 
24, 1822. When a child her parents moved to Berlin township, 
Erie county, Ohio, and there she was married to Dennis G. Tay- 
lor, September 26, '1844, living with him thereafter over fifty 
years on the same farm in Perkins township, Erie county, till 
her death -March 3, 1895. She left a husband, one son and two 
grandchildren to mourn their loss. 

Hiram L. Tooker was born in Greenfield in 1821. He spent the 
whole of his life in Huron county, with the exception of a short 
time in the west; he died December 19, 1898. 

Ira S. Townsend was a son of Hosea Townsend, who came to 
Huron county in 1816, and Sophia Case, and was born in New 
London township June 14, 1831. In 1855 he married Mary 


M. Ward and after her death he married Ellen Ward. He died at 
his home in Fitchville September 12, 1893. 

Philip Upp was born in York county, Pa., July 25, 1820 and 
died in Plymouth, O., December 29, 1898. He came to Richmond 
county with his parents when a boy, and later to Richmond 
township, Huron county when that township was a forest. In 
1846 he married Hannah Croninger, and they lived in Richmond 
until 1878, when they moved to Plymouth. The wife and seven 
children remain. 

Alfred F. Washburn was born in Wakeman February, 1840, 
and died at his home in Oklahoma territory December 24, 1898. 

Mrs. Harriet Morse Webster was born in Norwalk, O., 
December 5, 1820. She was married to Rev. S. B. Webster in 
1837 and they lived in Norwalk for a number of years. She 
died at the home of her daughter in Northfield, Minn., August 
8, 1899. 

John F. Weeks, son of Thomas and Freelove Weeks, was 
born January 31, 1838, in Florence township, Erie county, Ohio. 
He grew to manhood on his father's farm, and in 1859 went to 
the state of Illinois, where he enlisted in Co. K, 36th Regiment, 111. 
Vol. Inft. in 1861. He served his country faithfully three years. 
After his discharge from the army he returned to Ohio and 
married Elizabeth Wright January 24, 1867, and in the spring 
of 1869 returned to the vicinity of Clyde, and in 1877 moved to 
the village of Clyde, where he resided until his death, which 
occurred at his home on west Vine street, Sunday, November 
13, 1898. He leaves a widow and two sons, Dr. Charles H. and 
Fred L-, sergeant in Co. I, Sixth Regiment, O. V. I. He also 
leaves five sisters and one brother. 

Marietta Weeks died at her home in Oberlin, O., Tuesday, 
June 6, 1899, aged 52 years. Miss Marietta, daughter of Thomas 
T. and Freelove Weeks, was born in Florence township, 
in what is known as the Forks of the River, November 22, 1846. 
About thirty years ago she went to Oberlin, which was her home 
until her death. There is now left of the family, Mrs. Sarah 
Daley of Norwalk, Mrs. Lydia Wright of New York, Mrs. 
Martha Weeks of Oberlin, Miss Emma Weeks of Waterbury, 
Conn., and Henry Weeks of Kipton. 

Thomas Thorn Weeks was a son of Benjamin K. Weeks and 
Sarah Thorn, and was born December 29, 1798. His first wife 
was Mary Hoag and his second wife was Mrs. Freelove Fowler. 
He came to Florence in 1837 and lived there until 1883. He 
died in 1885. His children living are Mrs. Sarah Dailey of 
Norwalk, Mrs. L,ydia Wright of New York, Henry H. Weeks of 


Kipton, O., Miss Mattie Weeks of Oberlin and Miss Emma 
Weeks of Waterbury, Conn. 

Elisha Whittlesey, lawyer, born in Washington, Conn., 
October 19, 1783, died in Washington, D. C, January 7, 1863. 
He was brought up on a farm, received an academical education, 
studied law, and on his admission to the bar began practice in 
Canfield, Ohio, in 1806. He served as an aid-de-camp during 
the war of 1812-15, was for sixteen years prosecuting attorney 
of his district, a member of the Ohio State House of Representa- 
tives in 1820-1, and served in Congress from Ohio by successive 
elections, from December 1, 1823, to July 9, 1838, when he 
resigned. He was one of the founders of the Whig party, was 
appointed by President Harrison in 1841 auditor of the post- 
office department, and by President Taylor in 1849 first comp- 
troller of the treasury, from which post he was removed by 
President Buchanan in 1857, but he was reappointed by Presi- 
dent Lincoln in 1861, and held the office till his death. In 1845 
he was appointed general agent and director of the Washington 
National Monument Association, and contributed greatly to the 
success of that enterprise. — [From Vol. 6, Appleton's Cyclopedia 
of American Biography, 495-6.] 

[An excellent steel engraving of Mr. Whittlesej^ with a cut 
of his Canfield residence and old law office, are given as the 
frontispiece to Vol. 5 O.S.June, 1864. See biography, p. 10. — Ed.] 

Captain Frederick A, Wildman. The subject of our sketch 
was a son of Ezra Wildman and grandson of Samuel Wildman of 
Danbury, Conn. His mother was Anne Hoyt, a daughter of Com- 
fort Hoyt, Jr., one of the original proprietors of the Firelands 
and an owner of a large portion of Clarksfield township. Mr. 
Wildman was born at Danbury, Conn., June 5, 1813. He came 
with his parents to Clarksfield in 1828. In 1835 he married 
Marietta Patch of Clarksfield, a daughter of Charles Lewis Patch. 
Two other couples were married under the same roof that night ; 
Alfred R. Seger and Cornelia Wildman and Warren Cooley and 
Amarillis Seger. Mr. Wildman was the last survivor of the six. 
He took an active part in the affairs of the township, and was 
elected coastable in 1836. In 1837 he was elected justice of the 
peace and served until 1851. He was the second postmaster in 
Clarksfield, being appointed in 1840, serving one year and again 
from 1846 until 1849. In 1851 he was elected county clerk and 
moved to Norwalk in January, 1852. He lived in Nor walk for 
six years, while he served as clerk and then returned to Clarks- 
field and bought the Abraham Gray farm and repaired the house. 
At the breaking out of the war he was among the first to enlist, be- 
ingthe oldest man to enlist in Huron county. He was made Cap- 



tain of Co. D, 55th O. V. I., a company containing many Clarks- 
field boys. He made a good officer. Later in the war he was 
provost marshal of the Ninth Congressional District, with head- 
quarters at Sandusky. In 1870 he moved to Salina, Kansas, and 
in 1876 to Norwalk again, where he lived a quiet life until his death 
on February 27, 1899. His wife died in 1891. Three sons, Judge 
S. A., Charles and F. H., and two daughters, Mrs. C. P. Wick- 
ham and Mrs. Capt. J. Q. Adams, survive him. His brother 

Captain Frederick A. Wildman. 

William died last year. One of his father's sisters was the wife of 
Captain Husted, another was the mother of Aaron and Levi Row- 
land and Mrs. Ezra Wood ; his wife's mother was a sister of Cap- 
tain Husted and his sister was the wife of Daniel Stone. 

At a meeting of the Huron county bar the following resolu- 
tions were adopted. 

Whereas, Frederick A. Wildman has been for many years 
the oldest member of the bar of Huron county and was our first 


clerk of court elected under the new constitution of Ohio ; and 
Whereas, He has been called from earth, after a long and 
useful life : 

Be it resolved by the members of the bar of Huron county 
that we recognize in the character of Captain Wildman the 
highest integrity, purity and kindness ; 

That by his life he has furnished a conspicuous example of 
good works, clean thinking and right living; 

That, while we deplore his loss, we rejoice that the evening 
of his life was spent surrounded by a devoted family and life- 
long friends ; 

That we extend to the family of Captain Wildman our deep- 
est sympathy in their bereavement ; 

And be it further Resolved, That these resolutions be pre- 
sented to the Court of Common Pleas of Huron county, to be 
spread upon its journal ; and that a copy hereof be presented to 
the family of our deceased brother. 

A. V. Andrews, 
T. H. Kellogg, 
Henry. S. Mitchell, 

John A. Wiliamson, 

G. Ray Craig, 


Resolutions on the death of Captain Wildman. 
Whereas, It has pleased the Great Commander to call our 
comrade, Capt. F. A. Wildman, to his eternal rest. 

Resolved. That in the death of Capt. Wildman, M. F. 
Wooster Post, G. A. R., has lost one of its valued members and 
a brave and chivalrous gentleman who responded to his coun- 
try's call and did his duty wherever he w 7 as sent or when called 
upon. We tender to his bereaved family our sincere sympathy 
in their great loss. 

Resolved, That the above be spread upon the records of M. F. 
Wooster Post, G. A. R. A. S. Gilson, 

R. K. Rood, 
Jas. H. Sprague, 

Born— To Mr. and Mrs. Theodore Williams, Jr., on Tues- 
day, December 5, 1899, a son. 

Died— On Wednesday evening, December 6, 1899, Mary L. 
Parker, wife of Theodore Williams. Jr. , of this city, aged 26 years. 

Mrs. Williams, who was the youngest daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Richard T. Parker, was born in May, 1873, and was married 



to Mr. Williams in September, 1898. A little more than one 
year of wedded happiness was theirs to enjoy when the light of 
their beautiful home was extinguished forever, save as it will be 
perpetuated in the little helpless and motherless babe who, with 
the young father, is left to suffer a terrible bereavement. Mrs. 
Williams died at the home of her parents on Corwin street just 
before ten o'clock in the evening. Her grandfather, W. O. 
Parker, passed suddenly away only a few hours before in the 
same house, and a double calamity has befallen the family, which 
added to the grief caused by the death only a few months pre- 
viously of Mrs. Williams' brother, Otis Parker, makes a heavy 
burden for those who are left, to carry. Besides the young hus- 
band and son, Mrs. Williams leaves her parents and one brother, 
Abram H. Parker, of this city, and a sister, Mrs. E. E. Wash- 
burn of New London, to mourn her sad death. 

Hon. John A. Williamson died April 19, 1899. Hon. John A. 
Williamson, son of James and Phebe Williamson, was born in 

Hon. John A. Williamson. 


New London township September 25, 1842. His youth was 
passed upon his father's farm, and at sixteen he entered Oberlin 
College. He then entered Yale College, from which he was grad- 
uated with honors in 1864. In 1865 he was graduated from the 
law department of the University of New York. In 1867 he 
became deputy clerk of courts in Huron county, which position 
he resigned in 1868 to enter a partnership in the practice of law 
with Hon. S. W. Tennant, of East Saginaw, Mich. In 1871 he 
returned to Norwalk, where he has since resided. In 1877 he 
was elected a member of the House of Representatives from 
Huron county and was re-elected in 1879. During this term he 
acted in the capacity of speaker firo tern. He was president of 
Huron County Banking Co., of Norwalk, and one of the city's 
most valued and respected citizens. 

Mary J. Wilson was a daughter of Joseph French and Jan- 
ette Selton, and was born in Wakeman township August 27, 1830. 
In 1852 she was married to Henry H. Wilson. She died at her 
home in Wakeman February 1, 1899. 

Chauncey Woodruff was a son of George H. Woodruff and 
Hannah Burghardt, and was born in Norwich township February 
20, 1820. He was a classmate ot Rutherford B. Hayes and 
Charles Foster in the old Norwalk Academy. He followed 
teaching for some time, then became a brick and stone mason. 
When the war with Mexico broke out he enlisted and was 
appointed Captain of Co. G, 3rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry, May 
28, 1846. He resigned October 24th of the same year. In 
November, 1861, he enlisted in Co. E, 64th O. V. I., and was pro- 
moted until he was adjutant of the regiment. In October, 1864 
he resigned. He married Miss Juliette E. Clary Sanders in 
1851 and settled in Peru township, where he died October 26, 
1898. He served as president of the Firelands Historical 
Society for some time. His wife and three children, Louis of 
Fairfield, Stanley of Painsville and Nellie C. Bacon of Wabash, 
Indiana, survive him. His father and grandfather, whose name 
was Chauncey, came to Norwich township in 1817 and the latter, 
with Wilder Lawrence, built the first house there. 

Dr. Amos Woodward was a son of Gurdon and Mary Wood- 
ward and a grandson of Abishai Woodward, of New London, 
Conn. He was born near Bellevue, O., February 11, 1824. In 
1851 he was married to Arabella Chapman, of Bellevue. He 
lived with his uncle, Amos Woodward, in Lyme township until 
1841, then studied medicine and practiced in Bellevue for a time, 
then became engaged in business, at which he was verv success- 
ful. He died in 1891. 


Gardiner Young was a son of Josiah Young and Mary 
Bardin, and was born in Windsor county, Vt., December 23, 
1815. In 1847 he was married to Martha Austin. He died at 
Monroeville on November 1898, having been a resident of 
Huron county for sixty- two years. 


N. S. Volume VIII, Page 146. Smith Fletcher, Clarksfield, 
should read " Wakeman." 

Page 150. Maria Reynolds Peck of Clarksfield, should 
read " Wakeman." 

Page 152. Mrs. Gilletty Terry. Add "She and her hus- 
band lived in Florence township at Terryville, which village 
took its name from him. Mr. Terry carried on the woolen 
factory at that place." 

N. S. Volume IX. Page 134. Edward Husted came to 
Clarksfield in 1817, instead of 1810. 

N. S. Volume XI. Page 344. Mark Moses, should read 
" Morse." 

Page 346. Lovina Percy was born before the family moved 
here from Trumbull county, O. Her sister, Bethiah, was the 
first white girl born in Clarksfield. 

Page 347. Mrs. Mary Peak, Mrs. S. M. Winson, should 
read Winton. 

N. S. Vol. XII. Page 505, fourth line from the bottom, for 
1891 read 1897. 

Life Members* 

The constitution of the Firelands Historical Society pro- 
vides for membership as follows : 

Art. 6. Any person may become a member of the Society 
by signing its Constitution and paying into its Treasury as an 
Annual member, the sum of one dollar yearly in advance, or, as 
a life member, the sum of five dollars in advance. All members 
shall be entitled to one copy each of all new publications of the 
Society issued during the first year of their membership, and 
by the payment of an additional five, making it ten dollars, in 
advance, a Life member will also be entitled to one copy of all 
numbers of The Firelands Pioneer published since Septem- 
ber, 1861, and at the time of such payment owned and for sale by 
the Society, and of all its future publications. Honorary Mem- 
bers of it may be elected by vote of the Society. 


Gardiner, John, Sloane, Rush R, 

Gallup, C. H. ; Taylor Truman B., 

Green, C. R., Williams, Theodore, 

Laning, J. F., Whitney, Calvin, 

Loomis, F. R., Wildmau, S. A, 

Stewart, G. T., Whiton, J. M. 
Schuyler, P. N., 

Note — Members will call in person on the Librarian for 
their volumes. No fund is provided for postage or express 
charges. ^ 

A Financial Appeal* 

The Firelands Historical Society now appeals to the Pio- 
neers of the Firelands, their sons and daughters, and to all 
friends of the Society for aid in its patriotic efforts to provide a 
place suitable ior the preservation of its large and valuable col- 
lection of historic and pre-historic relics and antiquities ; the 
purchase of books, periodicals, prints, maps, or other works to 
increase or improve its library, and especiall}- to continue the 
publication of the Firelands Pioneer, containing over three 
thousand pages of the history of this part of Ohio, treasured up 
through more than 42 years, and constantly enlarging the supply 
of its rich productions. 

The Society asks for this aid in the forms of life member- 
ships and donations from the living, and devises or bequests of 
testators. One of the daughters of an eminent Pioneer be- 
queathed to it the sum of five hundred dollars, known and hon- 
ored as The Catherine Gallup Fund, which from its accruing 
interest, has, for many years, been the main financial support of 
this publication. That this commendable example may be as 
well and wisely followed, the following forms of devise and 
bequest to the Society, to maintain and enlarge its noble mission, 
are here appended : 


I give and devise to The Firelands Historical Society, 
formed in the city of Norwalk, Ohio, in the year eighteen hun- 
dred and fifty-seven, and incorporated in the year eighteen 
hundred and eighty, and to its successors and assigns forever, 
all that piece or parcel of land situated, etc. 


I give and bequeath to The Firelands Historical Society, 
formed in the city of Norwalk, Ohio, in the year eighteen hun- 
dred and fifty-seven, and incorporated in the year eighteen 

hundred and eighty, the sum of dollars, to be applied to 

the uses and purposes of said Society. 



Pages consecutively numbered from New Series, Vol. X. 


Catherine Gallup Frontis. 

Lyme Congregational Church... 404 

Last Log House, Clarksfield 424 

Winslow Fay Store, Clarksfield. 424 

First Plat of Norwalk 494 

Addition to Plat of Norwalk 494 

Changed Plat of Norwalk 495 

Firelands Memorial Building... 504 

The America Eagle 528 

William A. Adams 530 

John Buckingham 536 

Sarah Ebert Buckingham 536 

Elizabeth Buckingham 537 

Clarissa Benedict Gallup 541 

David Gibbs 543 

David Gibbs' House 544 

Elizabeth Lockwood Gibbs 545 

Mary Lockwood Benedict 545 

Esther Lockwood Saunders 545 

Captain David Gibbs 551 

Martin Hester 553 

Mary Stough Hester 553 

Henry Lockwood. 557 

Amelia Chichester Lockwood... 557 

AbbyN. S.Stewart 565 

Captain F. A. Wildman 570 

Hon. John A. Williamson 572 


Officers of the Society 368 

Forty-Third Annual Meeting.... 369 

Director's Report 370 

Librarian's Report 371 

Biographer's Report 373 

Auditing Committee's Report.... 388 

Nominating Com. Report 388 

Election of Officers 388 

Treasurer's Report 372 Fall Meeting at Clarksfield 414 


Early Methodism in Ohio 390 

Lyme Congregational Church... 403 
Pioneer Men and Women of O.. 415 

The North West Territory 418 

History of Clarksfield Tp 425 

The Vermilli'n and Ashl'nd R. R 440 
Aged Members of the Society... 452 

Hero of Chicago Massacre 456 

An Ancient Letter 482 

Old Record— Norwalk P. E. 
Church 488 

Changed Town Plat of Norw'lk 493 
Firelands Memorial Building.... 505 
Columbus and Sandusky Turn- 
pike 509 

Early Authors of the Firelands.. 515 

The Post Boy's Song 519 

The Red Hunters 521 

Record— Norwalk Gas Well 522 

The New Republic 527 

The American Eagle 528 

Catholic Church History 529 

Arranged Alphabetically 530 to 574 

Life Members , 575 Financial Appeal , 576 



The rirelands Pioneer 1 













Father of Hon. Rush R. Sloane, who lived at Sandusky, 
Ohio, and attended first Court held in Huron County, at Camp 
Avery, August, 1815. 



The Firelands Pioneer 










HON. RUSH R. SLOANE, President Sandusky. 

HON. S. A. WILDMAN, ist Vice President. Norwalk. 

A. J. BARNEY, 26. Vice President Milan. 

DR. A. SHELDON, Recording Secretary Norwalk. 

MRS. C. W. BOALT, Corresponding Secretary Norwalk. 

C. W. MANAHAN, Treasurer Norwalk. 

HON. C. H. GALLUP, Librarian Norwalk. 

DR. F. E. WEEKS, Biographer Huron Co Clarksfield. 

JOHN McKELVEY, Biographer Erie Co Sandusky. 











Firelands Historical Society 


JUNE 27, 1900, 10 A. M. 


Hon. Rush R. Sloane called the meeting to order. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Pioneers — The time has now 
arrived for the convening of the annual meeting of the Firelands 
Historical Society, and in accordance with the time-honored ob- 
servance, I will call upon the Rev. Dr. Broadhurst to invoke the 
blessing of Almighty God upon our proceedings. 

Prayer by Rev. Dr. Broadhurst. 

A motion was then made by Mr. Gallup to elect Miss Bid- 
well as stenographer and secretary pro tern of the Firelands His- 
torical Society. Seconded by Mr. Sheldon. Motion adopted. 

Our former President, Hon. G. T. Stewart, being present, 
was asked by President Sloane to take a seat with him upon the 
platform, which he did. 

The President then addressed the Society, as follows: 




Fellow Pioneers; Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is a healthy and wholesome impulse which prompts us to 
look back from an anniversary like ours today, to the character 
and work of those from whose life our own has sprung, and the 
fruit of whose labor we gratefully partake. 

The forty-fourth annual meeting of this memorable society 
has returned under most pleasant and encouraging auspices, and 
the country at large, and the citizens of the Firelands especially, 
may be congratulated upon the beginning, the progress and the 
present condition of this honored association. Its claims, not only 
upon the descendants of the Pioneers of the Firelands, but upon 
every thoughtful citizen who desires his children to understand 
correctly the history and antecedents and principles of their 
country, are very great. This society sprung into existence at 
the last period of time that would give us the accomplished and 
living experts who could correctly record for us and our posterity 
how our ancestors journeyed into this wilderness and purchased 
the country and made homes in the then far west, regardless of a 
savage foe, and of the wants, the hardships and perils of the 
wilderness. They were the Pioneers whose deeds we would per- 
petuate through every age, whose industry first disturbed the 
stillness of the forest and opened its gloom to the rays of the sun. 
Their enterprise and intelligence laid deep the foundations of our 
state. All the incidents of the first settlement of these Firelands 
are never without interest because of the tremendous and dan- 
gerous obstacles overcome. Around them cluster interesting re- 
lations and associations, which, however pleasing, are yet shad- 
owed with melancholy interest; the faces of many Pioneers, men 
and women, whose earnest efforts for the promotion of this so- 
ciety were constant and tireless, are seen no more at these meet- 
ings ; they have gone to their reward ; and whilst we rejoice with 
you in the growth and present hopeful condition of our society and 
its surroundings, and offer our warmest aspirations for its future 
success, growth and prosperity, we can but look back through the 


long vista of the past ; we cannot forget the many old and kindly 
remembrances which sprung up before us in their original fresh- 
ness as we think of the absent ones whose places we are trying 
to fill. It is fit and proper on this sacred spot, consecrated to the 
worship of the living God, in entering upon the proceedings and 
duties of the day, that we give a parting tear and a sigh of fond 
regret for the Pioneers gone before — our revered and cherished 
friends. In the old world, self-rule, unembarrassed by feudal 
habits of life, has not been seen. In the Atlantic states this feudal 
spirit was found before the Revolution, and, to an extent, exists 
to this day, and all over the south the servile element prevented 
the full- operation of the principle of independence. 

There is no doubt that in Ohio, which was part of the terri- 
tory included under the grand Ordinance of 1787, when after- 
wards she became a state, was the truest democracy which had 
up to that time existed, and nowhere else had self-rule been seen 
until our state was settled. 

Conspicuous among these men were Pioneers of the Western 
Reserve and of the Fir elands. 

They have given us in the main a liberal and democratic com- 
munity and laws enacted by the representatives of the people. 
One exception only can be made, and this of a character so un- 
fair, and in the light of the intelligence of the present day, so un- 
just, that I cannot refrain from briefly alluding to it. In the 
Ohio state constitution of 1802, as well as the constitution of 
1 85 1, the elective franchise was confined to "White Male Inhab- 
itants" and to "White Male Citizens," thus excluding from its 
privilege all Indians and black persons and the female sex. Later, 
on the thirtieth day of March, 1870, this disability was removed 
so far as the constitution of the United States could effect this 
object, by "the fifteenth article of the constitution in these words: 
"The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not 
be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any state, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." 

Under this article, Blacks and Indians may vote, but not 
women. By the constitution of the United States, they are citi- 
zens. And yet, under the constitution of Ohio, they are excluded, 
because of the word "male," and today our state, of which we 

586 TH^ firelands pioneer 

are so proud, presents the sorry spectacle to the world of exclud- 
ing from the right to vote, with paupers, and insane, and persons 
convicted of infamous crime, "women" also. Now, I ask, is it 
not time to relieve the women of Ohio from the disgrace of this 
restriction? Do they not deserve it? Is there a man, born on 
the Firelands, who will not do all he can to obliterate this foul 
blot from our state's escutcheon ? We all honor these hardy men, 
the heroic Pioneers of the Firelands. Why then fail to remem- 
ber the fearful struggles of those noble Pioneer women of the 
Firelands? Those mothers were always doing something. They 
cooked and baked, they knit the socks, they spun and wove and 
cut and made the garments, they dipped the candles and fried the 
lard. Without them what would the Pioneers have done ? With- 
out them the forests of the Firelands would never have been 
cleared, the children would never have been reared and educated, 
the homes would never have been perpetuated. Women taught 
not only the first day school but also the first Sunday school upon 
the Firelands. 

They shared in every respect and in common with their hus- 
bands and fathers, their dangers, their privations and their hard- 

Yes, while our ancestors were swinging with their good right 
arm that resistless implement and forerunner of civilization, the 
axe, and to which the vast forests resounded, the wives of those 
hardy Pioneers were as usefully and as laboriously engaged. 

It was an assistance necessary then to those brave adven- 
turers and without which co-operation the new home, in the new 
country, would never have bloomed and blossomed as the rose. 

Yes, fellow Pioneers, yes, ladies and gentlemen, the growth, 
the progress, the expansion and the present greatness of our 
"Firelands" in all that constitutes beauty, refinement, cultivation, 
morality, education and religious sentiment, is due as much to our 
Pioneer women, as to our Pioneer men. And as in those early 
days we have seen what work women daily and hourly did, I will 
ask where is the husband who can truthfully say that his wife is 
not better than he? Where is the one who can spare her at his 
board, at his hearth, by the cradle of his child, at the altar of his 
devotions ? On his return from the day's fatigue, when she wel- 


comes him with her attention and affection? And who shall say 
that woman's duty in the daily walks of life is not equal to man's ? 
Could woman's aid and tender hand in the Civil War have been 
spared? And does this not imply equality and equal responsi- 
bility? And has woman not won the enfranchisement she de- 
sires? What a blessing to our nation and the world did our 
American women have the right of suffrage. 

The virtue necessary, pre-eminently to establish, preserve 
and perpetuate a free government, is justice. You must poise 
the scales evenly and enlarge the scope of equality and liberty as 
the safety and welfare of the community or state will allow. 

Whenever possible all disturbing causes should be removed. 
This is more especially true in a republic than in any other form 
of government. 

And when duty and right and interest all demand the grant- 
ing of this concession and the abolition of this restriction, which 
so many feel is a relic of barbarism, why should it not be done ? 

Virtue demands it, and all happiness is founded upon virtue, 
and in the language of the poet, I may say: 

"Know thou this truth (enough for a man to know) 
Virtue alone is happiness below." 

In enfranchising women we promote the good and the happi- 
ness of mankind and the well-being of the human race. 

Within little more than fifty years of time the doors of a col- 
lege, upon the border, if not upon the Firelands, was thrown open 
to woman, the first one in this nation, now the claims of female 
education is acknowledged everywhere. Without contrasting 
the intellectual woman of today with woman as she was fifty 
years ago, or her influence, her duties, or the demands upon her 
and her responsibilities, let me read a stanza of Milton upon Eve 
in the Garden of Eden, which shows old conditions correctly, 
better than any words of mine : 

"My author and disposer, what thou bidd'st, 
Unargued I obey ; so God ordained. 
God is thy law, thou mine; to know no more 
Is woman's happiest knowledge and her praise." 


But now the world is waking up to the condition of women. 
« * * * There is 
An hum of mighty changes ! Hope takes cheer ; 
And expectation stands on tiptoe ; 'tis 
A time of promise." 

That this enfranchisement has not been heretofore granted in 
Ohio has been owing to prejudices arising out of the past errors 
and customs of society, and none that have swayed an enlight- 
ened people have ever been equally irrational. The history of 
mankind, in all ages, presents the strange anomaly of adhering 
to error with great tenacity. Every age presents the spectacle of 
great minds looming up like brilliant lights in the intellectual 
firmament, far in advance of the era of their existence. 

When new truths are heralded, and great reforms projected, 
they advance by slow gradations, and accomplish results only 
when the barriers are broken down which obstruct their way. 

The public mind, adverse naturally to change, revolts at bald 
innovations, and opposes the project of reform, without stopping 
to enquire, What is right? What is duty? What is interest? It 
was this same spirit that doomed the immortal Galileo to chains 
and the dungeon. The great Hervey, for announcing his dis- 
covery of the circulation of the blood, was called a visionary be- 
yond the pale of science. And in the age of Louis XIV, a citi- 
zen of France who first sugggested the idea that steam might be 
employed as a propulsive power, was incarcerated as insane, and 
ended a miserable existence with lunatics. 

Such instances in the past demonstrate that ignorance is the 
enemy which freedom has the most cause to fear; it may make 
slaves, but poor citizens. 

It is the theory of our government to have equality in the 
elective franchise, and this equality based upon education and in- 
telligence, will tend greatly to perpetuate our nation. 

The Firelands Historical Society has always favored liberty 
and equality; its membership has been open to women, as well 
as men. The first resolution of thanks, for donations received 
by our society and published in The Firelands Pioneer, was to 
a woman. The first bequest of money, as generous as her traits 


of character were noble, was made by a woman. In no section of 
the United States, more efficiently was human slavery opposed, 
than upon the sacred precincts of the Firelands; and two of its 
officers were mulcted in large damages by their vehement opposi- 
tion to the crime. This society acts and decides, not upon what 
is popular, or politic, but upon what is right. In the address of 
my honored friend and predecessor in office, on the seventh of 
September, 1898, he said, "More than twelve millions of adult 
citizens, in all other respects, well qualified, are denied the right 
to help govern us, for no reason, under the sun, or moon, or stars, 
but because they happen to be of the wrong sex. 

Since our last annual meeting our society has been made the 
residuary legatee of quite an amount, which, in all, it is my be- 
lief will realize not far from five thousand dollars, under the will 
of the late Michael Lipsett, of Sandusky, in Erie county. I 
have known Mr. Lipsett for more than fifty-five years, a molder 
T)y trade, industrious and of good habits. Mr. Eipsett became 
a member of our society at Sandusky, September 9, 1859, at a 
meeting of the society in that city. I call attention to the devise, 
as being worthy of consideration and action at this time. Im- 
mediately following Mr. Eipsett's decease, I convened our Board 
of Directors and all proper steps have been taken to protect the 
society's interest in the matter. Yet I feel that a special resolution 
upon the subject is proper at this annual meeting. 

In May last our society received an invitation from the Rich- 
land County Historical Society to attend their annual meeting at 
Mansfield on June 2nd of this month. Quite a number attended 
from Huron and Erie counties, our Board of Directors having ac- 
cepted the invitation in behalf of our society, and requesting your 
President to deliver an address upon the occasion in behalf of 
our society? This address will be furnished the Publishing Com- 
mittee for insertion in the next number of the Firelands Pioneer. 
The postponement of the annual meeting of the society, from the 
third to the fourth Wednesday of June, was occasioned by the 
kindness and thoughtful consideration of our Board of Directors 
to your President, who had received from the "Republican 
National Committee" the following letter: 


"Washington, D. C, June 2, 1900. 
"Hon. Rush R. Sloane, Sandusky, Ohio. 

"Dear Sir: The Republican National Committee presents its 
compliments and congratulations to you as one of the few Re- 
publicans, now living, who participated in the Republican Con- 
ventions of 1856 at Pittsburg and Philadelphia; and on behalf of 
the delegates to the coming Republican National Convention, ex- 
tends to you and to your surviving associates in those historic 
events, a cordial invitation to be present at, and occupy a seat 
upon the platform of, the convention which meets on the nine- 
teenth day of June, 1900, in the city of Philadelphia. 

"Nearly half a century has elapsed since you participated in 
laying the foundation of the Republican party, you have witnessed 
its magnificent growth, from a popular vote of 1,341,264, and 114 
electoral votes cast for Fremont in 1856, to a popular vote of 
7,104,779 and 271 electoral votes for McKinley in 1896; and, 
therefore, the Republicans of to-day, profoundly appreciating the 
work of yourself and other Pioneers of our party, will feel hon- 
ored by your distinguished presence, and we assure you a most 
cordial welcome. 

"With considerations of high esteem, 
Very truly youra, 

M. A. Hanna, 

"Charts L. Dick, Chairman. 


It was my good fortune and honor to be of the number from 
Ohio who assisted in organizing the Republican party, two of 
whom have been members of this society, Hon. F. D. Parish and 
myself. Others attending from our state whose names occur to 
me, were J. R. Giddings, Thomas Bolten, John A. Foote, Alfred 
P. Stone, William H. Gibson, Jacob BrinkerhofF, Wm. Dennison, 
James M. Ashley, Daniel R. Tilden, R. P. Spaulding, George H, 
Frey, Rcelif Brinkerhoff, ex-Governor Edgerton, of whom only 
the three last named and myself, survive, and were all guests at 


the convention at Philadelphia June 19, 20, and 21, 1900, occupy- 
ing reserved chairs upon the platform. 

On the twenty-second day of February, 1856, with the threat- 
ening rumbling of the Northern thunder clouds, sounding omi- 
nously against the lightning flashes, that foretold a storm from the 
south, a little band of men, firm, earnest, honest, sincere, gathered 
in old Lafayette Hall in Pittsburg to forestall the threatening 
danger, and to do all that God gave man the power to do, to ward 
off the coming of the inevitable. 

There was no Republican party then, these men were mostly 
Whigs, and they knew that their party's usefulness was ended. 
They defiantly flung the gauntlet into the arena. There must he 
no more extension of slavery. 

Forty-four years ago, out of the strife and dissension, out 
of the confusion and chaos, the Republican party was born, with 
the dying gasps of its parent, the Whig, still sounding in its ears. 

At some future time I hope to write as a part of the History 
of the Firelands, the causes leading to the organization in 1856 
of the Republican party. * 

During the year I have received and answered thirty-seven 
letters, addressed to me as President of this society. Quite a 
large number of these were from editors and publishers and in- 
dividuals, not residents of Ohio, some inquiring as to former 

*In a Sandusky special, printed in The r Blade of June 5, referring 
to Hon. Rush R. Sloane as one of the surviving delegates to the 
National Republican convention of 1856, it was stated that f Judge 
Sloane "has been elected county probate judge and mayor of the city 
at different times, running upon the Democratic ticket." This 'state- 
ment does injustice to the Judge. The only office he ever held as the 
nominee of the Democratic party was in 1878, when he was elected 
mayor of Sandusky. 

Judge Sloane 's political career has been a long one. He served as 
probate judge of Erie county from 1857 to 1861, when he resigned to 
accept a place as general agent of the postoffice department. He was 
chairman of the Ohio Republican state central committee in 1864-65-66, 
and made the keynote speech in the state convention in the latter year. 
He was active and influential in Republican councils in the state until 
1872, when he supported his intimate personal friend, Horace Greeley, 
for the Presidency. 


residents upon the Firelands. Seven, however, were direct re- 
quests for information upon early historical facts. To all of these 
I have devoted a good deal of attention, and, to three, have made 
answer as President of The Firelands Historical Society, estab- 
lishing locality and date beyond cavil, as acknowledged by all who 
have examined these subjects. 

First. The route through the Firelands of Major Rogers 
and his men in 1760, after taking possession of Detroit from the 

Second. The location of old "Fort Sandusky" of 1750, and 
also of the Wyandotte town of "Sunyeandeand" and also the 
"Spring" described in Major Rogers' journal, supposed by Root 
in his address before our society, and Taylor, in his History of 
Ohio, to be at points, miles distant ; and, 

Third. The exact date when Ohio became a state. 

The papers will be published in the next volume of the 
Firelands Pioneer. 

In the language of another, "Much of the world has con- 
tributed to the history of the Firelands. The Firelands is con- 
tributing to the history of the world." 

The President then read a letter from Hon. Clark Wag- 
goner, one of the veteran pioneer editors of the Firelands. 

Mr. Sheldon moved to dispense with the reading of the min- 
utes of the last meeting. Carried. 

Report of Treasurer, as follows : , 

treasurer's report. 
1899. Cr. Dr. 

Juue 21 To balance invested in H. S. 

& L. Co $559 63 

Aug. 20 To cash from librarian 50 00 

Oct. 1 To dividend from H. S. & L. Co. 16 48 

Oct. 30 To L. F. Gallup, Memorial 

Building subscription , 300 00 

Oct. 31 To G. T. Stewart, Memorial 

Building subscription 200 00 


1899 Cr. Dr. 

Nov. 14 By . perpetual lease Memorial 

Building... $500 00 

Jan. 26 By Memorial Building insurance 
premium $8.00, stenographer, 

$5.00 $ 13 00 

Apr. 1 To dividend from H. S. & L. Co. 15 31 

June 25 To cash from librarian 36 00 

June25 By printing Vol. 12 142 55 

$655 55 $1,177 42 
655 55 

June 27 By balance invested in H. S. & 

Iv. Co $521 87 


Uncollected subscription $800 00 

J. M. Whiton, - C. W. Manahan, Treasurer. 

D. KiES, 

Auditing Committee. 

librarian's report. 
1899 Cr. Dr. . 

June 21 To cash on hand $ 56 70 

June 21 By bill for 73 dinners, @ 25c... $ 18 25 . 

July 12 By postage stamps. 50 

July 20 By cash to C. W. Manahan, 

Treasurer 50 00 

Aug. 23 By paid to Bertha Iy. Godfrey, 

Stenographer 6 00 

Nov. 15 By paid revenue stamp on lease 1 00 

Nov. 15" By paid copy of lease.. 25 

Nov. 22 By paid recording lease 150 

Dec. 13 By paid for half tone cuts 2150 


Jan. 5 By paid for half tone cuts 16 00 

Jan. 5 To rec'd from individuals on 

halftone cuts 20 00 


librarian's report — Concluded. 
1899 Cr. Dr. 

Feb. 3 By paid labor on Memorial 

Building 3 33 

Mar. 16 By paid U. S. express charges... 45 

June 16 By paid for labor and material 

on Memorial Building 12 15 

June 20 To rec'd Pioneers sold during the 

year 64 92 

June 28 By paid for carpenter work 6 25 

June 23 By paid for glass, etc 1 78 

June 25 By paid for printing programs.. 2 00 

June 25 By paid to C. W. Manahan 36 00 

June 27 To rec'd on sale of memberships 76 00 

$ 176 96 $217 62 

176 96 

June 27 Balance $40 m 

J. M. Whiton, C. H. Gallup, Librarian. 

D. Kies, 

Auditing Committee. 

Committee on Nomination of Officers for the ensuing year 
was, on motion, then appointed by President Sloane, as follows: 
Dr. Sheldon, Mr. Mains, Barnard, Bostwick, and Barnum. 

Exhibition of relics by Mr. Gallup, consisting of the Delano 
Coat of Arms. A granite mill-stone that was picked up on 
Kelly's Island. It has been used by Indians for grinding pig- 
ments they used to paint themselves with. Presented by Dr. 

While repairing our library, workmen found a book in the 
walls, entitled "The Shipwreck," by William Faulconer, pub- 
lished in 1811. 

Another book found while working on the library is a copy 
of "Cicero's Orations," published in 1740. 

The will of Michael L,ipsett, of Plymouth, was read, contain- 
ing bequests to the Firelands Historical Society and is as follows : 



'"' : :'.:.'. 





IP v: , ;: ' : ' ; :::: ''' 


lt*tC III 




For more than 55 years a resident of Sandusky, and who made 
this society by his will, residuary Legatee for about six thousand 
dollars. An expert taxidermist. He is here represented with some of 
his pets. 


In the name of the benevolent Father of All, I, Michael I^ip- 
sett, being of sound mind and memory, do make and publish this 
my last will and testament, hereby revoking and annulling any 
and all former wills whatsoever by me made. 

Item First. I desire all my just debts and funeral expenses 
to be paid as soon as possible after my decease. 

Item Second. I give and bequeath to each of the children 
of my brother, Thomas Lipsett, of Goshen, Elkhart County, In- 
diana, as follows : to Arthur Eugene Eipsett, Thomas Carl Eip- 
sett, Elizabeth May Lipsett, and Abby Florence Eipsett, six hun- 
dred dollars each to be paid to them respectively one year after 
arriving at majority, provided that the share of Arthur Eugene 
Eipsett shall not be paid to him until two years after he shall ar- 
rive at his majority; Provided, further, that should any of the per- 



sons named in this item die without issue before my death, the 
share of such shall be paid to the others named therein, they to 
share the same alike. 

Item Third. I give and bequeath to Mary E. Millard, 
daughter of William and Jane Lidel, deceased, Mary E. Millard 
being a daughter of my sister Jane Lidel, deceased, three hun- 
dred dollars, to be paid as soon as possible after my decease. 

Item Fourth. I give and bequeath to the Library Building 
Fund Association of Sandusky, Ohio, for the benefit and increase 
of the building fund of said association, one thousand dollars, to 
be paid to the trustees of said association as soon as possible after 
my death. 

Item Fifth. The proceeds of all the rest and residue of my 
property, real and personal and mixed, which remains after pay- 
ment of my debts, the above named legacies and the expenses of 
administration and of cutting my name into the monument erected 
in the cemetery at Plymouth, Ohio, and of erecting a suitable 
stone at the head of my grave in my lot in said cemetery, I do 
give and bequeath to The Firelands Historical Society at Nor- 
walk, Huron County, Ohio, the same to be used in the erection 
of a suitable fire-proof building for the protection of the archives 
of the said society. 

I hereby nominate and appoint A. W. Prout, of Sandusky, 
Erie County, Ohio, to be the executor of this last will and testa- 

In witness whereof I have hereunto' set my hand this twenty- 
fifth day of April, in the year 1896. 

MlCHAKly Lipsett 

Signed and acknowledged by Michael Lipsett as and for his 
last will and testament in our presence and subscribed and at- 
tested by us as witnesses in his presence and at his request. 

I. N. Mitchkix 
R. H. Nimmons 

Whereas, I, Michael Lipsett, on the 25th day of April, 1896, 
made my last will and testament of that day, do hereby declare 
the following to be a codicil to> the same in 



Item Second. Abby Florence Lipsett, daughter of my 
brother, Thomas Lipsett, she having died, I hereby revoke said 
bequest and no part of my estate shall go to her heirs-at-law. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this nine- 
teenth (19th) day of January in the year 1898. 

Michaei, LiPSETT. 

Signed and acknowledged by said Michael Lipsett as a cod- 
icil to his will in our presence and signed by us in his presence 
this 19th day of January, 1898. 


R. H. Nimmons. 

Whereas, I, Michael Iyipsett, on the 25th day of April, 1896, 
made my last will and testament of that day, the following to be 
a codicil to the same in 

Item Second (2d). Arthur Eugene Lipsett, son of Thomas 
Lipsett, he having died September 26, 1899, on account of his 
death I hereby revoke said bequest and no part of my estate shall 
go to his heirs-at-law. The six hundred dollars ($600.00) be- 
queathed to him in my will I hereby bequeath to the Library 
Building Fund Association of Sandusky, Erie county, Ohio, for 
the benefit and increase of the building fund of said association. 
This six hundred dollars being in addition to the one thousand 
dollars in item fourth of my will. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this second 
day of October, 1899. 

Michaeiv Lipsett. 

Signed and acknowledged by said Michael Lipsett as a cod- 
icil to his will in our presence and signed by us in his presence 
this second (2d) day of October, 1899. 

I. N. MlTCHEU,, 

R. H. Nimmons. 

A baby dress worn by Francis Lockwood, of Milan, Ohio, in 
18 1 5, made in New York, was exhibited. Mrs. Lockwood pre- 
sented to the society a copy of "Spectator," published in 1810; 


an old copy of the "Psalms," printed in 1814. Also' a book en- 
titled "Fox's Historical Work," a history of the reign of James II. 
Published in 1808. 

A German Bible was also exhibited. 

Dr. Sheldon presented a bouquet of roses from the garden of 
Elliott Stone, of Milan, Ohio. 

The Committee on Nomination of Officers reported as fol- 
lows : The present officers are again selected for the coming year, 
namely : 

President, Hon. Rush R. Sloane ; First Vice President, Judge 
S. A. Wildman ; Second Vice President, A. J. Barney ; Recording 
Secretary, Dr. A. Sheldon ; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. F. H. 
Boalt ; Treasurer, C. W. Manahan ; Librarian, Hon. C. H. Gallup ; 
Biographer, Huron County, Dr. F. S. Weeks ; Biographer, Erie 
County, John McKelvey. 

Board of Directors and Trustees — J. M. Whiton, C. PI. Gal- 
lup, I. M. Gillett, R. M. Lockwood, D. D. Benedict. 

Publishing Committee — Hon. C. H. Gallup, Hon. L. C. Lay- 
lin, Hon. J. F. Laning. 

Moved by Mr. Stewart that the report be adopted. Carried. 

Dr. Weeks, of Clarksfield, presented an old book to the so- 
ciety entitled "Travels through the Western Country in the Sum- 
mer of 1816." He read a few selections from the book and pre- 
sented it to the society. 

The President addressed the society urging a full attendance 
at the next meeting in October at Sandusky. 

He spoke of the responsibilities that rested upon Mr. Lin- 
coln when he became President of the United States ; of the ter- 
rible crisis that came upon him, culminating in civil war. The 
Treasury was empty. We were short of money to carry on the 
war. Mr. Chase tried to raise money for this purpose. He went 
to New York to raise fifty million dollars ($50,000,000.00), but 
did not have good success. He finds a man who> made a direct 
appeal to the people. This was Jay Cooke, who raised, to carry 
on the war, the enormous sum of two billion dollars by means of 
direct appeals to> the people. This money saved the nation's life. 
Jay Cooke was born in Sandusky. We are trying to get him to 
address our society at the next meeting in October, and he will 


if able to come. He writes me and says : "I will deliver that ad- 
dress, God willing, next Fall." I beg yon all to attend that meet- 
ing and hear Mr. Cooke. It will be well worth your time and at- 

The society adjourns for dinner. 


Meeting called to order by President Sloane at i 130 P. M. 

Music by Miss Smith. 

The following are the people that are over eighty years of 
age that are able to be present at this meeting : 

Mrs. John Kellum, Fannie Bright, Mrs. Allen, 89 years ; Mr. 

Ransom, 81 years; Mr. Manahan, 87 years; Garland, 89 

years; Noah B. Hamlin, 84 years. 

Norwalk, Ohio, June 28, 1900. 
Mr. C. H. Gallup: 

Dear Sir — If you please, add to your list a Mr. John Long^ 
over 85 years of age. Is now, and has been for the last fifty years, 
a resident of Wellington, Lorain county. Mr. Long is the father 
of Mrs. Nellie (Long) Hoyt and a brother-in-law of the writer. 

Truly yours, 

N. B. Hamun. 
P. S. — On account of deafness, I distinguished but few words 
spoken. I -would like four copies of first paper published, de- 
scriptive of the sayings and doings at the meeting. My exact 
age is eighty-four years, seven months. 

The first address was by Judge Cunningham, of Urbana. 
Champaign County, Illinois. 





I have been asked to come from my home in Illinois to 
meet the few remaining Pioneers of the Firelands and such of 
their descendants as may assemble here, for the purpose of in- 
dulging in reminiscences of the long past, which cover the boy- 
hood days of many of us, and which 'are a part of the history of 
this, our boyhood home. 

Although almost half a century intervenes between the 
present and the bright morning in August, 1852, when my 
father, with his two-horse wagon, transported two of his boys, 
with their trunks, containing their few worldly possessions, to 
the nearest railroad station, for the purpose of taking the train 
for a distant state, and thereby, in fact, forever terminating our 
relations to Huron county as home, yet this visit, and the oc- 
casion of it, awakens emotions and recollections shared perhaps 
by none of you who have yet to sever your connection with the 
homes of your childhood. 

" It brings me to my childhood back, 
As if I trod its very track, 
And felt its very gladness." 

But to the story which I am to relate : The eighth day of 
June, 1833, terminated the journey of two immigrant families, 
the heads of which were brothers, from an eastern state to the 
Firelands, in far away Ohio. Such it seemed to those fami- 
lies before they started and to their friends left behind, and such 
they realized it to be before they had completed their journey. 
A steam craft on Lake Erie had furnished the transportation 
to the port of Huron, while, after time spent in prospecting by 
the heads of the families, ox teams did the remainder of the 
work of landing the families, of one of which the boy to whose 
experience you are asked to listen was a member, near the pros- 
pective home in the forests of Clarksfield. 

This journey of twenty-five miles made through Berlin, 
Florence and Wakeman, to the center of Clarksfield, was not 
made over the good roads and easy grades now to be found, but 


over traces of roads then newly cut out or blazed through the 
forests, with no bridges over many of the streams and no artifi- 
cial drainage. Those who remember the vile reputation of 
"Wakeman Woods," of that day, will not be at a loss to fully ap- 
preciate the horrors of , that journey. No wonder that the young 
mothers turned their thoughts many times with tearful eyes to 
the homes they had left. 

The family did not find a ready-made farm house, of com- 
fortable capacity, with the accompaniments of barn and out 
houses, orchard and garden in which to rest its weary and travel- 
worn members. It did not find friends who had gone be- 
fore and who were ready to open hospitable doors to the new- 
comers and make easy their settlement and welcome their com- 
ing. What they did find was an unbroken, heavy forest of beech, 
maple, walnut, oak and other kinds of timber, such as bid a mad 
defiance to the Pioneers all over Ohio at the beginning of the 

The kindness of a Pioneer family which had preceded this 
tamily to the depths of this forest by a few months, gave shelter 
to the unsheltered for six weeks and until an opening in the 
forest upon the site of the future home could be made and a 
house could be erected. This house was, of course, of logs, but 
care was taken that they should be straight logs, and that they 
should be nicely notched at the corners and smoothly hewn 
on the inside, as they were placed in position, so that the new 
house, though covered only with elm bark at the first, was both 
presentable and comfortable. Think of it, dear housekeepers, 
the first fireside of this family, where the mother cooked for 
many months, was beside a large stump, near the door, with no 
covering over it save that furnished by the native forests left 
with a purpose. 

This house being finished (and it is remembered that the 
particular house had neither closed window nor door during the 
first summer, nor until frosts and cold winds of autumn made 
them necessary), the next thing to be done was with fire and 
ax and strong arms to drive back the domain of the forest and 
make room for the field which was to produce the living. This 
was a slow process and occupied the labors and efforts of years. 


One of the Pioneer preachers herein named, in 1866, thirty- 
three years after the immigration of the family to Clarksfield, 
conducted the funeral services of the father, Hiram W. Cun- 
ningham, and in the biographical notice of the deceased given, 
said that he had personally chopped, burned and cleared one 
hundred acres of Clarksfield's heavy timber. Year by year 
the cleared circle became larger and the demand for cribs and a 
barn more imperative. 

The first year, of course, yielded no returns for the family 
support. The limited amount of money brought as a result of the 
sale of the little farm in York state, was all used up in paying 
the expense of removal or in making the first payment on the 
purchased land, so the family must be fed and clothed by 
some other means. No resources remained other than the 
hands of the father, which were skilled in carpentry and wood 
craft of other kinds, and the grinding needs of the immigrant 
family for many years made the requisitions upon this resource 
continuous and exacting. So, for several years, and until fruit- 
ful fields cccupied the space of the primeval forest, the day's 
work of the father furnished the food of the family from year to 

The boy well remembers the first attempt at corn and wheat 
raising among the green stumps of a patch just cleared of the 
timber where no plow could be used, or if used, could live an 
hour. The corn was planted, not with a check-row corn 
planter, nor with a hoe, even, but with an ax, which was driven 
through the roots into the virgin soil a few inches, the corn 
dropped in and the ground closed over the seed by the foot. No 
cultivation could be given it other than by chopping out the fire 
weeds, but the hot sun and the rich soil did the work, and the 
returns well repaid the effort. In the fall the removal of the 
corn made way for a seeding of wheat. In this manner the 
Pioneer provided for his table. 

The satisfaction felt by the Pioneer in eating from his first 
crop, produced under the difficulties here delineated, cannot be 
well told, even by one who has realized it, any more than it can 
be realized by one who has not passed through the experience. 


The capitalist may say to himself, "Soul, thou hast much good 
laid up for many years; take thine ease, eat, drink and be 
merry," but his satisfaction does not approach the happiness of 
the Pioneer, who, having cleared the forest, has demonstrated 
his capacity to produce a crop. 

Being thus established in a home, which for most of the 
time intervening between the date here given and the legal ma- 
jority of the boy in question, was his only home, made better 
year by year as the means were secured, le^ us look at the sur- 
roundings : 

Clarksfield had then been settled sixteen years only, and 
everything was new, in the town as well as in the adjoining 
towns. Smith Starr, Benjamin Stiles, Samuel Husted, and 
possibly some others, had moved "out of the old house into the 
new" frame and plastered house, but other than the very few 
lived in their Pioneer houses, similar to the one above described. 
The Rowlands, Barnums, Woods, Furlongs, Bissells, Clarks, 
Grays, Days, Lees, Blackmans, Smiths, Perceys, and nearly all 
of the population of the township had progressed no further 
than the log-house stage of civilization. These houses were 
generally built in the most primitive style of architecture of that 
day, with log gables, roofs held in place by log weight poles, 
instead of by the use of nails, doors hung on wooden hinges, 
with wooden latches, which obeyed the pull on the leathern 
string from the outside. With puncheon or slab floors and 
well-chinked and an annual "daubin', " the home could defy the 
elements without, and by the aid of a fire upon the hearth of the 
wide fireplace, built of rocks gathered from the fields or from 
the river bed, supporting a mud and stick chimney, the home 
was made comfortable at all times. Before these fires were 
cooked and served the homely meals, and around them were 
gathered as happy families as now gather around the anthracite 
fires in the elegant houses which have succeeded these Pioneer 

The clearings were small and mostly confined to the 
neighborhood of the "Hollow," where the first settlement of 
the town was made, or along the roads leading therefrom. 
Dense woods and almost impassable roads shut out the neigh- 


boring settlements, and to go to Florence or Norwalk, one must 
encounter the horrors of the roads, or trails, which served for 
roads, leading through "Wakeman Woods," or "Townsend 
Woods," terms which, even at this distance of time, awaken a 

The boy remembers a night spent in a mud hole with his 
parents in the road leading from Norwalk to Clarksfield, about 
April, 1836, when an almost empty wagon was too much for 
the team, and it was only after daylight, the next morning, that 
aid came and enabled us to release ourselves by doubling teams. 
The good roads now leading to Florence and to Norwalk from 
Clarksfield, through fruitful fields bordered by beautiful homes, 
give no intimation of the terrors that awaited the traveler along 
the same lines sixty-five years since. 

The only roads that existed in the town of Clarksfield at 
the period written about, which had the semblance of roads or 
deserved the name, were those leading north, south and east of 
the Hollow, and these were yet much bordered by woods, and in 
many places were of the very primitive corduroy character. 
Other roads, or what are now known as public highways, in the 
town, were not then even "chopped out," with few exceptions, 
and neighborhood trails across lots and through the woods were 
permitted by tolerant settlers as favors to those who, like our 
family, had essayed to settle back from the settlements before 
then made. It is remembered that the families spoken of only 
reached their leafy, primeval home, at Clarksfield center, by 
leaving the main road a half mile east of the Hollow, and 
by following ax-men, who went before the wagons and cut out a 
trail. It was many years after this time that the roads were so 
improved as to be passable for teams and wagons, and not until 
after 1&50, were the roads leading south and west from the cen- 
ter of the town, anything more than trails, once chopped out and 
partly grown up with briers and other impediments. It was a 
long time, and only after the roads were bordered by enclosed 
fields, that they were made passable their entire length, and it 
was unnecessary for the traveler to make detours here and there 
to avoid the swamps and swales which so often intruded across 
the roads. The corduroy period was a long one, and the higher 

606 the; firelands pioneer 

duty of the settler to provide himself and family a shelter and 
food before lie found time to make roads, kept these necessary 
appliances of civilization waiting many years. 

Bridges over the two confluents of the Vermillion river 
were then few and of an ephemeral character. The substantial 
stone and steel structures which now span those beautiful 
streams, not only command admiration as triumphs of engineer- 
ing skill, but they serve to bring back recollection of early ef- 
forts at bridge building. Where were once long stretches of 
corduroy passage ways over the black alder swamps, are now 
seen single stone culverts, which serve to bridge the murky 
waterway formerly so dreaded by the Pioneer. 

At the period indicated there was no house of worship in 
the township, nor in any adjoining townships, though worship- 
pers were not wanting; for no district of country within the 
nation was more largely settled by religious people than was the 
tract of country known as the Firelands. The Pioneer school 
houses, the scantily furnished cabins, and the leafy forests were 
made to do duty as places of religious worship to meet the 
want of the settlers of which their self-imposed banishment from 
older homes had deprived them. 

Among the most lasting and thrilling recollections of the 
boy whose story this is, are those connected with those primitive 
gatherings. Take the scene of a few settlers gathered up from 
the scattered settlements, connected only by forest trails, in one 
of these Pioneer log school houses, where the only furniture 
was that manufactured by the help of an ax, saw and auger from 
the outer slab of a saw log; where the log structure, dedicated 
to learning and the arts, was made without the use of a nail or 
article of iron, and was as free from metals in its construction 
as was King Solomon's temple; where one side of the little 
room was devoted to the fireplace, and its walls made impene- 
trable to the cold winds by the "chinkin' and the daubin'," but 
where the hearts of the gathered worshippers were one in sym- 
pathy and love to the Maker, and their speaker, a circuit rider or 
exhorter, fired by the love of souls, in loud and electrifying ap- 
peals called upon the sinner and the backslider to repent while 
the opportunity yet remained ; where the effect of these appeals 


brought the careless and the scoffer to their knees and led 
wicked men to better lives — these scenes, now no longer to be 
seen, left impressions upon the beholders not to be forgotten. 

In the way of religious gatherings of that day, the boy re- 
members most vividly the camp meetings, now known to the 
people of this day only in tradition. One in Clarksfield in 1837, 
one in Wakeman in 1841, and one in Rochester in 1846, came 
under his observation and will serve as typical of the class. 
These meetings were generally arranged to come off after hay- 
ing, late in the summer or early in the fall, when worldly cares 
were less likely to distract attention. A piece of native forest 
was chosen,' where good drainage with shade and water were to 
be had. A plat of two or three acres or more was cleared of the 
underbrush and the ground smoothed and leveled; at one end 
of the plat was erected the preachers' tent, facing inward, at 
the front of which was a stand for speakers, under cover. Upon 
the other three sides were erected tents or cabins to answer for 
the accommodation of the people. In front of the preachers' 
stand was an enclosure of seats for from fifty to one hundred 
people, the enclosure being formed by poles placed upon posts 
or crotches set in the ground. The purpose of this enclosure 
was for the accommodation of circles for prayer and for those 
seeking after the light of religious experience, which we might 
call the anxious seat, but which the irreverent of those days 
called the "bull-pen." Beyond this enclosure were seats for 
hearers, made by placing slabs or planks across supports of logs 
and timbers, arranged so as to provide aisles leading towards 
the preachers' stand. To these tents people came from many 
miles around, bringing beds, furniture and 'provisions for a 
week's outing, and here were carried on all the household arts 
for a comfortable stay. Cooking was done by open fires in the 
rear of the tents, and sleeping accommodations made upon 
piles of clean straw and bed clothing within the apartments of 
the tents. The tin horn at the preachers' tent served the pur- 
pose of a "church going bell," in calling the people from their 
tents to the general auditorium for the several services, and 
laggards in the tents met the severe reprimand of the "preacher 


in charge." Rules were enacted for the government of the en- 
campment and severely enforced. 

To these gatherings came all sorts of people for all sorts of 
purposes. Religious exercises and experiences were not the 
only incentives. There came the gossiper, the curiosity seeker, 
fun lover and the horse trader. There came the sincere religion- 
ist, yearning for the salvation of his neighbor, and there came 
the irreverent scoffer of things held sacred by the other class. 
The gatherings were . not always characterized by the sanctity 
that pervades church-going assemblies of this day, but fre- 
quently made work for the grand juries. In other cases the 
disorders created by the irreverent were informally and 
promptly treated on the grounds to doses of muscular Christian- 
ity from an athletic preacher or muscular layman, a remedy 
swifter than that afforded by the law and generally more effect- 

It is far easier now to describe the organization and pro- 
ceedings of such a gathering than to accurately measure the 
effects upon the participants. The measure of one relates to 
Time, while the effects of the other can only be known in Eter- 
nity. Many who came to scoff and ridicule, left the grounds re- 
joicing in a new life, and here steps in the religious life were 
commenced which terminated only in a hopeful death. 

These school houses and camp meetings produced or fur- 
nished the arena of action of such eminent Pioneer preachers of 
the Firelands as Leonard B. Gurley, William B. Disbrow, James 
Mclntire, James A. Kellum, John Mitchell, Adam Poe, James 
McMahon, Richard Biggs, H. O. Sheldon, Russell Bigelow, E. 
R. Jewett, Thomas Barkdull, William C. Pierce, of the Meth- 
odist "Episcopal church, and Revs. Betts and Streeter, of the 
Presbyterian church; Rev. David Marks and Rev. Fairfield, of 
the Baptist church, as well as many others whose names are re- 
membered by the descendants of the Pioneers with reverence. 

Most of these men were from time to time in the early days 
guests at the home of the family in question, and the boy re- 
members of having heard most of them from the pulpit or the 
desk of the school house 


In this connection it may be said that it is probable that 
Sunday schools were organized and carried on upon the Fire- 
lands at an early day, for as early as 1836, at Clarksfield Hollow, 
a school was in operation, conducted by members of different 
denominations. I remember being in this school at its beginning 
for that season ; remember that Rev. Streeter was at the head of 
it, and the lesson of the day, which will be found at Matt. III., 
1-6, begining: "In those days came John the Baptist preaching 
in the wilderness of Judea." 

The library in use is remembered for its utter want of adap- 
tation to the needs of children. Instead of being of such a 
character of matter as children would become interested in, its 
books treated upon the most severe and sober theological ques- 
tions, such as children of no time take to. 

A Sunday school celebration held near Berlin chapel, be- 
tween Berlinville and Florence, on July 4, in the year 1843, 1S 
remembered by this particular boy for the many children it 
called together from all of the surrounding towns, the pretty ad- 
dress delivered by Mr. Dwight, and particularly for the good 
things we had to eat. 


The clothing in which the Pioneer boy was clad was not 
tailor-made, nor was it even hand-me-down, ready-made cloth- 
ing, but the result of the summer work and the cunning skill of 
his mother's fingers, which worked early and late. In the 
spring of each year a crop of flax was sown, and at maturity was 
pulled, rotted, broken in the flax-brake and hatcheled by the 
men folks, when it was ready to be carded, spun and woven into 
cloth, called "tow and linen," for the next year's clothing. So 
of the wool of the few sheep kept. The price of wool in the 
markets of the country was not then a burning question as now ; 
the limited supply was scarcely sufficient for the domestic wants 
of the families of the Pioneer. The supply was either carded 
into bats at home or carried to the woolen mill and made into 
"rolls," ready for the spinning wheel. The same mother's hands 
spun it into yarn ready for the weaver or ready for her winter's 
knitting into socks. The spun yarn, dyed in butternut or blue 


dye, sufficed for the "filling," in a web, which was of cotton 
yarn, and the product was known as "jeans." The weaver's 
work done, the same mother's nimble fingers cut, fitted and 
made the tow and linen or the jeans into coats, pants and vests 
for the boys. 

As time passed on and the family became more forehanded, 
which meant, had more sheep and other stuff and something to 
sell in the market, the cloth was made of all wool and went to the 
cloth dresser for fulling and dressing, and came home shining 
like broadcloth. Here came the need of the tailor, who cut the 
cloth ready for the itinerant sewing woman, and the boy came 
out in a suit of "fulled cloth," with shining brass buttons. So 
the work of clothing the boys developed from year to year until 
maturity enabled him to dress in "store clothes" from his own 

It was not always that the last year's suit lasted well until 
this year's suit made its appearance, in which case the boy, in 
the interim between the passing away of the former and the 
coming of the latter, might have passed for Riley's "Raggedy 
Man." It must have been during one of these destitute per- 
iods that the mother in question, ever alert to the needs of the 
children, wrote to her mother in the east, in a letter dated No- 
vember 17, 1839, tne original of which came to the hands of 
your essayist a few years since, and is now preserved with the 
greatest care, as follows : "We have raised our living this sea- 
son, and it seems much better than to buy it and not know 
where it is to come from. Our children are well, but very 
ragged, — not having any wool of late, we are quite destitute of 
clothing. You wrote you had sent me some stocking yarn, but 
I have not received it yet. If I could get it I would make my 
fingers fly." 

This letter was sealed with a red wafer. It bears the post- 
mark of Clarksfield, November 29, and is charged with eighteen 
and three-fourth cents postage. Letters patent of nobility from a 
sovereign king or emperor would not be prized higher. It gives 
a phase of family and Pioneer history not to be forgotten. It 
convicts the Pioneer boy of once having belonged to a crowd of 
"very ragged" children, but it brings no blush. 


BootJ and shoes were not brought to the Pioneer home 
ready made and in assortments sure to meet all demands. 
Hides, taken from animals killed for family supplies of meat, or, 
more often, hides taken from domestic animals dying from the 
murrain, were taken to the near by tannery, dressed into leather 
and were, by the neighboring shoemaker, made up into boots 
and shoes for the family, with the emphasis upon the word 
shoes for, as a matter of true history, the Pioneer boy in ques- 
tion never possessed the greatly coveted boots until he was per- 
mitted to earn them by work for a neighbor, at thirteen years of 


For years after the period of this writing, the settlement in 
question had no school, and the only school opportunities were 
obtained by sending the children to neighboring districts, the 
tenure of which privileges to us outsiders depending upon the 
demands made by children within the districts. Long tramps 
through the woods and through swamps spanned by fallen trees 
only, was the price paid by the children for the instruction re- 
ceived by them. Finally, in the spring of 1840, a truly Pioneer 
school house came to the doors of this family, and its description 
may be taken as that of Pioneer school houses throughout Ohio 
and the west. It was built, not by direct taxes levied and col- 
lected in due course of law, nor by the issue of bonds, as would 
now be done, perhaps ; but by the combined labors of the men in 
the district, voluntarily given. On a given day, by appoint- 
ment, all turned out with axes and teams, and from the con- 
tiguous woods cut the logs, hauled them to the site of Bissell's 
Corners, and within a few days had erected a log building 
about 20x25 feet in size. The gables were of logs and the roof 
of shakes, or boards, as they are sometimes called, rived with a 
frow from an oak tree, and held in place upon the roof by over- 
laying each course of the roofing with a heavy weight pole. 

Openings were cut in the logs, at appropriate, places, for 
the windows and door. At one end a wide fireplace, without 
jams, capable of receiving wood six or seven feet in length, was 



provided. This fireplace was built of boulder stones, picked up 
in the neighborhood, and served as a foundation for a stick and 
mud chimney terminating above the roof. In this fireplace were 
piled large quantities of wood in winter, and the fires served 
well to heat the room. The door was of rough sawed boards, 
hung upon wooden hinges and held shut by a wooden latch. 
The windows, while supplied with sash for glazing, were, as the 
boy well remembers, only covered with greased paper at the 
first term of the school, taught in the summer of 1840. Floors 
of rough sawed lumber were laid. This building, each autumn 
during its service, had to be daubed with mud to keep out the 
cold. The furniture consisted of benches made without backs, 
from slabs, or the outer cuts from saw logs, supported by legs 
driven into auger holes. For a writing desk for the larger pu- 
pils, a wide board, supported by heavy sticks driven into a log, 
at the proper height, at one end of the room, did duty. 

Within such a house as this your Pioneer boy and the chil- 
dren of his district were taught from Webster's Elementary 
Spelling Book, from Murray's English Reader, and from Da- 
boll's Arithmetic, and other antiquated primary books, for three 
months each winter for ten years, beginning with the year 1840. 
Near by were the woods and the river and the ample play 
grounds. Let no one waste any sympathy upon these children 
on account of this apparent dearth of opportunity. The de- 
fects in the opportunity are only apparent and made so by a 
comparison with the schools of the Firelands of today. That 
district never added a single man or woman to the ranks of il- 
literacy. Out of one enrollment of thirty-five pupils, now be- 
fore the writer, more than one-half, after nearly sixty years, are 
known to be in life. No one of that company ever entered the 
ranks of the criminal class. So let no one despise these antece- 
dents of this particular boy, for be assured he does not, but 
glories in them, for from such surroundings came the Lincolns 
and the Garfields of loved American fame. 

From out of these humble surroundings, which may be said 
to be typical school environments of the great majority of 
schools upon the Firelands in their beginning, came pupils armed 
with that best of qualifications, self-respect and self-reliance. 


Came also healthy young men and women, taught in the atmos- 
phere of morality and patriotism, to bless society here and in 
other states. 

In this semi-isolated life, cut off from the far-off outer 
world, its faint echoes hardly touched this particular family. 
Books were few, and for many months no newspaper visited the 
circle. From year to year the only changes were the changing 
seasons. They waited for the spring with eager longing, for 
it brought the sugar-making season, so loved by the youth ; it 
brought with it the flowers, natural to our woods, and unlocked 
its treasures of life. 

It may be said with propriety that the schools of the Fire- 
lands, from the first, though humble in their pretensions, were 
fostered by an enlightened and intelligent public sentiment. 
The Pioneer, though poor, and from a poor New England or 
New York home, was not illiterate. 

Your Pioneer boy, like the school boys of today, improba- 
ble as it may appear from the opportunities and surroundings 
above given, had ambition, and this passion pointed to the Nor- 
walk Seminary as the object to be attained. His few visits to 
the county capital, always looked upon with greater favor than 
a visit to Europe with the Paris exposition as a part of the at- 
traction, would now be viewed, were always more desired by 
him, for the reason that he could look upon the seminary and in- 
dulge his fancies as to his future in that temple of learning ; but 
alas for human ambitions, for before the proper time came the 
seminary was a thing of the past, and he had to be satisfied with 
Berea and Oberlin. 

He is in error who supposes that the poverty of opportu- 
nity herein delineated as the lot of the Pioneer and his family 
was an unmixed evil. Poverty in no case is without some com- 
pensating benefits. The honest efforts of him who suffers from 
poverty to overcome its inconveniences, strengthens and builds 
up his character and renders him stronger for the conflicts of 

The spirit of unrest by which this age and the century from 
which we are about to pass has been so much influenced, in- 
vaded the woods of the Firelands in those years of which we 


write, and seized upon the boys then as it does now. Here, 
then, now, and always, as Willis has expressed it, 

"Ambition seeks the chamber of the gifted boy, 
And lifts the humble window and conies in." 

And more than that it has lifted him out of this and other 
more eastern states, and that boy and his girl are moving be 
yond the Mississippi. The west is sapping the east of its best 
material, and if the fathers and mothers of the latter are asking 
themselves, "Where is my boy tonight?" the answer comes back 
from the far west, "He is here and is building up empires." 


Did the boys of that day have any fun, do you ask? Certainly. 
A healthy boy will manufacture his own amusements, if he does 
not have to work too hard. The boys of those times were mus- 
tered into the ranks of labor at an early age, say at ten or eleven 
years of age, and made to contribute to the common weal of the 
family; yet on rainy days fishing was permissible, when it 
rained too hard for work. So at night, after having performed 
all the work during the day that an ingenious father could get 
from a rather unwilling boy, fishing parties were common to the 
mill ponds. Husking bees, coon huntings, logging bees, and 
house or barn raisings, called the young men and boys together. 

It may seem to the boy of today, who, with his surround- 
ings of a beautiful country home, a farm productive of every- 
thing necessary, as well as of many luxuries, where the labors of 
the farm are so largely performed by machinery, with the facili- 
ties for excursions to distant places, and with frequent trips 
upon the lake; with concerts and lectures and theaters and 
conventions the year round, that he has all the fun, and that we 
of sixty years ago must have had only a dull round. Not so. 
While we combated roots and stumps in the soil, where the 
boy of today plows with no obstruction, while riding his plow, 
we had before us the virgin forests, an open book and a museum 
of unfailing resources of amusement. They furnished the small 
game, which we delighted to hunt, in abundance. They fur- 
nished nuts of every variety, delicious wild fruits and mandrakes 


and slippery-elm bark. They furnished the materials for his 
stilts, his dart, his pop-gun, his whistles, and his bows and ar- 
rows, as the season for each of these sports came around. Then 
the boy of long ago had the fun of chopping down little trees, 
before chopping became a daily task, and of seeing them fall, a 
pastime of pleasure unalloyed, except by the admonition from 
his seniors to "cut close to the ground." 

Then the streams, little and big, now so nearly dried up in 
summer, ran high all the year round, and never failed to furnish 
amusements of the rarest kind. In winter the boy sported upon 
the ice of the river or skated, if he owned the skates, and in sum- 
mer he fished or bathed in the water or guided his raft or skiff 
thereon. No delight in the world is so welcome to a boy as to 
spend half of his time on a warm summer day in the water at 
his favorite swimming hole. I see it now, at the bend in the 
river, embowered by a spreading elm tree's shade, made more 
dense and welcome by the wild grapevine which has year by 
year clambered up its rugged sides. The noon hour of the 
school day afforded the time, and the disposition was never 
wanting. Since that experience, in the long past, the Hoosier 
poet, who knew the joys of the "Old Swimmin' Hole," as the 
Clarksfield boy knew it, has put the whole story in poetic dia- 
lect : 

"Oh, the old switnmin' hole. In the happy days of yore, 
When I ust to lean above it on the old sickamore, 
My shadder shinin' up at me with such tenderness. 
But them days is past and gone, and old Time's tuck his toll 
From the old man come back to the old swimmin' hole." 

Yes, the old man has come back. He finds the river here, 
but the locus of the old swimmin' hole has yielded to the shift- 
ing sand bank ; the old sycamore has also passed away, as have 
the boy playmates, without whose presence the visit is almost a 

The Pioneer boy had little money, in fact he hardly saw 
enough of it to recognize the different denominations of the 
currency of the day. This was largely due to the fact that there 
was little money in the country. Business was largely carried 
on by barter. A pound of butter would buy a pound of cut 


nails. Two pounds of butter would buy a shilling hat. A good 
horse could be bought for from $25.00 to $50.00, and a cow for 
$10,00. The little money that came into the family in big cop- 
per cents, sixpences and shillings, for dimes and half-dimes were 
rarely seen, had to be carefully saved for tax-paying time. In 
fact the boy had little use for money. Shows rarely came this 
way, and a part of our religious teachings was to the effect that 
a show that had a round ring in the tent, whatever else it may 
have had, was awfully wicked. The railroads of the day, all of 
which were corduroy roads, always gave free excursions, the 
passenger carrying his own lunch. 

The gayest of all the year with the boys was the day known 
as "Trainin' Day," when the militia of the town were called out 
for drill. The bright red and blue colors of the privates' and 
non-commissioned officers' uniforms dazzled the eye of the boy; 
but the finer uniform of the captain and lieutenants, as they 
marshaled the men to the stirring music of the fife and drum, 
or by sharp commands put them through the manual of arms, 
drove his senses into something like a stupor. The grand event 
of the day was when the colonel, if he happened to be a near by 
dweller, gay in his iridescent garb of gray and gold, galloped 
upon the parade ground, surrounded by his staff, and in thun- 
dering tones gave orders to the battalion, which moved the men 
as a piece of machinery and terrorized and almost froze the 
heart of the dazed lad from the back woods. The movements 
of Sherman's army before Atlanta, or of Grant's in the Wilder- 
ness, could not have been more bewildering. 

Some here will remember the coming through the county 
of the straggling recruits for the so-called "patriots' war," the 
uprising of a few disappointed men in Canada, in 1837, with 
arms and pieces of artillery, as does the writer, and of the alarm 
all felt at the prospect of a border war with Great Britain, grow- 
ing out of the affairs upon the border at Niagara river. These 
alarms, with the calling out of the enrolled militia in 1846, when 
men were wanted for the Mexican war, were such as to awaken 
the martial spirit of the people and to set the boys at school to 
playing soldier. 



The presence in Clarksfield of two water grist mills and 
saw mills at the time this story begins made life there much 
more desirable at that time. The prime question was to get 
something to grind. With that the boy had nothing to do and 
little concern ; but the going to mill upon an ox sled with a little 
grist of grain, the operation of grinding the grist between the 
two great stones, the delivery by the dusty miller of the pre- 
pared flour or meal, and the great, wide mill pond, were mat- 
ters, once seen, to be told and talked over for a month and never 
to be forgotten by the boy whose experiences and observations 
had then been so limited. Later on in life, when his muscles 
and discretion could be trusted to do the business, the boy was 
himself made the supercargo of a grist of grain on its way to the 
mill. The grist was equally divided by the parental hand, one- 
half in one end of the sack and one-half in the other end, thrown 
across the horse, and the boy mounted on top, with directions 
to use care in balancing the grist, and he was dispatched upon 
the errand. That boy has the most rueful recollections of his 
experiences of the grist falling from the horse in the woods 
road, away from help, and of his agonizing tears at the disaster. 
The grist had to be gotten upon a stump and the unwilling horse 
led between the stump and a near by tree which kept him from 
stepping to one side before the status of affairs had been re- 
stored, but success only awaited perseverance. The varied bus- 
iness ventures of the later life of that boy, with their adverse 
turns, bear no comparison to these weeping struggles with the 
grist in the wilderness. 


In the early days of our country hereabouts, the team* work 
was mostly done with oxen, now almost a thing of the past. 

Ox teams were used on the farm, for social visits, and for 
going to church. Your essayist well remembers of many occa- 
sions when the whole family went to meeting behind this kind 
of a team, upon a sled or in an old, squeaky wagon. Indeed, 
this was the rule among the Pioneers sixty years ago, and caused 
no comment. 


Before roads for wagons were made, horseback riding for 
both sexes was most common, and the horse-block before every 
door afforded the aid for mounting. The animal was often 
taxed to carry double, and this was the favorite mode with 
beaus and belles among the Pioneers. 

A farm wagon behind a span of plow horses showed the 
wealth and luxury of the owner, while the buggy and surrey, 
now so common, were unknown. 


The boy well remembers when Clarksfield's mail came but 
once a week, and then was brought by a post-boy on horseback 
with a leathern pair of saddle-bags as the mail car. When he 
arrived upon the east hill at the village, to warn Esquire Starr, 
the postmaster, of his coming, he most vigorously sounded his 
tin horn, which he carried fastened to his saddle. Mail day, 
though it brought little of interest to the people, was the day of 
the week after Sunday. Few newspapers were taken, and let- 
ters at eighteen and three-fourths cents or twenty-five cents 
each, were too costly a luxury to be often indulged in by such a 
people. The mail carrier often brought news from the outside 
world of the elections, of wars or rumors of wars, which was 
passed from mouth to mouth. 

Now the mail is brought to Clarksfield's dwellers daily 
from the east to the west and from the west to the east, upon 
the- fast mail trains of the Wheeling & Lake Erie Railroad; 
and instead of the horn of the mail-boy, is heard the scream of 
the locomotive engine and the thunderous rumbling of heavy 
trains of cars, bearing the commerce of the continent. Smith 
Starr, the first and long time postmaster of the town, who 
handed out to the boy in question, sixty-five years ago, the 
Western Christian Advocate, the family paper, sleeps with 
the neighbors whom he served upon the hill, while the mail is 
distributed and served to patrons by a woman postmistress, a 
descendant, of Aaron Rowland, another of the Pioneers of the 



In those Pioneer days people died as they do now only 
oftener and earlier in life; for the hard life of privation most of 
them lived reduced the average term of life, and the Pioneer 
fell an early victim to the ague or to the fever which followed 
in its train. 

As people wore home-made clothing in life, so their dead 
were encoffined in a home-made, walnut coffin, made to order 
from an actual measure taken, by the local cabinet maker or by 
a carpenter, the funeral always awaiting the convenience of the 
mechanic. The account books of Capt. Samuel Husted, 
Pioneer merchant and first manufacturer of Clarksfield, still 
preserved, furnish the only vital statistics of the town in the 
charges made therein for coffins, furnished for the dead among 
the Pioneers. 

Funerals among the Pioneers were always formal affairs. 
The newest and best farm wagon of the settlement served as 
the hearse, and not until in the forties did our town furnish a 
pall for such occasions. A minister, if one could be had, must 
come, say a prayer and deliver a sermon. If no minister could 
be had, then some devout layman solemnized the occasion by 
a prayer. The old hymn begining, "Hark from the tombs a 
doleful sound," sung to the tune of China, by uncultured voices, 
made the solemnity of the occasion almost gloomy, and always 
awakened doubts of the reality of the resurrection. 

The neighbors for miles around turned out and the funeral 
rites were decorously and solemnly performed. 

The writer has a vivid recollection of his attendance upon 
a funeral in Clarksfield, the first that fell under his observation. 
It was that of a young mother who had yielded up her life in a 
forest home. The bereaved home was reached from our home 
by a tramp with mother and a neighbor, through a mile of 
dense forest. After the ceremony the burial took place upon a 
knoll in the deep woods near by. The sight of the dead 
mother and of the bereaved little ones made an impression upon 
the mind of the five-year-old boy which was deep and lasting. 
The little procession bore the body from the lonely cabin home 
to the grave where the neighbors filled in the earth and de- 


parted. For some years the mound reminded the observer of 
the departed, but finally all traces of the entombment were 
eradicated and the affair was forgotten. The place of interment 
has long since been passed over by the stranger occupant of the 
farm with no knowledge of the burial. 

Early burials were in most cases made upon the home farm, 
for cemeteries were not then established. In a few years, as in 
the instance above given, these places of burial were forgotten, 
so that now the plow and the reaper, unknown to the farmer in 
charge, desecrate the places once sacred to the Pioneer. 


The story you have listened to contains nothing startling, 
and has, I fear, hardly been interesting. It is but a recitation of 
common place affairs, with an antique odor, of which every 
Pioneer boy knows, and perhaps, yes surely, this is all it has to 
commend it. Be this as it may, the story has its counterpart in 
the history of every section of our country, which has, with such 
marvellous celerity, emerged from a wilderness, the dwelling 
place of the savage, to a densely populated empire of civiliza- 
tion, within the lifetime and recollections of many here. The 
story begins contemporaneously with the first term of Presi- 
dent Jackson, the seventh president, and runs to that of the 
twenty-fifth, counted consecutively, and covers one-half of the 
lifetime of our republic. It has seen the republic doubled and 
more than doubled in the extent of its territory, and more than 
quadrupled in its population ; while in material resources and 
national virility the infant has become the giant of this globe. 

During this period the last of the men who at the beginning 
of the story grappled with the wilderness here, has passed to the 
beyond. The children of the Pioneer have in many cases, as 
in the case of the families most conspicuous in the story, gone 
to aid in developing other states, so that the only memory of 
their names is to be gathered from the tombstones in your cem- 
eteries. But such is the glory of American life everywhere. 

Next came the interesting address of Mrs. Mary B. Ingham, 
of Cleveland. 




Mr. President : Dickens in "David Copperfield" makes the 
subject of his initial chapter, "I am born." Pardon me if I, a 
Pioneer Huron county girl, go back of this and give you a bit 
of family history previous to that important epoch in my life; 
for believe me, I have not yet reached three score and ten, al- 
though reminiscent. 

My father, Rev. John Janes, was a Methodist circuit rider; 
his earliest appointment, in 1827, being junior preacher on De- 
troit Circuit. May 21, 1828, at the age of twenty-six, he mar- 
ried Hannah B. Brown, twenty years old and already a founder 
of the First Methodist' Episcopal Church, Ann Arbor, Mich. 
Brave and hopeful, this young couple essayed to do the Bish- 
op's bidding and helped plant the seed of the Kingdom on Port- 
land Circuit, which included Sandusky, chief city of the Fire- 
lands, and its extended environment throughout Erie and 
Huron counties. Rev. Janes was the first regularly appointed 
preacher in that section. 

In 1829-30, himself and wife boarded in the family of Major 
Sloane, mother compensating therefor by teaching Sarah 
Sloane, afterwards Mrs. Winslow, who until her death, four 
years ago, spoke affectionately of mother's lovely character and 
of the fact that her own course in life had been framed by her 

In 1829, your President, Hon. Rush R. Sloane, was bap- 
tized by father. During this year Rev. Janes received eighty 
dollars salary and mother taught the winter school at one dollar 
per weekT Together, looking heavenward, they could well 

" No foot of land do I possess, 
No cottage in the wilderness." 

Time passed, and, after serving various charges, father be- 
came Presiding Elder of Maumee District, doing yeoman serv- 
ice in the heart of the Black Swamp, living at an outpost 


called Hunt, Springfield township, in a double log house on 
a green hill whither friendly Indians came to barter their wares. 
Losing health through malarial influences, father thought to 
remove for the education of his family, to the seat of Norwalk 
Seminary. So, in 1841, my parents with four children came to 
live on the Firelands. Their three days' journey from Toledo 
was achieved in a light wagon drawn by "Fanny," father's 
faithful ally under the saddle bags. He and mother occupied 
the roomy wagon seat, holding two infants. Sister Eliza and 
myself endured cheerfully, riding behind them on a hair trunk 
sitting bolt upright with no support as to back. One of the 
three nights of this unique trip was spent at Lower Sandusky 
(now Fremont) and another at Mr. Lyman Husted's in Lyme. 
In Norwalk, father was known as "Elder Janes," a valued trus- 
tee of the Seminary. Having a decided turn for business as 
well as theology, he purchased the( whole plat of ground now 
occupied by the St. Charles Hotel and its present neighbor- 
hood. On this tract were seven buildings, in one of which he 
opened a book and drug store, reserving as a residence the most 
venerable structure of the seven. In two short years, father 
entered into eternal rest, his body reposing now with mother, 
Eliza and Johnnie under two noble forest trees on a grassy 
knoll in dear old St. Paul's churchyard of Norwalk. Mother 
was left with a mortgage and family of five, the youngest an in- 
fant of weeks and the other four standing forlornly on her dress 
skirts. Her pluck was the admiration of the older villagers. 
Reading the statutes of Ohio, she, herself, became administra- 
trix of the estate, and, with the gallant aid of C. L. Boalt and 
S. T. Worcester, triumphed. 

Trusting that you pardon this recital, I take up my 
subject : — 


At nine years of age, mother put me into Latin grammar, 
taught by Rev. Edward Thomson, D. D., LL. D., Principal of 
the Seminary. An early recollection of mine is that of carrying 
through East Main street, a bag of books nearly as large as my- 
self. Latin grammar was so effectually engrafted into the 
marrow of my bones, that to this day, Mr. President, I can 


readily conjugate amo amas, amat. Among the young stu- 
dents of that period were Hon. Rush R. Sloane of Sandusky, 
Hon. D. S. Gray, of Columbus, a railroad magnate, now pres- 
ident of the board of trustees of Ohio Wesleyan University, and 
a host of men and women, besides, who have attained emi- 
nence. It used to be Dave Gray's affair to fill the wood-box be- 
fore recitation in Latin. 

In 1844, Dr. Thomson was called to the presidency of the 
young college at Delaware, O., and was succeeded here by Rev. 
H. Dwight, a sweet and saintly scholar, brother of Mrs. Gale 
and uncle of Mr. T. D. Shepherd of your city. In 1846, Nor- 
walk Seminary was merged into Baldwin Institute, Berea, O., 
and Mr. Dwight appointed principal. 

Another delight of childhood is to recall my tutelage in 
the Presbyterian Sunday school — an ideal one — across Hester 
street, from our home, superintended by Cortland Latimer, 
Rev. A. Newton, pastor. My class teacher -was Elizabeth Buck- 
ingham, and splendidly she did her work. The only girl mem- 
bers whom I now recall were Louise Latimer and Belle Scott. 
Other citizens than those mentioned whom I reverenced on 
week days were Piatt Benedict, S. Patrick, John R. Osborn, 
Richard C. Parsons, John Gardiner, Theodore Williams, Dr. 
Kittredge, John and Jarius Kennan, Obadiah Jenney, Messrs. 
Mallory and Buckingham. Who that ever knew Cecile Jenney, 
Harriet Buckingham, Martha, Ann-Eliza and Cre. Mallory can 
forget them while life lasts? Then there were stately Louise 
Williams, who became the wife of Dr. S. A. Bronson, Pioneer of 
the Pioneers, and her sister Sarah, sweetest of blondes, after- 
wards Mrs. Darwin Gardiner, Mollie and Sallie Chapin, Sophia 
and Cornelia Steele, lovely Mary and Kitty Vredenburgh, Sarah 
Baker, Miss Rice, the Smith sisters^ now Mrs. T. R. Strong, Mrs. 
Caroline Marseilles and Louise. 

Nor can I omit the slender figure of Samuel Pennewell; 
favorites with everybody were his children Celestina and 
Charles, as were Lydia, Althea, Ann and Ambrose Beebe ; 
"Uncle Nate" Wooster and descendants, Eli and Israel Peters, 
Jonas M. and Minerva Crosby, Moses Yale and Mr. Graves, the 
Heath girls and their niece — Mary J. Graves, are fresh in 


Still preserved in a note-book is this memorandum per- 
taining to the Sabbath school, "August 10, 1845, Dr. Scudder 
asked me if I would not be a missionary/' 

We children had a passion for the cemetery and old St. 
Paul's, founded in 1820, grew to be greatly loved by us. On 
Christmas evenings our highest joy was to attend the "Illumi- 
nation" service. Perhaps my description of "Old Trinity," 
Cleveland, given during the city's centennial in 1896, may not 
be inappropriate here. Let us glance into the church during 
its earliest Christmas carols. The women singers were twelve 
in number, six of them married, dressed in black with bishop 
sleeves, white caps and poke bonnets ; six young ladies arrayed 
in white, all the sweet faces with women's crowning glory 
combed smoothly adown the cheek over the ear. In their 
hands, all in a line, is the anthem prepared for the occasion, 
printed on fly sheets — 

" Strike the cymbal, 
Roll the timbrel." 

And again — 

" Hosatinah in the Highest." 

No dim religious light pervades the sanctuary, but there 
shines an illumination from candelabra of wood suspended from 
the ceiling perforated and holding in pyramidal shape, hosts of 
tallow candles. Across the middle of each window in a wooden 
frame are eight candles. The interior of the edifice is grand 
with festoons of ground pine. Stairs at either side at the door 
end. lead to the gallery from the vestibule. Under the stairs on 
the men's side of the house is the vestry, out of which emerges 
the beloved rector, wearing the first white surplice, for all pre- 
ceding missionaries and bishops were robed in canonical 
black. As the rector slowly passes up the aisle to the chancel, 
one of the sweet choir girls leans forward whispering to her 
neighbor, "Do see Mr. Lyster, doesn't he look like the Lord, 

In September, 185 1, I came from Cleveland, to assist 
D. F. DeWolf, superintendent of the public schools of Norwalk, 
and the time spent in the primary and grammar grades has no 
admixture of sorrow or disappointment. Those dear girls and 
boys who assembled daily in my classes were ideal students. 


Mr. De Wolf, a man of remarkable gifts, had much of personal 
magnetism and his enthusiasm inspired teacher and pupils with 
the best there is in student life. Memory vividly pictures my 
delight in taking our scholars through Clark's Grammar, with 
diagrams for parsing; that branch usually dry as dust, became 
fascinating in its unique methods and illustration. Can I cease 
to remember any of the care-free, laughing youth who trooped 
in the school-rooms, all so bright, ambitious and diligent? 
Don't I know how Delilah Yale came to my desk asking if she 
might go home, as it rained so that morning she forgot her 
slate pencil? Didn't "Caley" Gallup take a very few of us out one 
evening to witness a seance when spirit rapping was a curiosity? 
Lizzie Gallup entertained me often at her house, the hospitable 
board being presided over by her grandfather, Piatt Benedict. 
Can I forget Sammy Edwards of the primary department as 
he stood on a chair for misdemeanor, while Mr. De Wolf beat 
unmercifully the chair rounds, Sammy roaring and dancing 
meanwhile, as he supposed himself to be severely whipped? 

The only one present today in this gathering (of my pri- 
mary pupils) is Mrs. Ella Newman Shepherd. She is so small 
I will not ask her to arise, lest you should fail to see her, but 
desire that from this day forward, the daughter of our Pioneer 
and churchman, Chas. E. Newman, be accounted among your 
members. Mr. Samuel Newman is the only person here ex- 
cept the President who attended Norwalk Seminary. 

The summit of popularity was reached when before a large 
audience in the winter of 1852, Superintendent De Wolf 
brought out a Shakesperean study, "The Merchant of Venice," 
the drama being enacted by the older boys. Judge Wickham 
kindly furnishes me the cast : — 

Antonio Chas. H. Safford. 

Bassanio Geo. P. Roberts. 

Gratiano Frank B. Foster. 

Tubal John T. Birdseye. 

Duke of Venice Chas. E. Miller. 

Shylock Chas. P. Wickham. 

Nerissa Leslie G. Carter. 

Jessica, the Gaoler. . ., James H. Sharp. 


In close connection with the public schools, the teachers of 
that period regard with veneration, Judge and Mrs. S. T. Wor- 
cester, Mr. and Mrs. Chas. E. Newman, Mr. Wickham, veteran 
editor of the Reflector; his partner, Chas. A. Preston, and wife, 
Matilda Barrett, Mr. and Mrs. J. M. Farr, of the Experiment; 
Mrs. Gibbs; Gideon T. Stewart, the apostle of temperance. 
Of Sandusky were Hon. M. F. Cowdery, Mr. and Mrs. L. B. 
Johnson and sisters. During this epoch, "Uncle Tom's Cabin" 
appeared in print. The village of Norwalk together with all 
the hamlets and towns of the Firelands, among them Florence, 
Birmingham, Berlin, Milan, Monroeville, Bellevue, were shaken 
by this earthquake of reform which later on engulfed American 
slavery. All of us were awe-struck at this revelation through 
Harriet Beecher Stowe. 

Milan, by the way, is worthy of a passing notice, not only as 
the birth-place of Edison, but from its age, having been a center 
of Moravian influences. At dinner to-day I was delighted to 
sit by Mrs. Lockwood, of Milan, for she seemed like a girl of 
sixteen; Mrs. Dewey is to me just the same as forty years since. 

The joyous children and youth of half a century ago ar£ 
gray-haired now. Cecile Jenney writes me from Missouri : "I 
look at Charley Wickham, Dave Benedict and "Caley" Gallup, 
wondering why their hair is so white. It seems perfectly in 
keeping that mine should have turned. 

But we need not mourn over lost years. Some died for 
their country, others have filled high positions in the councils 
of the Nation, a few are renowned in travel ; for George Ken- 
nan, the Siberian explorer, is a Norwalk boy. All, or nearly all, 
have served and are serving God and humanity, and to them 
there will be no surprise in putting on immortal youth : 

" Ye are not sad to see the gathered grain, 
Nor the yellow fruits the orchards cast, 
Nor, yellow woods shake down their ripened mast, 
Ye sigh not as the Sun his course fulfilled, 
His glorious course, rejoicing earth and sky. 
In the soft evening when the winds are stilled, 
Sinks where his islands of refreshment lie 
And leaves the smile of his departure spread 
O'er the warm-colored heaven and ruddy mountain head. 


Mr. Gallup asks that all who were students under Mrs. Ing- 
ham to rise. Twelve arose. 

Mr. Wildman moved that the addresses be published in the 
next number of the Pioneer, and that a vote of thanks be ex- 
tended to' the speakers. Motion carried. 

Music by Miss Smith and Mrs. Harter. 

Report of Auditing Committee. Mr. Sheldon moved that 
report be adopted. Seconded by Mr. Stewart. Carried. 

Talk by S. F. Newman : It is strange how much pleasure 
can come to a man in a meeting of this kind, in the meeting of 
old-time friends. This morning I inquired if my old friend and 
schoolmate, Mrs. Ingham, was in the room. The lady to whom 
I spoke pointed her out to me, and I told her that I did not need 
an introduction. I went up to her, and she took me by the hand, 
and looked me in the face, and I said, "You do not know me." 
She then said, "Yes, I do, it's Sam Newman." How much pleas- 
ure comes in being remembered in that way, because it takes one 
back to school days and boyhood days, the most pleasant in life. 
A short time ago I said to my friend, Mr. Gallup, "I read a poem 
not long ago, that I think would please you very much." I re- 
cited it to him, and was asked to give it at the next meeting of 
the Firelands today. It was a poem entitled : 


Tell me a tale of the airly days, 
Of times as they used to be, 
Pillar of fire and Shakespeare's plays 
Is a'most too deep for me. 
I love plain speech, I love plain words 
Of the good old fashioned ways 
"""When speech ran free as the song of birds, 
Way back in the airly days. 

Tell me a tale of the timber lands, 
Of the old time Pioneers, 
Suthin' a poor man can understand, 
With his feelings as well as his ears. 


Tell of the old log house, 
About the loft and the puncheon floor, 
The old fireplace with the crane swung back, 
And the latch-string through the door. 

Tell things jist as they was, 

They don't need no excuse, 

Don't tech them up as the poets do 

Till they're all too fine for use. 

Jist say there was 'leven in the family. 

Two beds .and a chist below, 

The trundle-beds, 'at each held three ; 

The clock and the old bureau. 

Then blow the horn out the old back door, 

Till the echoes all halloo, 

And the children come a-trooping home 

Jist as they used to do. 

Blow for pap till he hears and comes 

With Tomps and Elias too, 

A'marching home with the fife and drum 

And the old red, white and blue. 

Then blow and blow till the sound draps low 

As the song of the whippoorwill, 

And wake up mother and Ruth and Joe 

All sleeping at Bethel Hill. 

Then blow and call till their faces all 

Shine out in the backlog's blaze, » 

And their shadows dance on the old hewed wall 

As they did in the airly days. 

Mr. Stewart exhibits some fancy work done by Sarah Rob- 
inson Atherton, who is one hundred years and twenty-five days 
old. There were nine children in their family, eight of whom 
have passed away. 

A photograph of Sarah Atherton was exhibited, which was 
taken June 25, 1900. 

Talk by Mr. Barney : (Mr. Barney lived in Erie county, and 
carried the first mail that was ever carried between Elyria and 
Oberlin.) I am very much interested in what I have heard in 
this meeting today. My father came by land to Birmingham, 
Erie county, about the first of March, 1833, and died there in 
1838. He and his family came to Harpersfield, Ashtabula 


county, in 1.831, and lived there two years, He then went to 
Birmingham. There was very much excitement over the Mor- 
mon religion at this time, and they were first established there 
during this time. There was finally an uprising, and they were 
compelled to flee. They believed that they could gain in strength 
a great deal by traveling and preaching through the country. I 
have recollection of a great army of men going away with colors 
flying, and coming back, not having had success. When a young 
man I went one and one-half miles to 1 school. When thirteen 
years of age I carried mail for $5.60 a month. Carried it in 
pockets. Carried Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays, for two 
years. At this time the first newspaper was published in Oberlin. 
I left the Firelands in 1840. 

Address by Mr. Baughman, of Richland County. 



It may be interesting to the younger as well as to the older 
class of people to recall some of the industrial, social and re- 
ligious gatherings of the Pioneers of Ohio. 

In the early settlement of the country there were cabin and 
barn raisings, log-rollings, wood-choppings, corn-huskings, and 
sewing and quilting parties, and at such gatherings, utility and 
amusements were usually blended. 

Rich and poor then met upon lines of social equality, and 
the old and the young mingled together in those old-time gath- 

The Pioneers were helpful to each other, not only in "rais- 
ings" and "rollings," requiring a force of men, but also in other 
ways. If -a settler was incapacitated from work by sickness or 
other cause, his neighbors set a day and gathered in force and 
plowed his corn, harvested his grain, or cut his wood for the 
winter, as the season or occasion required. And when a pig 
or a calf or a sheep was killed, a piece of the same was sent to 
the several families in the neighborhood, each of whom recip- 
rocated in kind, and in this neighborly way all had fresh meats 
the greater part of the summer. 


Corn-huskings were great occasions. Sometimes the 
corn ears were stripped from the stalks and hauled to a favor- 
able place and put in parallel or semi-circular windrows, con- 
venient for the huskers. Moonlight nights were usually chosen 
for husking-bees, and sometimes bonfire lights were impro- 
vised. After the company gathered, captains were selected who 
chose the men off into two squads or platoons which competed 
in the work, each trying to finish its row first. The captain of 
the winning squad would then be carried around on the shoul- 
ders of his men, amid their triumphal cheers, and then the bottle 
would be passed. 

Women also attended these Pioneer gatherings and some- 
times assisted at the husking, but more frequently were en- 
gaged in the early evening in quilting or sewing, or in helping 
to prepare the great supper-feast that was served after the work 
was done. 

There was a rule that a young man could kiss a girl for 
each red ear of corn found at a husking, and it goes without the 
saying that all the girls were kissed, some of them several times, 
for it was surprising how many red ears were found — so many, 
that the number was prima facie evidence that some of the boys 
went to the huskings with their pockets full of red corn ears. 

Nearly all the Pioneer gatherings wound up after supper 
with dancing, in which the old joined as well as the young, and 
when a fiddler could not be obtained, music for the occasion 
was furnished by some one blowing on a leaf, or by whistling 
"dancing tunes." The dancing then was more vigorous than 
artistic, perhaps, for the people were robust in those days, 
effeminacy not becoming fashionable until later years. 

The Pioneers were industrious people. The situation re- 
quired that the men must chop and grub and clear the land ere 
they could plow and sow and reap. And the women had to 
card and spin and knit and weave and make garments for their 
families, in addition to their household work. A Pioneer min- 
ister's wife in telling about her work upon a certain occasion, 
said : "I've made a pair of pants and a bed-tick, and washed 
and baked, and ironed six pies today/' s 

Wool had to be carded into rolls by hand, and after the 
rolls had been spun into yarn and the yarn woven into flannel, 


the, product of the loom had to be "fulled" into thicker cloth 
for men's wear. As this was a nand or rather a foot process,, 
it necessitated "fulling" or "kicking" parties. Upon such oc- 
casions the web was stretched out loosely on the puncheon 
floor and held at each end, while men with bared feet sat in rows 
at the sides and kicked the cloth, while the women poured on 
warm soapsuds, and the white foam of the suds would often 
be thrown over both kickers and attendants. 

Carding and woolen mills and spinning and weaving fac- 
tories came later, served their purposes and time, but are no 
more, and now people go to stores and get "hand-me-down" 
suits without either asking or caring where or how they were 

While there were social amusements in Pioneer times, re- 
ligious services were not neglected. As there were but few 
church buildings then, camp meetings were frequently held dur- 
ing the summer season. Camp meeting trips were 'enjoyable 
outings. The roads to the camp grounds often ran by se- 
questered farm homes and through shady woodlands, where the 
rays of the sun shimmered charmingly through leafy tree- 
tops, and the fragrance of the wayside flowers deliciously per- 
fumed the summer air. 

At the camp, white tents in a semi-circle partly surrounded 
an amphitheater of seats in front of a pulpit canopied by trees. 
The Creator of heaven and earth reared the columns of those 
camp cathedrals, along whose bough-spanned dome, soft winds 
whispered and in whose leafy fretwork birds sang. From the 
mossy floor flowers sent up their perfume like altar incense, and 
in accord with place and surroundings, the congregation was 
wont to sing 

" There seems a voice in every gale, 
A tongue in every flower, 
Which tells, O Lord, the wondrous tale 
Of thy Almighty power ! " 

At the camp, visitors were received with cordial greetings, 
for the campers had the warmth of friendship in their hearts and 
of Christian zeal in their souls, and their frank manner and win- 
some ways were favorable, preludes to the services that followed. 

At these camp meetings some of the worshippers would 


become quite demonstrative at times, for the personal mani- 
festations of joy or devotion dfffer as much as our natures dif- 
fer. No two persons give expression in the same way to any 
human emotion. Religion can come to you only in accord- 
ance with your nature, and you can respond to it only in the 
same way. 

Singing was a prominent feature of camp services. It was 
the old-fashioned singing, without instrumental accompani- 
ment. Singing, such as our dear old mothers sang, and al- 
though faulty, perhaps, in note, came from 4 the heart and went 
to the heart. The singing of today may be more artistically 
rendered, but it is the old-time songs that comfort us in our 
sorrow and sustain us in our trials as they come back to us in 
hallowed remembrance from the years that are past. 

Mr. Wildman moves that Mr. Baughman be thanked for his 
paper, and that he present the same for publication in the Pioneer. 
Seconded by a gentleman in the audience. Carried. 

Judge Sheldon, from Illinois, said he was a half-brother to 
Judge Cunningham, of Urbana, 111. Lived there forty-seven 
years, but call the Firelands my home. I have attended this meet- 
ing hoping a reunion of old friends, but every time I come back 
to the Firelands on a visit there are fewer and fewer of the old 
Pioneers living. It is the object of my life to so live that when 
the affairs of this life are ended I hope we may all meet where 
parting shall be no more. 

The choir sang "Auld Lang Syne," assisted by the audience. 
Mr. Sloane requested that the audience stand and sing with a will. 

Judge Wickham takes floor. Says he is a Connecticut 
yankee, and was born upon the Firelands, and withthe exception 
of a few years has lived upon the Firelands ever since, and has 
made his home in Huron county. Speaks of his life in school 
with Mr. Newman. Speaks of Mr. Newman as one of the best 
schoolmasters in this locality. 

Mr. Tillinghast moves that a vote of thanks be extended to 
the choir for the music, and to the President for SO' ably conduct- 
ing the meeting. Carried. 

Adjourned to meet in October in Sandusky. 


of the 

Firelands Historical Society 




The meeting was held in Trinity M. E. Church. It was 
opened at 10:30 in the forenoon by the President, Hon. Rush R. 
Sloane, who called upon Rev. Clement G, Martin, D. D., to invoke 
the blessing of the Father of all good upon the proceedings. 

After the invocation, the duet "Greeting" was rendered by 
Mrs. J. W. Andrews and Mrs. F. P. Zollinger, Mrs. Frank G. 
Sloane accompanying on the piano. 

The President then delivered the following address : 



Members of the Firelands Historical Society; Venerable Pioneers; 
Ladies and Gentlemen: 

As President of the Firelands Historical Society, and as a 
native and lifelong citizen of Sandusky, I appreciate most highly 
the distinguished privilege and honor of welcoming to this city 
the Pioneers of the Firelands and the members of this society, on 
this day and occasion. 


Our citizens are proud to have in our city this gathering of 
the members of a society, so venerable in years, so large in num- 
bers, founded on such principles of public benefit and so noted for 
good works, not for the day, but is gathered up and will be a part 
of the history of future time. 

The end of the mission of this society, if we all do our duty, 
will only be with the end of time. 

The events of this day, the acquaintances and friendships 
formed, and all happy incidents of your stay with us, will be 
cherished among our happiest recollections. 

To many of our people you are bound by the strong ties of 
brotherhood, but to us all, by the love of a common country, and 
as being citizens of the same dear old state, and consequently are 
interested in us, and we in you, and all in the history, growth and 
prosperity of our country. Less than ninety years ago this re- 
gion was almost wholly given to the Indians, now and then, 
however, visited by some adventurous, wandering traveler, each 
of whom who has left any record, speaks in glowing and even 
enchanting terms of the surpassing beauty of Sandusky Bay and 
the scenery thereabouts. At that time the Wyandots were mon- 
archs here, and, on the score of bravery, held unquestioned su- 
premacy among Indians. 

The following anecdote illustrates this trait : When General 
Wayne assumed the position of Greenville in 1793, he sent for 
Captain Wells, who commanded a company of scouts, and told 
him that he wished him to> go to Sandusky and take a prisoner 
for the purpose of obtaining information. Weills (who had been 
taken from Kentucky when a boy, and brought up among the 
Indians, was perfectly acquainted with their character) answered 
that he could take a prisoner but not from Sandusky. "And why 
not from Sandusky?" said the General. "Because," answered 
the Captain, "there are only Wyandots there." "Well, why will 
not Wyandots do?" "For the best of reasons," said Wells, "be- 
cause Wyandots will not be taken alive." But what a change 
does time produce, and especially in this, our own progressive 
country. For near where we are now assembled was the Wigwam 
of Indian Chief Ogontz, and the very ground where we now 
stand is considered by tradition as being the last resting place of 


the great prophet Sasheek, "whose voice was the oracle of his 
day, and whose word was the law of his empire." And this shore, 
so rich in historical narrative, and which formerly was the arena 
of many a fierce encounter between struggling bands of warriors, 
and was so crowded with scenes of tragic interest, has become the 
site of our peaceful, busy city, where church and school exert 
their benign influence, where science and art flourish and have 
many magnificent monuments erected by and to them, where 
culture and improvement are held in high respect, and where a 
happy people have their pleasant cheerful homes. 

And this bay lying before us, so greatly admired by all who 
see it, which nature has formed and beautified with bountifully 
lavish land, then floated only the Indian's fragile canoe, now rides 
in safety on her capacious bosom, the 1 commerce of a mighty 

Passing out between the points of land, which, like encircling 
arms, enclose our harbor, we come in sight of the islands of Lake 
Erie, first brought into renown by Perry's most memorable 
victory, which forever blasted British schemes of domination in 
the Northwest, and gave quiet and protection to the defenseless 
settlers of this frontier, but which since, as health and pleasure 
resorts, have added to their fame, and by their loveliness and 
beauty attract yearly thousands of visitors in search of health 
and recreation. 

Not until 1816, the same year only that the state of Indiana 
was admitted into the Union, was the first permanent white settle- 
ment made here ; and from that time to this, with varying pros- 
perity, our town has grown to be what it is, at times contending 
against serious obstacles and opposition, but always making pro- 
gress and improvements. The first frame building was erected 
in this plafe in the year 181 7. The first stone building was 
erected in 1821, and with alterations and additions is yet standing 
on Columbus avenue. 

The first school was opened by a young lady in 181 8. The 
first newspaper published here was the Sandusky Clarion in 
1822. The same year a stage route was established from here to 
Columbus, and in the same year was launched the steamboat 
Superior, the second steamboat that ever navigated Lake Erie. 


From this place and running south was built the first rail- 
road west of the Alleghanies, and with one exception in the 
United States, and your speaker remembers distinctly the im- 
posing ceremonies attending the commencement of that enter- 
prise, and in which participated that most distinguished civilian, 
soldier and President, General Wm. H. Harrison, on the 17th day 
of September, 1835. 

Among the important business interests of Sandusky is the 
handling of stone for different purposes, and yet it is a curious 
fact that the man who erected the first stone building here was 
laughed at for his attempt and told that he could not obtain 
enough material to complete it, but he did, and to-day Sandusky 
stone is used for buildings and other works, not only in our own 
vicinity, but in all parts of the country. Our manufactories are 
large and various, and their products are sent to all parts of the 
world. From the waters of our bay and lake, fish are taken in 
great quantities, and render us a large revenue, and yearly, tons 
of them are sent to the interior towns and cities of this and other 
states. Owing to our calcareous soil and proximity to the water, 
the grape is most successfully cultivated, as the vine-clad shores 
of our main land and the neighboring islands will attest, and 
therefore our grape and wine trade is large and important. 

But I will not encroach on your time by a more extended 
description of our city and its various interests, for to-day you 
are here for a reunion, when old friendships can be renewed and 
new ones made, and you will part, when the time for parting 
comes, feeling better and happier for these few hours of friendly 

We all have our duties and obligations, let us one and all 
not forget that the present is indebted to the past, and therefore 
the people of to-day should provide for the future. 

We have had the benefit of observations of the past, and we 
of to-day should preserve and perpetuate this accumulated in- 
formation for the benefit of those who will come after us. 

Our whole country is most eminently a land of marvelous 
development and progress. Our ancestors were men and women 
of toil, patience and perseverance. Beginning at sterile Plymouth 


Rock, they made it a fruitful field and erected there a state, small 
in size, but full of enterprise, and an empire in resources and 

Then they founded state after state in their western pro- 
gress, not dismayed by savage Indians or mountain barriers. 
They penetrated vast forests and floated down hundreds of miles, 
on rafts, upon the bosoms of our great rivers. Heedless of storm, 
of exposure and of hardship, they endured it all without a 
murmur. Oh, how have we loved to read of their methods and 
have sympathized with them in their sufferings, their exploits and 
experiences. Of many of these thrilling stories and adventurous 
lives, we have no record ; it is chielfly through the zealous and 
persevering efforts of societies like "The Firelands Historical 
Society" that we have secured and preserved what we now have 
of, these memorable events of days gone by. We know the 
ancients from remotest time to perpetuate events, erected monu- 
ments ; having no knowledge of the art of printing, they engraved 
historic events upon enduring marble, and even now are extant 
some of these ancient records in wonderful preservation. Should 
we not learn then from the ancients to make and convey records 
of our time forward to posterity? 

Let every one aid this worthy object, yes, this duty, by be- 
coming members of this society, and each year subscribe for one 
or more copies of the FireXands Pioneer, the only history of 
the counties of Huron and Erie, or in other words, of the Fire- 
lands, and the only enduring record for the future, of the acts and 
deeds of our Pioneers and their descendants. 

Yes, ladies and gentlemen, I beg of you that you go> not back 
in this work which your fathers commenced. Let it be a success 
and perpetuated. 

And let it all be done in the fear of God and to the glory of 
His name. (Applause.) 

The Scotch solo "Jamie" having been sung by Mrs. Andrews, 
the President noted the presence in the audience of Hon. Gideon 
T. Stewart, an ex-president of the society, whom he invited to 
occupy a seat on the rostrum, and the invitation was accepted. 


The President, in introducing the author of the first paper 
to be read, said : 

We are honored today by the presence of two distinguished 
natives of the Firelands, one of them born in this city, the other al- 
most upon its environs, in the neighboring township of Perkins. 
I feel very much gratified that those gentlemen will address dur- 
ing the day this large and very attentive audience. I have now, 
my friends, the privilege of presenting to you one of the most 
distinguished citizens of this great country — a man born upon the 
old town plat of this city, his father becoming a citizen of the old 
town of Portland before the '20s of the past century ; a man who, 
as a boy, early, as if a kindly Providence had directed his steps 
and knew wherein his strength when he became a man would lie, 
directed his steps into a distant city where, before he had reached 
manhood's age, he attracted the attention of financiers in that old 
Quaker city, and within a few years thereafter became a member 
of a most distinguished firm, then perhaps as much so 1 as any in 
the United States ; but as this young man continued to grow in 
years and. strength, this country of ours, which at that time had 
never dr darned of an internal rebellion or struggle, became in- 
volved in what proved to be the greatest struggle of the nineteenth 
century — a struggle which involved in arms over a million and a 
half of men, and a struggle which taxed to its utmost tension and 
capacity the people of this great American union. I am now 
speaking not from hearsay or from book learning, but it was my 
good fortune to be one of the very first appointees of President 
Lincoln in a position of trust that brought me almost every month 
to the capital of this nation. I was there when the city of Wash- 
ington was invested by armed rebels. I was there when General 
Scott said to President Lincoln, "I can not defend this city. You 
must call upon the loyal men in Washington to defend the city 
and to protect your life." I was honored by Mr. Chase, then the 
secretary of the treasury, and John Sherman, then just elected 
senator from Ohio, by being* appointed to* select on that memorable 
day in early April the loyal msn from Ohio to unite and join with 
loyal citizens of other states, then in Washington, in forming 
that first armed force to protect the life of President Lincoln and 
to defend and protect the city of Washington — the great and 


celebrated Cassius M. Clay brigade. It is not necessary for me 
to dwell on this struggle from that time. Soon Sumpter fell. 
Soon armed rebels were all over the south. Emerging as we were 
from the Buchanan administration, at a time when our govern- 
ment bonds were only bringing 85 to 86 cents on the dollar, with 
our interest so high that our government was paying eight per 
cent. ; at a time when Secretary Chase, to my personal knowledge, 
had called in vain upon the banks of New York and of the country 
to furnish money for the war, when they said to him that "fifty 
millions is all we can advance for the government," — at that 
moment, this gentleman who will speak to you today, was called 
upon by the government to know whether or not he could furnish 
the means with wliich to crush that wicked and unholy rebellion ; 
and within a limited space of time, and as needed by the govern- 
ment, he successfully did raise for our government in that day of 
its sorest need, when all other resources had failed, over two bil- 
lions of dollars, and it wks that successful financiering that 
crushed the rebellion. I know, my fellow citizens, from a gentle- 
man whom I had the pleasure of meeting in Philadelphia at the 
time of the last Republican national convention in June last, that 
General Grant, only a day or two before the surrender of Lee, in 
April, 1865, when this gentleman was saying to General Grant, — 
knowing that the rebellion was on its last legs, so to speak — the 
country owed him so much, the reply of General Grant was, "The 
country owes Jay Cooke more. I have done my duty, but with- 
out Jay Cooke's help and his manner and his methods the money 
could not have been raised, the funds could not have been sup- 
plied the government ,and the rebellion might have succeeded. 
The country owes that debt to Jay Cooke, for our soldiers could 
not have fought without supplies and without rations and without 
pay." Now, my fellow citizens, I will only take time to allude to 
another matter, and that is that virtually this distinguished in- 
dividual was the father of that great international railway which 
now connects the East with the Pacific, for it was Jay Cooke, in 
1871, that pointed out, after having spent hundreds of thousands 
cf dollars to my certain knowledge in investigating those great 
territories and states of the Northwest, in developing northern 
Wisconsin, and Minnesota, and Dakota, and Idaho, and Montana, 


and Washington, and northern Oregon — why, the older men in this 
room will recollect that in those days because Mr. Cooke had said 
in his published works that there was a belt of country that would 
grow anything that the most temperate regions would grow, they 
called it "J a y Cooke's Banana Line ;" but it has demonstrated since 
that it is the greatest wheat belt, and it is the greatest oat belt 
and it is the greatest belt of various cereals in this whole con- 
tinent of ours ; and I say to you, my fellow citizens, that Time, 
that equalizer of all .true events, will demonstrate that on the 
Temple of Fame, among its very highest and near the very high- 
est niche of that temple will be found the name of that gentleman 
who will address you — the Hon. Jay Cooke. (Applause.) 

Hon. Jay Cooke was enthusiastically received when he as- 
cended the rostrum to read his address, which was as follows : 


[Entered According to Act ot Congress, in the Year 1900, by Jay Cooke, in the 
Office of the Librarian of Congress, Washington, D. C] 

OCTOBER 3, 1900. 

Mr. President, and Members of the Fir elands Historical Society: 

You must not expect from me on this occasion anything more 
than a truthful talk upon some subjects your President tells me 
you will be pleased to listen to as coming from one who, although 
not a member of your Society yet, has for long years kept himself 
informed as to your aims and purposes and who has taken much 
interest in all you have done. I never delivered a speech in all 
my nearly eighty years of life. The largest body I have ever ad- 
dressed was a male bible class of sometimes 150 members which I 
have conducted each Sabbath for nearly fifty years and yet when 
I recalled the fact that my dear father, the Hon. Eleutheros Cooke, 
so frequently in the long ago met with you and addressed you and 
that your Society has numbered and now numbers many old 
friends, I could not refuse the invitation to appear before you. 

My preference would have been, however, to have met and 
talked with you at the fireside of my own home. Oh, what hours 
we could have spent together, chatting about the good old times, 



the old friends, the thousand and one incidents, old customs and 
experiences and again of the wondrous changes that have taken 
place, the rapid progress in arts and sciences and inventions in 
steamships and railroads, and telegraph and telephones. Why a 
whole year of such talks would hardly suffice to exhaust the in- 
finite sum of the items we would recall from memory's storehouse, 
even a memory reaching no further backwards than three score 
years and ten. 

My friends, I consider myself as one of you. I was born 
near the spot where we are now assembled. I have a perfect 
recollection of Sandusky when it was but just changing from an 
Indian village. Old Ogontz many a time has carried me on his 
shoulders I named nry beautiful home near Philadelphia after 
this old chief and now the whole country around me for miles has 
appropriated for their postoffice, railroad station and village the 
name of Ogontz. 

My father, I think, built the first stone house down on Colum- 
bus avenue. The town was then called Portland, and afterwards 
Sandusky City and now Sandusky. My first recollection of any 
public worship was of a Methodist meeting held in a cooper shop 
on Market street, our seats rough boards placed on kegs. Shortly 
after this a small frame church was erected by the Methodists 
near where the courthouse stands. After this a stone church 
built by the Congregationalists, also a stone church by the Episco- 
palians and many other societies followed until in time this fair 
city has become noted as a city of churches. 

The bay was at certin times covered with ducks and wild 
geese and swan and the water populous with all kinds of fish. I 
remember a joke which our rival neighbors used to perpetrate. 
i. e., that before the Sandusky people could dine or sup they would 
have to send us boys down to the docks to catch enough fish for 
a meal. But in fact this whole country was full of game and fish 
of all kinds, a perfect paradise for hunters and fishermen. Deer 
and squirrels and prairie chickens and wild turkey, etc., abounded. 

My father never was a hunter but on one occasion he beat 
us all in prowess by capturing a couple of dozen of fat wild turkeys 
without firing a gun. He had a hundred-acre field of corn out 


on the prairie and had built a spacious corn house in the centre. 
One day, riding over this field after harvest, he noticed a window 
was open and approaching and looking in discovered a large flock 
of wild turkeys within and feasting on his corn. He promptly 
closed the window and captured the whole flock, thus providing a 
feast for the good old Thanksgiving day then near at hand. 

On this same prairie between Bloomingville and Strong's 
Ridge I have hunted with Judge Caldwell. It was a rare spot 
for deer and prairie chickens. 

And now before closing these personal reminiscences I wish 
to refer to an incident which some of you will no doubt recall. 
It is this, at one of your meetings in Norwalk long ago my father, 
who was the orator on that occasion, took from his pocket the 
very first telegram that had been sent from Philadelphia to San- 
dusky. He reminded you of past difficulties, particularly in the 
earlier periods, in the matter of mails and messages from the East 
and how that frequently letters were days and weeks before reach- 
ing their destination and now he held in his hand a message that 
he had received from his son Jay from Philadelphia in just five 
minutes from the time his son had written it that very morning. 

To realize the wondrous change that you and I have wit- 
nessed we can recall the time when postage on a letter from San- 
dusky to; Norwalk was twelve and one-half cents and from Boston 
to Sandusky was twenty-five cents and if the envelope contained 
an enclosure beside the one sheet the postage was doubled. Why, 
my dear friends, I myself have paid seventy-five cents on a letter 
to my sweetheart in Kentucky just because there was so much 
news in Philadelphia that it required three sheets to tell it all. 
You and I remember when tomatoes were called "Love Apples" 
and were not eaten, considered poisonous. We remember the 
first soda water fountains, the first daguerreotype, the first steam- 
ship that crossed the ocean, the first railroad charter obtained in 
the world and that by my own father in 1826. We all remember 
the beginning of the road, at first between Sandusky and Belle- 
vue, with a thin English strap rail and cars drawn by a horse. 

I was present when, about 1835, ground was broken near 
Foreman's rope walk and a grand celebration held. All the 



great men of the state were invited. "Old Tippecanoe," the first 
President Harrison, was there. My father delivered the oration. 
We had music and a cannon and we boys all marched in the pro- 

At this time a few other railroad projects had been launched, 
a few miles of the Baltimore & Ohio, some three miles of the 
Germantown road, also a piece of the Albany & Schenectady road 
and a mile in the Quincy granite quarries. But to my father and 
to the Western Reserve belongs the honor of being the pioneer 
in railroad matters. From this small beginning hundreds of thou- 
sands of miles of railroad have been constructed, why, my friends, 
there are today enough fininshed railroads in the United States 
alone to reach around the world fully ten times. 

I have since 1838, when I took up my residence in Phila- 
delphia, almost continually been financiering for railroads. As 
a member of the great firm of E. W. Clark & Co., and afterwards 
of the firm of Jay Cooke & Co., I have until recent years been in- 
strumental in the building of nearly all the older railroads of the 
country. The last of these, the great Northern Pacific Railroad, 
now a triumphant success and which has developed one of the 
finest portions of this country, where, in 1870, a vast territory was 
filled with buffalo and Indians, can now be found over six millions 
of intelligent and energetic farmers and miners and merchants and 
ranchmen, etc., and many large cities and thriving towns, hun- 
dreds of churches, schools and colleges and branch railroads in- 

In fact whether I journey East or West, North or South, 
I can recall the fact that at some early date our firms financiered 
the bonds issued by these roads many of which were entirely in 
our hands at some period of their history. I have always had 
faith in well managed railroad property. About the only time I 
ever met Jay Gould was when I asked him to assist in extending 
the Union Pacific 175 miles into southern Utah. This he agreed 
to do. The purpose was to reach the great Horn silver mine at 
Frisco and it took us just twenty minutes to close the bargain, al- 
though the railroad alone cost over two millions of which the 
Union Pacific subscribed for one-half. This road was completed 


in five months. I had, I remember, one other transaction with 
Mr. Gould, and I found him in each case entirely trustworthy and 
reliable, and my confidence in his word was so great that we did 
not even draw up or sign any papers. He simply said : "I will 
do it, go ahead, and I will do my part." 

I suppose it was this association from early youth with large 
financial and commercial transactions that gave me a vast exper- 
ience and opened my mind and widened my views as to the future 
of this glorious nation so that at the period of the Mexican War 
from 1846 to 1849, as a member of the firm of E. W. Clark & Co., 
I assisted in the negotiation of the Government loans required 
from time to time to carry on that war. Corcoran & Riggs, of 
Washington, and E. W. Clark & Co., of Philadelphia, took all of 
those loans. The amount altogether did not exceed sixty or sev- 
enty millions. Robert J. Walker was Secretary of the Treasury 
at that time and author of the Sub-treasury System. I was quite 
intimate with him, not then, but during the War of the Rebellion. 

I could tell you of some amusing details as to> the manipula- 
tion of the Mexican War Loans. Why our firm made more profit 
out of each of their shares of the ten million awards than I made 
during the whole period of the War of the Rebellion, a period of 
between four and five years during which, as selling agent of this 
Government, I negotiated all the great loans issued amounting to 
over two thousand millions of dollars, this sum includes the early 
issue of temporary loan certificates, loan of 1881, 5-20 bonds, 10- 
40 bonds, 7-30 notes, etc., etc. This last loan was for eight hun- 
dred and thirty millions and I sold it all within five months, the 
sales occasionally reaching ten to fifteen millions a day and one 
day forty-two' millions. It was the closing war loan and before its 
marvellous sale was concluded the war had ended. I could tell 
you, if I had time, of how I saved the Treasury one hundred mil- 
lions of dollars and how the success of this loan elevated the credit 
of this nation to a pinnacle far above that of any nation on earth 
and gave the final blow to the great Rebellion. 

This saving of one hundred millions was acknowledged by all 
acquainted with the facts and was originated and carried out suc- 
cessfully solely by myself, the Treasury department 'simply agree- 


,ing to my wishes and plans. It was in connection with the vast 
issue of Quartermaster Certificates and the unwise provision made 
for their redemption which, instead of distributing the money, I 
poured into* the Treasury pro rata upon each outstanding group 
of certificates, paid out the bulk of it in Philadelphia, New York 
and Boston, leaving the hundreds of other Quartermaster Depart- 
ments frequently for months without funds. 

The consequence was that whilst Quartermaster Certificates 
in Philadelphia and the East could be sold when first issued at 10 
to 12 per cent, discount, the discount in Cincinnati, St. Louis, 
Chicago, etc., was 22 to 25 per cent., other points 30 to 35 per 
cent, and at Nashville I heard of a sale at 50 per cent, discount. 
Now all this discount together with the doubts and fears created 
by the want of prompt payment which greatly checked competition 
added at least one million per day to the cost of the war and dis- 
credited our bonds and gave hopes to the rebels and their sympa- 
thizers at the North and in Europe that we would break down 
financially. I pondered over this fearful situation and devised 
and executed at once a scheme which within thirty days gave 
promise of the speedy ending of the war and reduced the discount 
on all vouchers issued by quartermasters in all parts of the country 
to not over 2 to 3 f>er cent, and in fact the money flowed so rapidly 
into the Treasury that ere long the vouchers were cashed as soon 
as issued. This, my friends, is the first time I have made any pub- 
lic mention of my services in connection with this marvellous mat- 
ter. You will wonder how it was accomplished. 

It was in this way. I called to my office in Philadelphia to 
confer with me all the large holders of vouchers residing in the 
Eastern cities. These men agreed unanimously and privately to 
accept my proposition and to keep the plan from publicity in order 
that the greatest good could be accomplished by its success. These 
men held about eighty millions of vouchers, all of which were 
within a few days deposited with me and for which I gave them 
the current issue of 7-30 notes at par ; they agreeing to use them 
as a basis of bank loans until I had closed out the sale of 7"3o's 
for cash. They could borrow 25 per cent, more on the 7-30's than 
on the vouchers, and as the 7-30's carried interest they got their 


loans practically without cost. As these Treasury notes were 
day by day issued in exchange for the Quartermaster's Certifi- 
cates, I was thereby able to add from three to ten millions a day to 
the sum of the public subscriptions which, as I knew it would, 
created such an increased demand for the notes by the public and 
even foreign purchasers that the whole eight hundred and thirty 
millions of this issue were all sold within five short months. All 
the loans I negotiated went to a large premium. The 7-30 Treas- 
ury notes after a short period were all funded into long bonds or 
paid off. I will say here that all the bonds I negotiated for the 
United States were paid off in gold as advertised and many of 
them long before they were due and being purchased at a pre- 
mium by the Treasury. 

I am afraid I am already trespassing upon your time with 
these details, but you asked me to tell you some of the plans I 
adopted to win so great a success. I will but hint at a few of 
them and simply remark that these plans, originating as they did 
from practical business experience and entire independence of 
action and freedom from red tape, were such as no official or the 
Government itself could have planned or executed. Take for in- 
stance the folowing. 

Newspapers and individuals got into the habit of deploring 
the war and its vicious expenditures. I offset this by quoting the 
fact that every dollar raised by the loans went right back into the 
hands of the people and was new and vigorous blood permeating 
all through the body of the nation and at that time the 
expense of the war had reached the vast sum of six hundred mil- 
lions per annum. I simply, in addition to the fact as stated above, 
published statistics showing the importation annually for years 
past of the best kind of immigrants, mostly from the British Isles 
and the north of Europe. Such importation averaged over 
600,000 per annum. The cost of rearing to the average age of 
those coming here was at least $1,000 each. This in addition to the 
money and goods which each immigrant brought in. These for- 
eign countries were contributing to the United States without 
cost to us more than we were expending upon our war besides 
furnishing us many times the number of those who were killed 


and wounded and who were ready and glad to take their places 
in the ranks. Thus by using the' newspapers and pamphlets and 
circulars to disseminate these facts thoroughly and constantly all 
over the land I soon dispelled all gloom and brought about a more 
cheerful condition of public opinion. Another incident. The 
Quakers, so numerous in Pennsylvania and in many other states, 
so rich and patriotic, were, as I knew, only held back from invest- 
ing millions in the United States bonds by the thought that the 
money was for war purposes. Their consciences could not be 
reconciled to helping pay for war and bloodshed. How did I man- 
age them? In this way. I sent for a number of them whom I 
knew personally and held conferences with them, the result of 
which was that I told them that I was in full sympathy with their 
scruples and had taken measures at Washington to make it possible 
for them also to subscribe for bonds. I told them that millions 
of money was required for hospitals and sanitary purposes, the 
sick and wounded must be cared for, etc., and that if they sub- 
scribed, their money would by especial agreement be applied by 
the Treasury Department to thus doing good to the suffering 

My proposition was cordially accepted and was widely madt 
known through circulars and the newspapers, telegraph, etc., and 
soon my Quaker friends began to pour in millions from all parts 
of the country. Another incident. I had to labor with a class 
of men who invested only in first mortgages on real estate and 
would not invest in bonds of the United States. I got some of 
these men to a conference and told them that my Government 
bonds were far ahead of their first mortgages ; that in fact, their 
first mortgages were only second or third mortgages after all. In 
the first place the tax gatherers of the city and state both have a 
prior lien. If the owner of the mortgaged property is unable to 
pay his taxes the holder of the mortgage must do so or see his se- 
curity glide from him. But above all I made clear to them the 
fact of the supreme position of the National Government not only 
in the matter of imposition of any amount of taxation but even to 
the practical possession of every property in the land if its pos- 
session should be required to maintain the life of the nation. The 


nation's claim was first of all and universal confiscation of all prop- 
erty would be resorted to if needed to sustain the nation's life. 

This is a solemn fact and these men understood it at once, be- 
ing practical business men, and at once began to put their money 
into the best of all, the first lien upon all, the glorious 5-20's and 
other United States bonds. These true views were disseminated 
everywhere and greatly increased the volume of subscriptions. 

I would not for a moment claim all the credit for the won- 
drous success that attended these vast negotiations which supplied 
almost wholly from the beginning to the end the money, the sin- 
ews of war during the great rebellion, the most gigantic contest 
this world has ever seen, but would share it with the host of faith- 
ful partners, clerks and assistants we employed and with our own 
numerous editorial staff and with the whole body of the press and 
newspapers throughout the land. The latter without exception 
or any discrimination whether they were North or South, East or 
West, Republican or Democratic, or "Copperhead," or Protestant 
or Catholic, with the single exception of the Sunday newspapers, 
I never paid a dollar to these breakers of the Sabbath, all 
alike published my advertisements and my special editorial articles. 
All were fully paid in cash, no discount asked and no commissions 
deducted by agents. It was a grand feast for the newspapers and 
the amount I expended during those four or five years reached 
probably two millions of dollars. Then too the country all the 
time was flooded with circulars and pamphlets and every possible 
means vigorously adopted to expand patriotism, to encourage the 
down-hearted, and to exalt the duty of every one subscribing to 
the current loans. 

The officers and soldiers in the camps were fully instructed, 
and in addition to appeals to them for faithful service they were 
asked to subscribe and they did subscribe many millions of dollars. 
It is not too much to say that my efforts to popularize these var- 
ious loans reached a grandeur of success that the world had never 
witnessed before; and that whilst our brave officers and soldiers 
and seamen were fighting great battles. I was confronted all the 
time with enemies less brave but equally active and strc.getic and 
determined, whom with the help of God and of splendid partners 


and assistants were finally overcome. I was asked during the great 
war when it seemed that a large portion of our prominent men in 
the army and navy and in public offices from the President and 
Secretaries down were Western men and particularly Ohio men, 
to explain how this could be. My answer was, so far as Ohio was 
concerned, that the men now of an age and experience to occupy 
these position were the children of those energetic men and women 
pioneers who settled the Western Reserve and other parts of the 
noble state. They came from New York, Pennsylvania and New 
England states mostly, and some Virginians and Marylanders, 
but the mere fact of coming here and of battling as pioneers had 
given their offspring sturdy and prominent characters, such as 
Chase, and the Shermans and Stantons. 

While I was, of course, more or less intimate with all the 
public men at Washington during the war yet I found my time 
so fully engaged that I j^.nt but little of it in their company and, 
unless for some especial work or consultation connected with the 
creating and issue of some new loan, I seldom visited Washington. 
My representatives there were my brother, Governor Henry D. 
Cooke, and Mr. H. C. Fahnestock, two noble and able men and 
partners in our house there. 

I have gone to Washington and conferred with Mr. Chase, 
Mr. Lincoln, Gen. Grant and Mr. McCulloch, Mr. Fessenden, 
John Sherman and many others, and all these gentlemen have 
from time to time visited me at Ogontz, my home near Phila- 
delphia, and Gibraltar, my Western Reserve Island home, and I 
have enjoyed unusual opportunities in conversing with them dur- 
ing and since the war, but will have to reserve these anecdotes and 
details for some other occasion. They were all noble men; our 
nation owes them a debt of gratitude that monuments and honors 
cannot repay. I have always felt that in this matter of men fitted 
and born for the occasion none but our nation's God could have 
chosen and sustained these glorious characters who were prom- 
inent in those dark days of strife and bloodshed. 

I will state that this nation stands today just where I prog- 
nosticated she would in due time stand, the most powerful, the 


richest, the most enlightened, and the freest and happiest nation 
on this earth. 

We have kept all our promises financially, have seen our 
whole land again reunited so that we have no North and no South, 
and our financial and commercial credit is greater even than 
Grea f Britain. We have been able to borrow money at 2 per cent., 
in tact have lately paid off a debt bearing only that interest and 
have lately taken a British loan of twenty-five millions and sent 
them the gold out of our superabundance to pay for it and I pre- 
sume from signs I see that we shall loan large sums to Russia be- 
fore long and perhaps to other powers of Europe. We are kings 
in the iron, coal, cotton and grain trade. 

It would require hundreds of pages to record the incidents 
and efforts accompanying the plans adopted for raising the mil- 
lions of dollars required each month during the war. In fact the 
experience of past negotiations was no guide to present ones, and 
not only in the form and terms of the different loans was there a 
constant variance, but instead of being sold by the Treasury De- 
partment the most of these gigantic loans were sold to the public 
through myself as general subscription agent. I thus employing 
all banks, bankers and other agents who were accountable to me 
direct daily, and by me settlement was made with the Treasury 
Department. I paid all advertising and appointed all my own 
agents. The Treasury Department had practically but little to 
do in the matter beyond printing the bonds and receiving and dis- 
bursing their proceeds. The wisdom of Mr. Chase, of Mr. Fes- 
senden and Mr. McCulloch as Secretaries of the Treasury was 
shown by a non-interference with my plans and the giving me per- 
fect liberty to manage the loans in my own way.. I was aided by 
some of the best writers in our land and thus was enabled to 1 in- 
troduce and popularize many ideas that were adopted and univer- 
sally believed in. Such for instance as that expenses of war if 
disbursed in our own borders tends rather to add to the nation's 
vigor and wealth, also that the population was rapidly increasing 
through iinmigration, increasing far beyond the loss by war, also 
that a Government bond was first lien upon all else and the best 



ful struggles, but will be to those of you who are looking forward 
to a future home in that Heavenly reserve, but an instant of 
transition. You will find there no early or later toil and struggles 
such as you met within this earthly reserve, but will realize in 
that Heavenly reserve such peace and rest and joy as we pilgrims 
of earth cannot conceive of. 

May we all meet again in that Heavenly Reserve. 


The Two-story Stone Building- was erected in 1821, by Hon. Eleu- 
theros Cook, father of Jay Cook. The one and a half story stone 
adjoining- on the north was erected by Col. John N. Sloane, father o^ 
Hon. Rush R. Sloane, in 1843, for a Law Office. The whole property 
being- then owned and occupied by Col. Sloane. It was removed and 
is still standing just south of the Moss National Bank on Columbus 

The President : I should have announced before Mr. Cooke 
read his paper that this address has been copyrighted, and while 
it would have been a pleasure for me to have this published at 
once in our own papers, and it would have been a gratification to 
you, yet this society has not been endowed, we have been strug- 



gling now for nearly fifty years, and my honored friend here, my 
predecessor, has devoted nearly twenty of the best years of his 
life to this work and this society of which the Pioneers are all 
so proud has made a record, my friends, of which any citizen of 
the state cf Ohio might well be proud — a record not surpassed if 
equalled by any historical society in the United States. There 
have been published by this society more than forty volumes of 


Erected in 1880, by Hon. Rush R. Sloane, on the site of the 
old Eleutherus Cooke Residence. 

history, of truthful history — history written by Pioneers in the 
two counties of Huron and Erie. We have had thousands and 
thousands of -valuable relics found upon the Firelands ; we have 
had no memorial hall in which to place those relics. We have had 
a large library presented to us. That library is still in a build- 
ing not fire-proof. Our neighboring city of Norwalk, the county 
seat of the old county of Huron from which this county, or the 
greater part of it was an offshoot, was the birthplace of this Fire- 
lands Historical Society, and I have the honor of being the first 
and only president of this society from the city of Sandusky since 


represent the Lorain County Historical Society. Judge Baldwin's 
brother is endeared to every lover of history by being the fore- 
most spirit and most active member of the Western Reserve His- 
torical Society, and his untimely death, as it seemed to many of 
us, caused all lovers of history a very great shock and pang only 
a few years since. 

The President then invited the Pioneers to partake of din- 
ner, which had been provided by the ladies of Trinity M. E. 
Church, and the morning session terminated. 


The proceedings opened with the Pioneer song, which was 
sung by a choir consisting* of Mesdames Andrews and Zollinger, 
Professor Heslet and Dr. C. E. Stroud, to the tune of "Auld 
Lang Syne." The large audience joined in the chorus, and the 
song was most inspiring. 

The next item on the program was a paper by Mrs. Jay O 
Moss, of Sandusky, as follows : 


Mr. President j Members of the Fir elands Society, and others: 

Your Honorable President, Judge Rush R. Sloane, has re- 
quested me to write a few w r ords in regard to the evolution of our 
"Free Library," its origin, its growth, prospects and future 

To do this well requires more time than I have at command, 
and access to records are not at present available. Besides this, 
I am limited to ten minutes. What man amongst you could pos- 
sibly imagine a woman could say all she might in only ten minutes. 
But a commencement of this fruitful topic takes us back to 
Pioneer days, recalling the hardships sustained cheerfully, and 
disadvantages endured, by these same early settlers in procuring 
necessary means of education and culture for their little ones. 

In 1818, the first school taught in Sandusky was opened in 
a log cabin situated on Wayne street. The name of the teacher 



has been preserved, a woman. She taught for the munificent 
sum of fifty cents per month ; when embroidery was added to the 
curriculum, she received twenty-five cents more. Later a frame, 
building was erected on the corner of Washington row and Co- 
lumbus avenue, but soon vacated for a building on the ground 
the Episcopal church now occupies. 

In 1828, a company of citizens formed an association, the 
object being the erection of a stone building suitable for 
academical purposes. The original plan must have failed, as the 
building was not completed until 1838, the association turning 
it over to Erie county for use as a courthouse. We well re- 
member the old relic; how rejoiced we were to see it torn down 
and replaced by our present High School building; thus you see 
the first and last school buildings on the east square were erected 
for educational purposes. At this time we are constantly re- 
minded of District schools and the different methods employed in 
teaching the young during the first half of the nineteenth century. 

Wherever schools were established, a demand arose for 
books. The community evidenced more interest in daily papers, 
and if you glance at our earliest journals, you will find many 
classical allusions from contributors showing the character of 
their reading. When the price of a dictionary cost the price of a 
cow, one can easily understand the scarcity of good books. 

Gradually we see more effort towards cultivating general 
intelligence. We read in the early Clarion of lectures and assem- 
blies. Reading circles were formed, and clubs for the purchase and 
circulation of magazines and kindred matter instituted. 

Sandusky, I regret to state, has not the honor of possessing 
the first library in Ohio; that belongs to Ames, in Athens county, 
which was established in 1804. Mr. Parish, in an article pub- 
lished in your magazine, states that "Mr. Robert Clarke claims Cin- 
cinnati had a library in 1802, books having been purchased with 
the $350.00 raised by a sale of $10 shares." This soon fell into 
obscurity, and was perhaps the basis of the Cincinnati Circulat- 
ing Library of later date. The "Coon Skin Library" at Ames 
was so styled from the sale of furs in Boston, the money from 
such sales purchasing the books. It was more fortunate than 
Cincinnati, its birth being followed by years of life. 


Generally libraries are evidence of interest manifested by 
benefactors or public-spirited citizens, who desire the good of 
the town in which they live, or are interested. 

Those libraries most liberally patronized are the ones ac- 
complishing the most good. Can any one say that Boston or 
Chicago, or any city fortunate in having fine libraries, is not bene- 
fited by their influence ? 

The advance in methods has been very rapid. Librarians 
are now required to keep up to standards, and the system of 
running modern public libraries includes a tuition of two to three 
years in advanced library schools. 

This advancement is largely due to Mr. Melville Dewey, of 
the New York State Library, the finest librarian in these United 
States. He is the author of many changes ; his method of 
cataloguing, classifying and accessioning has no rival. 

Many years are required to gather large libraries. Books are 
purchased with care and study and placed on shelves slowly. 
For centuries, subscription libraries were most popular; now it 
is all different, every article in the library building is for the use 
of the patrons without price, unless volumes are injured. 

You enter the door of the Boston Library and what happens. 
No one speaks to, or notices, you. You are not asked what you 
wish, but expected to ask for that which you need. While wait- 
ing, you look about and notice the barefoot urchin, with clean 
hands and face, the school boy, the High School girl, college 
student and philological professor — all occupied at desks and 
tables, free to every visitor, each with their special wants before 
them, fingering the illustrated paper or deciphering tablets of 
Sanscrit, as the case may be. 

Unfortunately, the first period of modern libraries was de- 
voted to the scholar's use, almost exclusively adapted to their 
use and needs. The time was if a powerful Lord needed a little 
learning, he salaried a man, kept him* in his household to relate 
great deeds of valor and daring, thus furnishing His mental 

Especially in England, colleges were the nucleus of great 
library foundations ; all were admitted freely, but the atmosphere 
was too ethical for the ordinary mind ; few entered the noble 


halls except the student or the man already wise. The more 
valuable the curiosities of literature or priceless the manuscript, 
the less visited and less understood. Some way they seemed 
above the type of mind they could have helped and were neg- 

Illustrative art has given a great impetus to hearts and minds 
unresponsive to books. It formed a taste for the beautiful, de- 
sire for good, eagerness for more opportunities and thirst for 
the power that pencil, brush and paint confer upon the artist. 

Gradually a man becomes anxious to mentally understand 
that which his senses already appreciate. This desire is followed 
by the natural sequence of education in schools and public libra- 
ries, resulting in the betterment of man and universal advance- 
ment of knowledge. 

In our own country, as I have just said, library administra- 
tion is very different from that of twenty-five years ago. Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and Cleveland of our 
own state, are examples of this statement. Ten years since in 
New York City, the Lenox Library, with an endowment of about 
three million dollars, was practically inaccessible to the ordinary 
reader, though one could enter by a card from a Trustee or a 
Fellow. Five years later the trustees of this library had eleven 
hundred thousand dollars of accrued interest in their treasury. 
This money they desired to expend in books, but owing to a mis- 
interpretation of one clause in Mr. Lenox's will, they were re- 
strained from so doing. Later, more liberal management has 
opened its doors ; its librarians are gathered from all over the 
world and speak many tongues unfamiliar to our ear. 

I can only allude to the Astor, Lenox and Tilden foundation 
soon to rise in glory, a foundation worthy to be ranked amongst 
the wonders of the world. It has hardly commenced to breathe, 
but I already see the glisten of lightning in its eyes, hear its 
tongue peal forth songs of wisdom, and its mighty treasures of 
art and manuscript will shoot volumes of electric knowledge 
throughout creation. 

All later libraries are for the people ; always remember that, 
given with lavish generosity to the public, they are for children, 


scholars, young men, old men — all can enter their portals and 
partake of their nourishment. The hungry can eat wise words 
and the thirsty can drink freely from the fountain of 'earning; 
no one in this day can long for good reading and not procure it. 

That young man who after his day's labor is over, frequents 
the library for reading and study, is a young man bound to rise ; 
he is ambitious to learn and improve, he has a soul stirred by 
emotions the street corner lounger does not dream of. If you 
keep an eye on this youth you will be gratified by his career. I 
look upon the small boys who frequent the free library of this 
town as promising boys. They have ideas and ideals; they are 
groping for light, and sooner or latei lamps all filled with men- 
tality will shine upon them. 

Mr. Parish, in one paragraph of early happenings in this 
city, says Sandusky had a library association founded in 1826, 
called "Portland Library Association," possessing a small number 
of volumes. I have neveir seen a book belonging to this early 
library. In 1840, the books were transferred to the "Sandusky 
Lyceum," or Sandusky Literary Society. About 1852, a public 
meeting was held in the Euterpean Block at the office of Judge 
Rush R. Sloane. This movement was started by the Literary or 
"Philomathesian Society" to encourage mental improvement by a 
course of lectures. This was a successful winter and resulted in 
permanent good. 

These societies gradually evolved into the Y. M. C. A. with 
by-laws and constitution. In 1867, this association established a 
circulating library with separate by-laws and constitution. Mr. 
Latham was its first President, Mr. James Woplworth, Vice 
President, and George J. Anderson, Secretary and Treasurer. 
This library had a room over the Moss National Bank until 1870; 
the gentlemen then becoming discouraged suggested to some en- 
terprising women that they attempt the task of managing a 
library, buying books and securing increased patronage without a 
dollar in the purse. How it was done, where the energy, cour- 
age and means were found does not concern us, — they were found. 
The ladies making a thorough canvass of the town, discovered 
much interest and were promised help to carry out the new idea. 
The word "Christian" had frightened some who thought the 


books were all theological and kept away from the library, fear- 
ing they might become too good to be recognized by their friends. 

The Western Reserve just at this time was interesting her- 
self in various projects of literary and educational development, 
Geographical and historical societies were established and are 
flourishing societies today. Sandusky had her awakening, and 
the twelve women who dared, were soon invested with the neces- 
sary authority of meeting the committee from the Y. M. C. L. A., 
composed of Mr. James Woolworth and Mr. George J. Ander- 
son. This committee formally tendered the books and all the 
property belonging to the Y. M. C. L. A. to the board of man- 
agers of the Library Association of Sandusky. It is useless for 
me to review all the formalities of this transfer. 

The board of managers held their first meeting at the resi- 
dence of Mrs. Lester Hubbard on March 3, 1870; the second at 
the residence of Mrs. A. H. Moss on March 17; the third at the 
High School about a week later. At this last meeting the organ- 
ization was formally associated. About four hundred books re- 
ceived from the committee and a room in the High School building 
was then tendered for library use, free of charge, provided the 
school library was also sheltered and cared for. 

The board of education in this city has always treated "The 
Library Association" with the greatest courtesy and kindness, 
the library being furnished light, heat and rent free, for twenty- 
four of the thirty years of its existence. 

In 1870, Sandusky had a population of 13,000, but only 114 
subscribers to the library. Mrs. George Thornton, our kind ad- 
riser and secretary, made several strong appeals to the citizens 
for more support, but we labored on, not receiving much en- 
couragement, until in 1882 the association had 3,160 volumes 
upon its shelves. The desire to make our library free was always 
in our minds and hearts, and at last the day approached. We had 
a few hundred dollars ahead and could afford to move into larger 
quarters if the city would allow us some slight division of the 
taxes. After much visiting and calling upon our councilmen with 
explanation of our financial condition, the council voted us enough 
income to live with prudence and economy after our removal to 
the Masonic Temple, where the expenses would instantly become 


larger. Incorporation papers were secured and "The Sandusky 
Library Association" became a free library, open to every citizen. 
I regret that many of you have not visited our rooms. They are 
delightful, but we long for the time to arrive when books, women, 
and property, will take possession of the grand building now in 
process of erection, made possible for us not only by gift of 
money, but by the council of this city, who pledged themselves to 
fulfil the donor's condition, that the city pay the Library Associa- 
tion $3,000 per annum for the maintenance of the library. This 
they quickly and kindly consented to do, and now, gentlemen, we 
stand to-day with only a few dollars in our treasury for running 
expenses, but the fine sum of $50,000 in our control for erecting 
and equipping our library building. It is now time to speak of 
the: sister organization in this town which worked for the same 
object and accomplished so much to help us gain our end, namely: 
"The Sandusky Library Association." 

About 1886 the "Building Fund Association" was founded 
in the city and many of its members were also members of our 

This society was organized for the special purpose of pro- 
curing funds for a suitable building to contain the library of the 
Library Association, funds to be procured by individual effort, 
entertainments, lectures, etc. All the members paid an annual tax 
of $2.00 a year. In 1897 this board had in its control $7,500 — 
$2,500 of which had been received by bequest from the late Mrs. 
George Thornton, of Cincinnati. With this money and the loan 
of a few hundred dollars, the "Building Fund Association" pur- 
chased from Mr. James Woolworth the fine lot on the corner of 
Columbus avenue and Adams street. 

As Mr. Carnegie's gift was predicated on our owning a site 
and having an income from the city, the council having promptly 
voted us our income, the "Building Fund Association" took 
measures towards turning their lot over to us. Last February 
they formally transferred their lot to the Sandusky Library Asso- 
ciation, the finest site left in this town for such a purpose. 

After our plans for the building were decided upon, adver- 
tisements for bids were put in the daily papers. On August 17, 
these were opened and the contract given to the lowest bider, Mr. 


George Schneider, from Columbus, and you can see for your- 
selves what progress has been made during the past two months. 

There are various ways of conducting libraries. The board of 
the Sandusky Library Association desire to live up to the best 
and latest methods. Any changes for better administration are 
greedily studied and, if possible, adopted, our wish being to pre- 
sent the best reading and easiest access to each visitor that enters 
our door. We present through our "Open Shelf" system oppor- 
tunity for patrons to judge for themselves that book they need 
most, not depending upon procuring through the librarian any 
book of which they may have read or heard about. 

The dimensions of our building almost stagger us, for our 
income will be small and our size great, but if our object of bring- 
ing people and library together, in unity, acting in sympathy and 
sentiment, each with the other, can only be accomplished, our 
halcyon days are indeed upon us. 

Members of this society and others, there sits just at this 
time among his books and friends, all in the beauty of Skibo 
Castle, Scotland, a man to whom this country owes much, in one 
sense a miracle of a man, with his phases of character, hewed 
out of a hard and struggling early career, stern yet gentle, a most 
devoted son and friend, admirable in all his family relations, a 
shrewd, keen, brainy man, is this wiry Scotchman. Many men 
make their money in the States, hoard and treasure it until after 
their death, the fortune in one way and another becoming 
scattered and disintegrated. Many rich men complete their lives 
by deeds of gift in their wills. 

The Tilden Estate litigation is a notable example of this kind 
of benefaction. Few follow the noble example of this Scotchman 
to whom we owe so much, of scattering bricks of silver and gold 
during the lifetime. No matter what amount of riches this man 
possesses, his gifts are sublime and have never been emulated. 

Of one thing we are certain, Sandusky owes and freely ac- 
knowledges her debt of thankfulness and gratitude to Honorable 
Andrew Carnegie. (Applause.) 

When our building is completed and stacks properly placed 
for containing fifty thousand volumes, we will be proud, indeed. 


My hearers, I look forward and see the youth of this city 
marching thitherward, crowding the imposing entrance on Adams 
street — then reform and invisible committees will not be needed, 
one day will be the same as another, no Sunday — no Monday — 
only notes of praise and tones of thanks, that at last the library 
of the "New Jerusalem" has opened the jeweled gates. 

The choir then sung "Sweet and Low" and "Comin' thro' the 

The President : We will now have the pleasure of hearing 
from a gentleman who is a native of the neighboring township 
of Perkins, but at the present a resident of the city of Columbus, 
Ohio, — General John Beatty, — who is well known to many in this 

General Beatty's address was as follows: 



Your honored President has been kind enough to assign me 
a subject, and he has also prudently limited my time. I shall go 
to my subject therefore at once, and not beat about the bush 
further than to remind you that a Pioneer should not be restrained 
by considerations of modesty from giving himeslf a little promi- 
nence and his imagination a little license while recounting the in- 
cidents of his early life. 

My grandfather, 'Squire John Beatty, came .first to northern 
Ohio in 1 810, but did not remove hither with his family until 
1815. The Taylors, Houses, Greenes, Eddys, Hewitts, Beebes, 
Bells, and Bakers, came about the same time. Uncle William 
Gurley, Uncle James Forsythe and Mr. Thomas James had settled 
at Bloomingville in 181 1, and at this latter date there were a few 
families on and. near the Huron river ; but the whole country was 
substantially as God made it — in the main — wooded, with here 
and there stretches of prairie land. 

On January 1, 1827, my father married at Marion, Ohio, and 
soon thereafter brought his seventeen year old bride to a log cabin 



situated on the Milan road near where the street cars now turn 
into the grounds of the Soldiers' Home. The little settlement 
on Sandusky Bay was then known as Portland, and I think my 
father's cabin was at the time (1827) the only house on the Milan 
road between the village and the settlement, near what is now 
known as Bogart. Captain Abijah Hewitt, in the early thirties, 
built a cabin just north of my father's residence, and Mr. George 
DeWitt, Senior, a little later erected a very comfortable hewed 
log house a short distance south of it. I was born in December, 
1828, and recollect very well when the DeWitt house was in pro- 
cess of construction. It was subsequently transferred with the 
farm on which it is located to Mr. Henry Buck, and is now known 
as the Hickman place. It has been the home of three generations 
of the Bucks. Mr. Henry Buck was the father-in-law of the late 
Jacob Hickman, and the father of the late Daniel Buck, of Mrs. 
William DeWitt, of this city, and Mrs. Elizabeth DeWitt, of 
Perkins township. It was, I think, in 1834-35, and while the 
De Witts were still my father's nearest neighbors, and before their 
farm had been sold to the Bucks, that John DeWitt, a lad of about 
my own age, his sister and myself were playing in the forest but 
a few feet from the DeWitt house. A rabbit shot past us, and 
we started in pursuit. In the chase John DeWitt and I not only 
lost the rabbit, but we lost the girl and could not find her. The 
mother and father were finally notified, and the search for the 
lost one began. When night was coming on she was still absent, 
and so word was sent to the settlers far and wide. Torches of 
hickory bark were prepared and lighted, and the men in groups 
of two or three, or more, began to search the forest. It was a 
time of much anxiety, not only in the DeWitt home, but in that 
of others. Mothers thought of the child alone in the wilderness 
at night, and of wild beasts. The terrors of the situation can be 
imagined better than described. The hours passed slowly, as 
hours always do to those in distress. Midnight came and passed ; 
morning was approaching; But in that darkest hour which pre- 
cedes the dawn the sound of a gun was heard away off towards 
the marsh, and it was known the girl had been found ; but whether 
dead or alive none but the finders knew. A little later, however, 
she was brought to her home safe and sound. She had traveled 


in the forest until she became exhausted; then had dropped off 
to sleep, and forgotten all her troubles. 

In the thirties the Walkers (Samuel and Lester), the St. 
Johns, Hulls, Gustins, Demunds and Smiths built houses and 
opened up farms on the Milan road south of my father's place, 
and north of Bog-art. South and west of this, besides those whose 
names have been mentioned, were the Hughes, Mackeys, Foxes, 
another but nearly related branch of the DeWitt family, the 
Smeads, McKissons, Stevenses, Prouts and Aliens. East of 
Bogart, on the Huron road, were the Grahams, Osbornes and 

The stage coach at this time made regular trips from Mans- 
field, and towns still farther away, to Sandusky, where travelers 
going east would take boat for Buffalo. The coming and going 
of the stage coach was an event in child life, and watched intently. 
One day in the middle thirties, when the coach was opposite 
my father's cabin, one of the four horses attached to it, becoming 
unmanageable, was cut hastily from the team, and when thus 
freed jumped the fence into my father's door yard, ran at full 
speed to the rear of the house, and tipped over a long bench on 
which there were fifteen or twenty hives of bees. The bees filled 
the air like a cloud; my mother gathered up her children and 
hastened to Mr. DeWitt's for safety. The bees settled down upon 
the horse and remained with it until it died. 

The circuses and animal shows in the thirties and forties 
traveled the highways, and were not transported, as now, by rail. 
I remember the first one that visited Sandusky. It passed by our 
house, and I recollect how my brother James, other boys, and my- 
self, walked on the side of the road abreast of the two elephants, 
but at a safe distance from them, and then in returning to our 
homes observed with much interest the great footprints of the 
huge animals in the dusty road. 

It was in the thirties, I think, that a man was deliberately 
shot and killed at the horse races on what was then known as the 
"Big Field," an extensive stretch of prairie land just east of the 
village. It was in the later thirties, or possibly in the early 
forties, that, in disregard of my mother's wishes, I escaped from 


her kindly vigilance and witnessed the execution of the murderer 
of Mr. John C. Ritter. 

It was in the later thirties that the wool from my. father's 
sheep was carded into' rolls, then spun into yarn by my mother's 
hand, then woven into cloth at a loom in the home of Henry 
Buck, then taken to a fulling mill at Milan, and subsequently 
made into clothing for the family. 

In 1817, Grandfather Beatty had built a sawmill on Pipe 
Creek near where the electric power house now stands ; but in the 
later thirties my uncle, Horace Bell, had control of it, and one 
night my cousin George Bell, who was then a sturdy boy, was 
assigned to the task of cutting up logs into' lumber. He knew, 
of course, how to pull the lever which opened the gate and let the 
water from the forebay onto the wheel, how to run the saw back 
after it bad cut a slice from the log, and how to adjust the log for 
another cutting. But the work was one involving considerable 
responsibility, and he felt the need of prudent counselors, hence 
he invited our esteemed friend, Emory Darling, myself, and some 
other boys to help him. During the night, I blush to say, a goose, 
stolen from Uncle Horace Bell's goose-pen, was cooked and eaten 
in the mill. I think it probable that our long-time friend, Emory 
Darling, stole the goose, for I know at about that period a pro- 
tracted meeting was in progress at Hull's schoolhouse, where I 
resolved to lead a better life, and it don't stand to reason that a 
boy who had just got religion would steal a goose. 

One day in the later thirties, I was with William Hewitt 
at his father's house and there found old Captain Abijah Hewitt 
in an animated controversy with his wife. They were discussing 
Lord and Lady Bulwer. The Captain was taking the part of 
the husband and Mrs. Hewitt was defending the wife. I then 
knew less, of course, of the Bulwers than I did of the bullfrogs ; 
but it afterwards occurred to me that Captain Abijah and Mrs. 
Hewitt were cultured folks familiar with the better literature 
of the day. 

William Hewitt, my early friend, who now lies interred in 
what was known for forty years as the "Stone House" 
place graveyard, was the brightest boy and man ever up 
to this date born in Perkins township. He had his faults 


as all men have, but he was in fact a universal genius. He 
could teach school, build a house or boat, paint a building, 
portrait or landscape ; play on the flute, violin, or piano ; 
sing a good song, and conduct a business successfully. When 
he died he was President of the First National Bank of 
Cleveland, and the owner of the street railroads of that city. 
His portrait now hangs in my dining room, and when I look at 
it a multitude of pleasant memories are suggested to me. 

When Henry Buck bought the DeWitt farm, now known 
as the Hickman place, he built a lime kiln, and subsequently 
Samuel Walker, the grandfather of Judge Linn W. Hull, who 
owned the adjoining farm, did the same. Farmers who hauled 
wheat from Huron, Richland, Seneca, Morrow, Marion, and 
Delaware counties to the Sandusky market would often come out 
to Henry Buck's and Samuel Walker's kilns, and return to the 
interior with their wagons laden with lime. The boy who has 
never sat up until two o'clock in the morning roasting potatoes 
and green corn in the hot coals and ashes drawn from a lime kiln 
furnace, listening the while to good stories, has a very inadequate 
conception of the happiness which a well-spent life may afford. 
It is an interesting scene ; the kiln all aglow at the top ; the men 
raking out coals and ashes at the bottom, or filling the arch with 
long sticks of wood, and the boys eating roasted corn or baked 
potatoes. It is possible, I will not say that it is even probable, 
that a juicy duck or hen or goose sometimes contributed to the 
pleasures of the occasion. 

My grandfather, when I was quite a small boy, deeded to 
my father a little triangular strip of land lying between my 
father's farm and what is now the cemetery, with the understand- 
ing that it should in due time be transferred to me; hence I felt 
at liberty to sell cordwood from it. About the first business 
enterprise I ever engaged in was to sell David Campbell, of the 
Sandusky Clarion, two loads of good hickory wood, and accept 
in payment an illustrated copy of Oliver Twist in two volumes. 
I never subsequently got so much enjoyment out of a business 
transaction as I did out of this exchange of cordwood for books. 
The books opened up a new world to me, and I found it a delight- 
ful world. 


In the thirties and forties, Joseph Stanberry lived on a point 
of land on the Milan road just opposite what is now the cemetery. 
The point is made by the junction of Pipe creek and Sulphur 
brook. Stanberry was a large, handsome man, a relative of the 
great lawyer, Henry Stanberry, of Fairfield county, who subse- 
quently became Attorney General of the United States, and of 
the Stanberrys of Franklin and Licking counties. Joe Stanberry, 
as he was called, had been one of the leading Democrats of Per- 
kins township, but in 1840 he made a visit to his distinguished 
kinfolks of central Ohio, and returned to his home a Whig. Then 
it was that people said Joe Stanberry had turned his coat. The 
young Democratic boys thought this the worst offense it was pos- 
sible for any man to commit, and "turncoat" was hissed and 
yelled and vociferated through Perkins township by man and boy. 
But I want to say to you after the lapse of sixty years that I think 
Joe Stanberry was about the most independent and manliest man 
in Erie county. He did what he thought was right, and this is 
the thing for all men to do. The man who allows conscienceless 
politicians to lead him by the nose on the pretext that he owes al- 
legiance to a name and not to principle, may not be exactly a fool, 
but he is exceedingly weak. 

The sheep rocks were on the south side of Pipe creek just 
east or southeast of the Stanberry place, and not far from where 
Pipe creek and Sulphur brook unite. Down a pretty abrupt de- 
clivity there were two jutting rocks, and just in front of them a 
deep pool. The Pioneers washed their sheep there, and hence 
the place became known as the sheep rocks. I have caught thou- 
sands of sunfish and bullpout there. It was a place where boys 
went swimming. I should have drowned there once if William 
Hewitt had not pulled me out of the water by the hair of my head. 
I am not sure but it would have been pleasanter to drown than to 
have had my hair pulled as he pulled it. Still, I have reason to 
be thankful for his prompt attention. My wife and I went to 
visit the sheep rocks a year or two ago, but we found them gone, 
and now it is difficult,. if not impossible, to make her believe that 
such rocks as the sheep rocks ever existed, and when assuming 
that freedom in statement which all sensible folks concede to the 
fisherman, I tell her about the millions of fish I caught there, she 


laughs at me in mockery. The sheep rocks, however, were not only 
an actual and interesting feature of the landscape, but every boy for 
miles around knew about them. I saw Mr. George DeWitt, the 
elder, catch fine pickerel there. It was there we took boat for the 
carrying ground on Cedar Point. Pipe creek was less weedy in 
the old time than it is now, and it was a good fishing stream. 
Under the leadership of William DeWitt, of your city, and with 
others, I have taken boat at the sheep rocks, gone over to Cedar 
Point, speared fish by torchlight in what is known as the black 
channel, and returned in the morning somewhat worn and sleepy, 
but with the feeling that we had had a night of good sport. 

One day in the later thirties, a number of men came to my 
father's house from the interior of the state. They were' fed in 
installments at the family table, and sent to the barn for lodging. 
The next morning when they departed, my father, with a farm 
wagon load of provisions, accompanied them to Sandusky. They 
proposed to join the Patriot Army and do battle for the independ- 
ence of Canada. Some of the men whom my father thus enter- 
tained got back again to their own homes ; some were killed, and 
some spent the best years of their lives in a penal colony. They 
were soldiers of the "Patriot War." 

Mr. George DeWitt, Senior, was, I think, the best rifle shot 
in the country. He could bring down a squirrel from the topmost 
branch of the tallest tree. His wife was the most hospitable 
woman I ever knew, and while she had a large family of her own, 
her house was at all times wide open to all boys. The squirrel 
pot-pies she made have not only never been excelled, but never 
will be. The only serious quarrel I ever had with my wife oc- 
curred many years ago, and arose over the suggestion that she 
ought to take lessons from Mrs. DeWitt before she attempted to 
make another pot-pie. Her retort was somewhat personal. She 
said that when I accepted Mrs. DeWitt's kind hospitality I was 
an idle, worthless, hungry boy, and to such boys any kind of a 
pot-pie would seem good. There may have been a grain of truth 
in this, but a very small grain, and hence hardly worthy of con- 

If I had the time I should like to speak to you more in detail 
about the settlement of colored folks just east of my father's 


place on what was then known as the "Marsh." The place of 
settlement was not exactly the marsh, but the rich low ground 
south of Pipe creek and bordering on the weedy section of the 
east arm of Sandusky Bay. Old Sammy Carr and his wife, Elsie 
Carr, had built a home there and many colored people gathered in 
around them. In the forties, I attended a revival meeting at 
Sammy Carr's- house. It was the most animated religious gather- 
ing I ever witnessed. It was there that in the shouting, singing, 
swaying mass of converts and religious enthusiasts, a lighted can- 
dle was accidentally jostled against the head of a once well-known 
colored man of this city. There followed first a small conflagra- 
tion, and then the pungent odor of burned hair. 

Some time later a school was established on the Huron road 
for the accommodation mainly of this colored settlement, and pretty 
soon a debating club was organized which met at this schoolhouse 
once a week to discuss such important questions as the relative suf- 
ferings inflicted upon the Indian and Negro by white men, and that 
other still unsettled problem as to whether man derives more pleas-' 
ure from pursuit than from possession. The white boys of the Milan 
road learning finally that the colored boys of the Huron road were 
thus exercising themselves in oratory, concluded to go over and 
kindly give them a few lessons in the art of speech making. We 
had some Demostheneses and not a few Ciceros amongst us, and 
hence did not doubt that wei would not only thrill the colored boys 
by our eloquence, but carry off all the honors of the occasion. 
And so one night we lined up against our colored competitors for 
fame. Moses Stanberry, the eldest of our party, opened the dis- 
cussion ; he was replied to, and then I yelled for ten minutes at 
the top of my voice, for this I understood was what Demosthenes 
did when competing with the noise of tumbling waters on the 
shore of the. sea, and so the debate progressed until finally a hand- 
some young colored man of the name of Brown, who subsequently, 
I think, became a barber in this city, took the floor. He was not 
only a master of good English, but had a touch of humor in him, 
and a whole arsenal of sarcasm and invective. When Brown got 
done with us white fellows we wanted to go home, and we did go, 
feeling that it would have been better for our reputations if we 
had staid there. 


There were in the thirties and forties few, if any, houses on 
what is now known as the Columbus avenue road. My recol- 
lection is that much of the land on that road belonged to non- 
residents — possibly to the Bulls and Hallams, and that it was a 
long time before it was settled and improved. On the Blooming- 
ville road, however, there were many excellent families ; the Dib- 
bles, Bushes, Hollisters, Culvers, Bells, Darlings, and Richmonds. 
The fact is there were more pretty girls on this road than on any 
other road in Erie county, excepting, of course, the Milan road. 
The latter road in the old time was never excelled in any line save 
in that of oratory. 

I understand, my friends, that the important events of the 
past have long been gathered up and made matters of record, and 
that I have today simply recalled a few of the trifles of the old 
time, but these may perhaps help to give color and perspective to 
a picture which without them might be, in some small degree, at 
least incomplete. 


John Beatty was born on a farm near Sandusky, Ohio*, De- 
cember 1 6, 1828. His education was obtained at the district 
school of a Pioneer settlement. In i860, he was the Republican 
presidential elector for the Thirteenth Ohio Congressional Dis- 
trict. When the war broke out in 1861, he was the first to put 
his name on an enlistment roll in Morrow county. He was elected 
to the captaincy of his company, and in April, 1861, made lieu- 
tenant colonel, and, in the spring of 1862, colonel of the Third 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry. He was with McClellan and Rose- 
crans at Rich Mountain, Cheat Mountain, and Elk Water, West 
Virginia, during the summer and fall of 1861 ; with General O. M. 
Michel in his dash through southern Kentucky, middle Tennes- 
see, and northern Alabama in the spring of 1862. In the affair 
at Bridgeport and the operations about Decatur he took an active 
part, and was for a time Provost Marshal of the city of Hunts- 
ville, Alabama. Returning to the Ohio river with Buell, in Sep- 
tember, 1862, he joined in the pursuit of Bragg through Ken- 
tucky and on October 8th fought at the head of his regiment in 



the battle of Perry ville. In December, 1862, he was assigned 
to the command of the Seventeenth Brigade, Rousseau's Divi- 
sion, and led it through the four days' battle of Stone river, clos- 
ing on the night of January 3, 1863, with an assault on the en- 


Erected by the grandfather of John Beatty, in 1815. in 
Perkins Township, now Bogarts, Erie County. 

Cray's barricade in the woods on the left of the Nashville and 
Murfreesboro turnpike, which he carried at the point of the 

After thel)attle of Stone river, he was commissioned a Brig- 
adier General, with rank from November 29, 1862. He partici- 
pated in the Tullahoma campaign, and after the rebels had aband- 
oned their stronghold, overtook them at Elk river, drove their 
rear guard from the heights beyond and led the column which 
pursued them to the summit of the Cumberland mountains. In 
the Chattanooga campaign he had the honor to be the first of 


Thomas' corps to lead his command over Lookout mountain; the 
rebels, after a feeble resistance at Johnson's Crook and Cooper's 
Gap, retired rapidly before him. He was with Negley and Bran- 
non in the affair at Dug Gap and succeeded in the responsible 
and difficult duty of protecting, and bringing away, a large 
wagon train in the face of an immense force of the enemy. 

In the battle of Chickamauga, General Beatty commenced 
the fighting on the 19th, 20th and 21st of September. 1863, the 
first day on the extreme right of the Union Army, at Glass' mill, 
the second day on the extreme left at McDonald's house, and the 
third day at Rossville Gap. His services in these engagements 
led General George H. Thomas to recommend his promotion to 
the rank of Major General for "gallant and obstinate defense 
against overwhelming numbers of the enemy." 

At the reorganization of the Army of the Cumberland, after 
the battle of Chickaujauga, General Beatty was assigned to the 
command of the Second Brigade, Davis' Division, Fourteenth 
Army Corps, but was with Sherman in the battle of Missionary 
Ridge. When the rebel line broke in this conflict, he led the 
column in pursuit of the retreating enemy, overtook his rear- 
guard near Graysville, when a short, but sharp, encounter oc- 
curred in which the rebel general (Gen. George Many) command- 
ing the opposing force was wounded and his troops compelled to 
retire in disorder. Subsequently General Beatty accompanied 
Sherman in his expedition to Knoxville for the relief of Burn- 
side, and the close of this campaign, in the winter and spring of 
1864, ended his military service. 

General Beatty was elected as a Republican to the Fortieth 
Congress, and re-elected to the Forty-first and Forty-second Con- 
gresses. He was one of the Republican presidential electors at 
large for Ohio in 1884. Subsequently a member of the Ohio 
Board of State Charities, and still later President of the Ohio 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Commis- 
sion. He has written "The Citizen Soldier" (Cincinnati, 1876); 
"The Belle O' Becket's Lane" (Philadelphia, 1 882-1899), "Mc- 
Kinleyism; As it Appears to a Non-Partisan" (Columbus, 1894), 
and "An Answer to Coin's Financial School" (Columbus, 1896). 


The President : Our speaker has referred to Mr. Stanberry, 
a resident of Perkins, who was the first man in this county called 
a turncoat. That event occurred, as he has described to you, in 
1840, in the campaign between Martin Van Buren and General 
William Henry Harrison, called the "Hard Cider Campaign" of 
1840. I have in my hand here a flag worked by the ladies of the 
city of Sandusky and presented to General William Henry Harri- 
son at the house in which Dr. Stroud now resides on Columbus 
avenue, right opposite where the new Carnegie library is being 
erected, that stone building, the north one, just in rear of the 
brick front. At that time, in June, 1840, he was the guest of Hon. 
Eleutherus Cooke, the father of the honored gentleman who ad- 
dressed us this forenoon. I stood so I could touch on that oc- 
casion the person of General William Henry Harrison. I was 
a boy of about eleven years of age. This flag was presented on 
behalf of the ladies by Judge E. B. Sadler, father of Charles W. 
Sadler, of this city, whom you all know. This beautiful silver 
and embossed flag in gold lace was worked by the ladies, I say, of 
Sandusky; it is, you see, sixty years old this very year. The 
event General Beatty has alluded to was an incident of that cam- 
paign, and this flag is to be put in the new Carnegie library 
among the items of interest in connection with the Firelands. I 
thought this was an opportune moment to show it. The ladies 
who largely contributed to that I remember very well. At our 
meeting in this city five years ago several were then alive who 
were connected with this beautiful flag; others of our Pioneer 
ladies had gone to their reward. Mrs. Martha Cooke, the wife of 
the Hon. Eleutherus Cooke, the mother of Jay, who spoke with 
us today, was one of them ; Mrs. Augustus Moss, the mother of 
Mr. Jay O. Moss, who is with us today ; Mrs. Butler, who was a 
Boalt and connected with Mrs. Moss — her aunt — the mother of 
Mr. George Butler, who is present on this occasion. There was 
my own mother then living and my eldest sister, who is now 
passed away, Mrs. Sarah Sloane. There was Mrs. Barney, then 
Elizabeth Dennis, I think she was on this committee also, as I 
believe also Mrs. Simpson. T need not mention all the names. 
I mention the ladies that now occur to me. Mrs. John G. Camp, 
Sr., was connected with the flag, but there is a list which will be 


filed in the Carnegie library with this. I have the proceedings as 
reported in the Sandusky Clarion at that time, giving the names 
of those ladies. 

After a solo by Mrs. (Dr.) Smith, of Clarksfield, Hon. Jay 
F. Laning, of Norwalk, was called on to read his paper on "The 
Evolution of the Geography of Huron and Brie Counties." 

Rev. A. E. Steiner, D. D., who had just returned from a trip 
to Paris, next gave a short talk on his impressions of the World's 
Fair at Paris. The afternoon was far advanced and for this rea- 
son Dr. Steiner w*s compelled to cut his address very short, much 
to the regret of all his hearers, who appreciated very much the 
entertaining description of the reverend gentleman's travels. 

Resolutions were next in order, and the following were sub- 
mitted and enthusiastically adopted : 

By. Mr. Jay O. Moss: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Firelands Historical Society 
be and the same hereby are extended to Hon. Jay Cooke for the 
very able, entertaining and instructive address delivered by him 
this day before the society. 

Resolved, That the society in this manner record the hearty 
appreciation of its members of what he has done for us all by com- 
ing among us, and assure him of their sincere regard and of their 
best wishes for his continued health and prosperity, and of their 
hope that he may be spared to us for many years to come. 

By Mr. Thomas M. Sloane : 

Resolved, That we, the Firelands Historical Society, in meet- 
ing assembled at Sandusky, Ohio, this third day of October. 1900, 
hereby extend our thanks to the ladies of the Methodist Church 
for the very appropriate and delicious luncheon furnished to us 
this day and for their very kind attention ; to the Rev. E. A. Win- 
, ter for his uniform courtesy and assistance ; to the officers of the 
church for the use of their church building so perfectly adapted 
to our needs; and to the ladies and gentlemen who have enter- 
tained us with their pleasing musical selections. 


By Dr. Sheldon: 

Resolved, That the thanks of the Firelands Historical Society 
be and hereby are extended to Hon. John Beatty, Hon. Jay F. lean- 
ing, Rev. Dr. Steiner and Mrs. Jay O. Moss for the exceedingly 
interesting and enjoyable addresses delivered by them before 
the society this day, and that they be requested to hand to the 
President copies of their addresses. 

By. Hon. Jay F. Laning: 

Resolved, That it is the sentiment of the Pioneers and others 
of Huron county that we are richly indebted to the members of 
the society and other residents from Erie county for the magnifi- 
cent entertainment we have this day received at their hands, and 
we hope to be able at the first opportunity to return the compli- 

The last resolution was, of course, voted on by the Huron 
County Pioneers and their friends. 

Hon. Gideon T. Stewart delivered the last address on the 
program, in which he paid fitting tribute to the memory of a dis- 
tinguished soldier born upon the Firelands — the late Major Gen- 
eral Lawton. 

The President earnestly appealed to every one present to 
attend the next annual meeting of the society, to be held on the 
third Wednesday in June, 1901, at Norwalk. 

Owing to the length of the papers read it was found neces- 
sary to dispense with the customary interchange of reminiscences, 
and the meeting was adjourned only just in time to allow members 
and their friends from Huron county to take their cars home. 


HON. RUSH R. SLOANE, President Sandusky. 

HON. S. A. WILDMAN, ist Vice President Norwalk. 

A. J. BARNEY, 2d Vice President . .Milan. 

DR. A. SHELDON, Recording Secretary Norwalk. 

MRS. C. W. BOALT, Corresponding Secretary Norwalk. 

C. W. MANAHAN, Treasurer Norwalk. 

HON. C. H. GALLUP, Librarian Norwalk. 

DR. F. E. WEEKS, Biographer Huron Co Clarksfield. 

JOHN McKELVEY, Biographer Erie Co Sandusky. 











Firelands Historical Society 


JUNE 27, 1900, 10 A. M. 


Hon. Rush R. Sloane called the meeting to order. 

Ladies and Gentlemen, Fellow Pioneers — The time has now 
arrived- for the convening- of the annual meeting of the Firelands 
Historical Society, and in accordance with the time-honored ob- 
servance, I will call upon the Rev. Dr. Broadhurst to invoke the 
blessing of Almighty God upon our proceedings. 

Prayer by Rev. Dr. Broadhurst. 

A motion was then made by Mr. Gallup to elect Miss Bid- 
well as stenographer and secretary pro tern of the Firelands His- 
torical Society. Seconded by Mr. Sheldon. Motion adopted. 

Our former President, Hon. G. T. Stewart, being present, 
was asked by President Sloane to take a seat with him upon the 
platform, which he did. 

The President then addressed the Society, as follows: 


early history, for Ohio has had her historic age, but to those ex- 
amples of peaceful progress, which no section of the globe has 
ever equalled and the like of which history furnishes no parallel. 

Most interesting are the characters and fortunes of those 
who with their wives and children and implements of husbandry 
crosed the lake in small bateaux in summer, or on the ice in 
winter, or came over the mountains, braving danger and death, 
and placed these, their household gods, on the bosom of a savage 

It is these renowned Pioneers and their deeds we would have 
perpetuated through all ages. It was their industry which first 
awoke the slumbers of the forest, letting the sun penetrate its 
gloom and cause it to smile as a garden. And now, when we see 
on every hand cultivated farms, beautiful villages, populous cities, 
our lake and rivers teeming with a busy commerce, our roads and 
railroads crowded with vehicles freighted with the products of 
the soil and of our varied industries, amazement and wonder 
possess us, when the fact is considered, that men are living to-day 
in whose earlier years this hustling, bustling activity was un- 
heard of, and at whose birth much of this section was almost an un- 
known wilderness, echoing with the war whoops of the savage 
or the axe of the adventurous backwoodsman. 

When traveling abroad I have been taunted with our want of 
antiquity, and while this is in a sense true, we can produce ripe 
materials for history which will excel the proudest annals of 
Europe. You have material in your grand old county of Rich- 
land for maintaining the very best historical society in our state, 
but every year the sources of information are passing away, thus 
depriving you of the testimony' of the eye-witnesses, the Pioneers, 
and the waves of Time are sweeping onward burying the past in 
their silent depths. Well do I remember the rolling surface, the 
hills, valleys and streams of Richland county, where Pioneer men 
and women, with their children lived ; it is the same mother earth 
for you to cherish, develop and be ready to defend as they did. 
Here the Indian, the early settler, hunted, cleared the land and 
fished in your Mohican and Olentangy, and the necessities of those 
days have become the health-preserving and strength-giving 
pastimes of today. 


What mind is not thrilled and interested with the incidents 
and adventures of Pioneer life as it was in your county in its early 
settlement? It seems like listening to tales of fiction invented by 
a fervid imagination, to please for the while and then to pass 
away, but instead of being unreal and overwrought, they are 
graphic descriptions of an actual and real life, and the simple 
narrative of truth becomes even more strange than the most glow- 
ing fiction. 

Here aside from what are known as the nine old territorial 
counties and which were established before our state was ad- 
mitted to the Union,the county of Richland was the largest county 
ever organized by the legislature, having originally 900 square 
miles of territory, more than three times the size of Erie county, 
which is the smallest county in the state, having an area of only 
290 square miles. 

In no county did John Chapman dispense his apple seed more 
generously than in old Richland, and no county affords more in- 
teresting incidents concerning him. To no county in Ohio has an 
approving public more frequently turned its eye as to the mecca 
of its hope. 

Since 1823, there has hardly been a year when Richland 
county has not been represented in the lower house of Congress. 
or in the Senate of the United States, or in a Cabinet office. 

With the exception of Hamilton, no county in Ohio has been 
represented in these distinguished positions, so conspicuously and 

A father and son, residents of Richland county, have been 
governors of the state succeeding each other. A Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor came from Richland. James Hedges and William Gass, of 
Richland, served nine terms each in the House and Senate of the 
state- of Ohio. This county had two members in the State Con- 
stitutional Convention of 1850. 

It has had Commissioners of Railroads, of Insurance, of the 
State Library; two members of the Supreme Court of the state; 
Commissioners at the Philadelphia Centennial; Commissioners at 
the World's Fair, Chicago; Directors of the State Reformatory; 
member of the Board of Public Works ; members of the State 
Board of Equalization ; members of the Board of Trustees of the 


Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Home at Sandusky; members of the 
Board of Trustees of the Ohio Soldiers' and Sailors' Orphan's 
Home at Xenia; and last, but by no means least in importance, 
Richland county has had continuously, since 1878, a representative 
upon the Board of State Charities, which representative, since the 
death of former President Hayes, has been the honored President 
of the Board, and who by his study of the subject, his ability, his 
diligence and his love for the work of prison reform, has suc- 
ceeded in introducing such discipline in prison management that 
every philanthropist is encouraged with the hope, that in the near 
future grander cycles of human destiny may be evolved, and 
whose untiring devotion to this cause has gained for him a reputa- 
tion in Ohio, in the nation and in Europe as enduring as the 
records of time. 

Yes, Richland county has been prolific in men who have 
served the state long and well. Judges Brinkerhoff and Stewart, 
Colonel Mansfield, Dr. Bushnell, the Hedges, the Bartleys, Bishop 
Harris, Geddes, Amos Townsend, Ex-Mayor Strong and many 
others, whom time will not permit me to name. 

In the year 1848 a young man was sent from Richland county 
to represent this Congressional District at a Whig Convention, to 
be held at Philadelphia and which nominated General Zachary 
Taylor as its candidate for President. This young man was made 
secretary of that convention and the reason given by the gentle- 
man who placed his name before the convention for proposing 
him was, that he was from Ohio and lived in a district so hope- 
lessly Democratic that he could never get an office unless this con- 
vention gave him one. "Tempora Mutantur" since that time, or 
from about that time, there has never been a period when the 
Democratic party could keep him out of office, and the only way 
he finally succeeded in getting out was by resigning; and where, 
I ask, is there a living man who has performed so ably, such pro- 
longed, laborious and patriotic public service for the benefit of 
his state, and of the nation in Congress, on committees, in the 
Senate, as Secretary of the Treasury, securing a return to specie 
payments and carrying in his mind and heart for four years the 
finances of the nation, the peer of Hamilton and Chase ; and last, 
as Secretary of State, which office he assumed with reluctance 


and filled with his usual ability and success, as has your most dis- 
tinguished fellow citizen, John Sherman. (Loud and continued 

With such a county, settled and peopled by such men, who 
have accomplished so much in political, in public and in civil life, 
and by others who, in business and manufacturing enterprises and 
in other ways have achieved like results, there can be no doubt, 
there must be none, of the success of the Richland County Histori- 
cal Society. 

And now in regard to the Firelands Historical Society, 
which I have the honor to represent, I may do no injustice to the 
intelligence of this audience or of the public, by briefly stating the 
origin of the name "Firelands," or "Sufferers Lands." They 
embrace a half million acres in the west part of the Western Re- 
serve, and were granted in 1792 by the state of Connecticut to 
those who had suffered loss or damage by fire, or otherwise, 
from the incursions of the British, during the Revolutionary 
War, in Danbury, Norwalk, New London and other towns in 
Connecticut. They include five of the Western Reserve town- 
ships and were wholly within the limits of the original county of 
Huron, as organized and established by act of February 7, 1809, 
and now are embraced within the limits of Erie and Huron 
counties, excepting the township of Ruggles in Ashland county 
and a part of the township of Danbury in Ottawa county. On 
these lands, on the west bank of the Huron River, at a place called 
by the Indians, "Pequotting/ 1 over 113 years ago was founded 
a Moravian Mission, one of the first white settlements within the 
limits of Ohio. In 1805, we find the Firelands in charge of Taylor 
Sherman, of Connecticut, a director of the "Sufferers Company," 
and their agent, to have the lands surveyed and partitioned, and 
Sherman township, in Huron county, was named in his honor. 
These surveys were completed in 181 1. But he did more than 
this for Ohio. His son, Charles R. Sherman, a young lawyer, 
came west and settled at Lancaster and became a Supreme Judge 
of our state, and among his children were Gen. W. T. Sherman 
and Hon. John Sherman. Ohio is therefore indebted to the Fire- 
lands, and the misfortunes which named them, for no small share 
in her celebrity. 


But now the world is waking up to the condition of women. 

« * ■* * There is 
An hum of mighty changes ! Hope takes cheer ; 
And expectation stands on tiptoe ; 'tis 
A time of promise." 

That this enfranchisement has not been heretofore granted in 
Ohio has been owing to prejudices arising out of the past errors 
and customs of society, and none that have swayed an enlight- 
ened people have ever been equally irrational. The history of 
mankind, in all ages, presents the strange anomaly of adhering 
to error with great tenacity. Every age presents the spectacle of 
great minds looming up like brilliant lights in the intellectual 
firmament, far in advance of the era of their existence. 

When new truths are heralded, and great reforms projected, 
they advance by slow gradations, and accomplish results only 
when the barriers are broken down which obstruct their way. 

The public mind, adverse naturally to change, revolts at bald 
innovations, and opposes the project of reform, without stopping 
to enquire, What is right? What is duty? What is interest? It 
was this same spirit that doomed the immortal Galileo to chains 
and the dungeon. The great Hervey, for announcing his dis- 
covery of the circulation of the blood, was called a visionary be- 
yond the pale of science. And in the age of Louis XIV, a citi- 
zen of France who first sugggested the idea that steam might be 
employed as a propulsive power, was incarcerated as insane, and 
ended a miserable existence with lunatics. 

Such instances in the past demonstrate that ignorance is the 
enemy which freedom has the most cause to> fear; it may make 
slaves, but poor citizens. 

It is the theory of our government to have equality in the 
elective franchise, and this equality based upon education and in- 
telligence, will tend greatly to perpetuate our nation. 

The Firelands Historical Society has always favored liberty 
and equality; its membership has been open to women, as well 
as men. The first resolution of thanks, for donations received 
by our society and published in The: Firelands Pioneer, was to 
a woman. The first bequest of money, as generous as her traits 


of character were noble, was made by a woman. In no section of 
the United States, more efficiently was human slavery opposed, 
than upon the sacred precincts of the Firelands; and two of its 
officers were mulcted in large damages by their vehement opposi- 
tion to the crime. This society acts and decides, not upon what 
is popular, or politic, but upon what is right. In the address of 
my honored friend and predecessor in office, on the seventh of 
September, 1898, he said, "More than twelve millions of adult 
citizens, in all other respects, well qualified, are denied the right 
to help govern us, for no reason, under the sun, or moon, or stars, 
but because they happen to be of the wrong sex. 

Since our last annual meeting our society has been made the 
residuary legatee of quite an amount, which, in all, it is my be- 
lief will realize not far from five thousand dollars, under the will 
of the late Michael Lipsett, of Sandusky, in Brie county. I 
have known Mr. Iyipsett for more than fifty-five years, a molder 
by trade, industrious and of good habits. Mr. Iyipsett became 
a member of our society at Sandusky, September 9, 1859, at a 
meeting of the society in that city. I call attention to the devise, 
as being worthy of consideration and action at this time. Im- 
mediately following Mr. Iyipsett' s decease, I convened our Board 
of Directors and all proper steps have been taken to protect the 
society's interest in the matter. Yet I feel that a special resolution 
upon the subject is proper at this annual meeting. 

In May last our society received an invitation from the Rich- 
land County Historical Society to attend their annual meeting at 
Mansfield on June 2nd of this month. Quite a number attended 
from Huron and Erie counties, our Board of Directors having ac- 
cepted the invitation in behalf of our society, and requesting your 
President" to deliver an address upon the occasion in behalf of 
our society. This address will be furnished the Publishing Com- 
mittee for insertion in the next number of the Firelands Pioneer. 
The postponement of the annual meeting of the society, from the 
third to the fourth Wednesday of June, was occasioned by the 
kindness and thoughtful consideration of our Board of Directors 
to your President, who had received from the "-Republican 
National Committee" the following letter: 


This glorious and heroic period of Ohio's history should be 
written, but it cannot be complete without the papers, maps, pamph- 
lets and four thousand pages published by the Firelands His- 
torical Society. The collecting and preserving of these valuable 
materials has been and will continue to be the life work of our 

In 1902, at Toledo, we hope to celebrate Ohio's centennial as 
a state, and the preserving of valuable relics, historical records, 
maps, papers and collections of state and national value and in- 
terest, demands the attention, not only of our historical societies, 
but of every citizen of Ohio, and every friend of our state, who 
are desirous to halo her future with glory. 

With a faithfulness not often equalled, never excelled, our 
society has jealously guarded its trust and done its work. 

The industry and labor which have accomplished these re- 
sults and kept our society alive and active during all these years 
can better be appreciated than described. 

I would not have you understand that this has been an easy 
task. At times the most courageous wavered, yet by earnest, 
faithful and zealous work the society was carried along and 
placed where it stands to-day; and it is with great pleasure, and 
feelings of thankfulness, that I bear witness to the invaluable 
services of my distinguished predecessors in office, all of whom 
deserve special mention for their long and faithful services. 

It has been the aim of our society to collect, preserve and 
publish such facts as will make a complete history of the Fire- 
lands and adjacent parts of Ohio; also authentic accounts of their 
resources and productions, of their natural and archaeological 
relics, curiosities, antiquities, and scientific and historical collec- 
tions. These objects are in the line not only of history but ed- 
ucation. The time has certainly arrived, if the opportunity still 
remains, when as citizens we should all feel ashamed if we do not 
rescue and save the precious but fleeting recollections of our 
country's narratives. We owe it to ourselves and to the world 
to reduce to writing all such, which it is in our power to get, from 
Pioneers still living, and thus contribute to that aggregate which 
makes exact and truthful history. 


That your Pioneers recognize this debt, is evidenced by the 
existence of your society. Our magazine, The Firelands 
Pioneer, has proved a most efficient coadjutor to our historical 
society, and to this do I attribute, more than to any other cause, 
the life, success and perpetuation of our society. This at first did 
not seem to be the case, as almost yearly we were confronted with 
deficiencies in our treasury, but some years ago we made a change 
in publishing the PionEER. Hon. C. H. Gallup having taken it 
in hand, and since then we have had no financial default, and it 
has been more than self-sustaining, but no compensation has been 
asked or paid to my honored friend for his arduous, faithful labor. 
We publish addresses on matters and facts relating to the Fire- 
lands, and which perpetuate its history. We have a committee 
from each county on Biography, who prepare notices of all 
Pioneers as they pass away, who have resided on the Firelands 
since 1840 or before. These are published in our magazine. We 
have in each township a committee to prepare its history, and ask 
them to give the name of the township, and why so called, and 
everything interesting in relation to its settlement, improvements, 
agriculture, manufactures, navigation, literature, arts, inventions, 
schools, churches and aboriginal history. The information sought 
is that kind which is fast fading from the memories of the living, 
and sinking into the grave with the departing. Of course much 
has now escaped beyond the reach of man ; and this should admon- 
ish every Pioneer to lose no time in writing their own narratives 
and incidental history. The recital of one incident will remind 
Pioneers of others and thus induce the writing of valuable mat- 
ter which otherwise might be wholly and forever lost in the waves 
of oblivion. 

It has been by following along these lines that the Firelands 
Historical ^Society has been able to present in durable form an 
invaluable history, so much so that hardly any library of import- 
ance in the United States has failed to secure our publications, 
single numbers of which have been purchased at $5.00, each to 
complete a full set. 

We have also another most gratifying result of the work of 
our society in having the valuable collections of early historic, 


prehistoric and Pioneer relics, which I am sorry to say are now 
stored away in darkness, but which it is our hope and ambition 
soon to expose to the light of day for the inspection of all who 
may wish to see, for our society has planned the erection of a 
Memorial Hall, in which is to be provided fire-proof rooms, for 
the protection and safe keeping of these relics. We have en- 
deavored to direct the attention of Pioneers to this object, and 
asked them not only to give while living, but to> remember our 
society in their wills, as we are laboring for their children and for 
the public good. This course might well be adopted by your so- 

In a work published not long since by Professor Emmerson, 
of Harvard, on methods of teaching history, he says, "that history 
has been taught very badly in America, or rather, to be honest, 
it has hardly been taught at all, and that the time is passing when 
historians set themselves up to write the panegyric of his favorite 
period or party and each panegyric is an apology or a falsehood." 

Hon. John Jay, President of the American Historical Asso- 
ciation, in his inaugural, said : "The defects in our methods of 
historic study have been widely felt and has not kept pace, neither 
with the progress, nor with the dangers of the Republic." 

And Dr. White our distinguished representative at Berlin, 
and Professor Adams, in their instructive papers to the same 
historical association, agreed, "that rightly to understand and 
defend American institutions, the true plan is to know their 
origin and history, and so learn the true policy required for our 

The great emigration to our shores has brought thousands, 
fresh from despotic lands, unaccustomed to our form of govern- 
ment and unfit for a republic. 

We are not aware of the danger into which our self-sufficient 
vanity and careless security are leading us. 

Let us then sustain our historical societies, preserve and 
sacredly perpetuate the events and incidents of our early settle- 
ments, make our children more familiar with the counsels of the 
wise, from Washington, Franklin, and Jefferson, to the martyred 
Lincoln; in this, they will have been carried back to the begin- 
ning of our national life. 


It is in the history of the past that we learn our safety and 
true policy for the future. That the end of true government is 
the welfare of the people and the perpetuation of the state. 

I have thus, fellow citizens and members of the Richland 
County Historical Society, very feebly and imperfectly set forth 
such suggestions as have occurred to me from the experience and 
operation of our society, and such other thoughts as have seemed 
to be appropriate, in hope that they may encourage the wavering, 
if any there be, and incite to more active work, all your members, 
so that success may crown your labors. And remember, you are 
fulfilling a duty, for from those, to whom much has been given, 
much will be required. Seek to correct mistakes in fact; remove 
errors, preserve important discoveries and works of art, and every- 
thing which may be useful and honorable to your county, from the 
corroding tooth of time. Thus will your history be the school- 
master of the age, its pupils your children, its lessons the monu- 
ments of your Pioneers, as exhibited in the record of their prin- 
ciples, their deeds, and their lives. 

Mansfield, June 2, 1900. 

At the close of Judge Sloane's address Mrs. Lucas' mando- 
lin club rendered a pleasing selection. Miss Caroline Angle sang 
the "Star Spangled Banner," being accompanied on the mandolin 
and guitar by the Misses Flora and Alma Beck. 

Senator Sherman entered the court room shortly after the 
opening of the afternoon session of the Richland County His- 
torical Society. He came in unattended and as soon as his pres- 
ence was known the entire audience rose to receive him, and the 
officers of the society advanced and extended to him hearty 
greetings, and having; duly acknowledged the same the Senator 
at once walked over to where Judge Sloane was standing, 
grasped him by the hand and the two engaged for a few moments 
in earnest conversation after which he spoke to and shook hands 
with a number of people in the audience. Mr. Sherman then 
took a seat which had been assigned to him. At the conclusion 
of Mr. Sloane's address Mr. Sherman was called upon for a few 
remarks. We can not give the exact language of his speech, 
but after expressing the great pleasure it had afforded him to 



listen to the address of his old friend, Judge Sloane, which he 
characterized as most able and interesting- and as historically 
correct as he himself knew, he spoke to his Mansfield friends and 
told them how happy he was to be with them at that time and 
always. As nearly as we can remember his speech was some- 
thing as follows : 

Mr. President, Fellow Pioneers, Friends and Neighbors; 

I am overcome by your most friendly greeting and enthusias- 
tic reception, so unexpected and so complimentary. When I en- 
tered this room I had no idea of making a speech. You ought to 
have called on some of these other men who could have given 
you a better one ; there is George Carpenter and there is (nam- 
ing different men who were in the audience) all these men ought 
to say something. But I can assure you that it is a great pleas- 
ure to be with you today and to listen with you to the very able, 
interesting and instructive address of my old friend, Judge 
Sloane, of Sandusky, who has given us an address which is every 
word history, real truthful history, and from which all of us may 
learn. It is full of interesting facts and data and sketches of 
Pioneer days in Northern Ohio. It will be valuable to preserve; 
teachers and scholars in the public schools and students of his- 
tory should read the address carefully. It is complete in data 
and statistics. You cannot expect an address from me after this 
address of Mr. Sloane on our Pioneer days and I will only at- 
tempt to tell you how glad I am to be here and what a great 
pleasure it is for me to be with you my friends upon this occa- 
sion and to see around me so many old familiar friends whom 
I have known so long and so well. This has been my home 
nearly all my life, having lived here more than sixty years, and 
while called by public duties for a portion of my time each year to 
Washington, yet I have always been glad to return to my Mans- 
field home and I can never forget the kindness shown me here, 
the friendships, the honors heaped upon me by friends and 
neighbors here and in Ohio, but I am taking more of your time 
than I had intended and must bring my remarks to a close. 
Again I thank you one and all for your kind welcome and wish 
you all God's blessing. 


The Hon. Andrew Stevenson was the next speaker and his 
subject was "The Men who Cleared the County and Fought Its 
Battles, the Pioneers and the Soldiers." During his speech, 
which was a fine effort, Mr. Stevenson took occasion to< relate 
the circumstance of his mother securing a pension through the 
efforts of the Hon. John Sherman. 

Miss Angle sang the patriotic selection entitled "The Boys 
in the Blue and the Gray" and was the recipient of flattering 

The Hon. C. E. McBride addressed the society on "The 
Progress of the Century." 

Among those present from out of town were : Rush R. 
Sloane, Thomas M. Sloane and Rush Sloane, Jr., Dr. Sheldon 
and daughter, C. H. Gallup, Dr. D. D. Benedict, S. F. Newman 
and daughter, of Norwalk. Judge Sloane remained in the city 
over Sunday and was the guest of John Sherman and Gen. 

Washington, D. C, May 20, 1900. 
My Dear Sloane: 

I should have answered your note sooner but for urgent 
engagements. I expect to be at my residence in Mansfield on 
Friday next where I expect to remain until September next. 
Nothing will give me greater pleasure than to have you call on 
me on Sunday or Monday following my arrival. 

I have not forgotten our old and long continued friendship 
and will be happy to renew it, and will be glad to receive you at 
my house and will take great pleasure to hear your address. 

Very truly yours, 
; John Sherman. 

Hon. Rush R. Sloane. 



The Historical Society held an interesting meeting on Satur- 
day evening, interesting in attendance as well as occasion. 

Mrs. Edwin Hall, President of the society from its organ- 
ization, was tendered the gratitude of the membership for her 
recently published little volume entitled, "Reminiscences of 

Mrs. Edwin Hall, President: 

My D#ar Mrs. Hall — The very pleasant duty has been as- 
signed me of expressing the thanks of this society to our dear 
President for her "Reminiscences of Elyria." 

As we turn the pages of this beautiful little book, and see the 
familiar pictures, particularly of the old courthouse, and the dear 
old stone church, our hearts are saddened by the thought that the 
faces once so familiar in these places will greet us no more. 

The old order has changed and all things have become 
changed, but the influence of old Elyria still lingers, and the 
foundation so well laid will, we trust, be always in evidence in 
the worth and prosperity of our beautiful city. 

The thanks not only of this society are due you, Madam 
President, but of coming generations for preserving for us and 
them, these personal recollections. 

Again thanking you in behalf of this society, 1 am 
Very sincerely yours, 

Sara N. Washburn, 

Cor. Secy. 

Mrs. Hall : This is a very sweet and lovely vote of thanks. 
I am sure I have no words to express my satisfaction in receiv- 
ing it. It has been a matter of a great deal of pleasure to me as 
long tis Thave associated with the society to have been so cordially 
received by each member. I have sometimes thought we were a 
band having a united feeling of sympathy; and we have had no 
disagreement, we have always moved very nicely and very cord- 
ially in all our work. 

I am very grateful to you all for your kindness and thought- 


President of the Lorain County 
Historical Society. 


Resolutions offered by Prof. Reefy and I. D. Faxon and read 
by D. C. Baldwin : 

Whereas, Mrs. Mary Beebe Hall has placed this society 
under obligations by her valuable "Reminiscences of Elyria" just 
published, and 

Whereas, we desire to acknowledge our appreciation of her 
efforts in behalf of the society, therefore be it 

Resolved, that the Lorain County Historical Society tenders 
its most sincere thanks to Mrs. Hall for her interesting contri- 

Resolved, that these resolutions be placed on record in the 
proceedings of the society, and a copy be presented to Mrs. Hall. 

Mrs. Hall : I do not know as I can add anything more. I 
thought I had all the thanks before. 

Mrs. Cahoon: To Messrs. D. C. Baldwin, E. S. Reefy and 
I. I). P'axon, our committee on publication of Reminiscences: 
The pleasant duty has been assigned me by the executive com- 
mittee and members of our organization to give you thanks for 
them and in their name for the very efficient and highly gratify- 
ing manner in which you have discharged the duties devolving 
upon you in this connection. Your mission has been accom- 
plished, your work has been done, and well done. 

We are exceedingly proud of our book, and feel that your 
fine selections of historical scenery and careful attention to each 
and every detail has greatly added to the beauty of the publica- 
tion. We wish to express our hearty appreciation of your ef- 
forts in our behalf. 

Gentlemen, again we thank you. 

By Mrs. Hall : All of us who would join in this vote of 
thanks will rise. Unanimous. 

Judge D. J. Nye: Mrs. Hall, I have been requested on be- 
half of the society to make a few remarks in thanking you for the 
part you have taken in this society, in writing these reminiscences. 
To some of the members of this society you seem like a sister, 
to others of us you seem like a kind mother. And in receiving 
these reminiscences we receive them as a kindness from you and 


something that will perpetuate your memory with us and also to 
this society. 

And while we do not need this book to perpetuate your 
memory with us individually, the coming generations that shall 
hereafter read this book will think of you as bestowing upon them 
something that will be of inestimable value to them and to this 
community. It has been the custom of many of the Eastern 
towns, which are much older than this although we are approach- 
ing our centennial, to have little histories or reminiscences of their 
villages or cities written up. 

We feel very proud to think that one whose ancestor, whose 
father came here. as one of the early settlers, should have written 
this beautiful book and presented through this society to the com- 
munity in which we live. We are glad to know the one who has 
written this book, and in whom we all have a feeling of interest 
and pride, should have been a member of this society. Although 
your years are advancing, we hope the time will be long distant 
before we shall be called upon to part with you as President and 
as a friend of this society. 

We are assured that your loving work in writing this book 
was that of a kind mother and friend in presenting to your friends 
and to those members of this society with whom you have so 
long been associated. 

I might with propriety exclaim with the poet: 

" O ! Woman, Mother ! Woman, Wife ! 
The sweetest name that language knows ! 

Thy breast with holy motives rife. 
With holiest affection glows. 

Thou queen, thou angel of my life !" 

In conclusion allow me to express to you the heartfelt thanks 
of every member of this society for this loving work you have 
given us and through the society transmitted to posterity. 

Mrs. Hall: I do not know what I can say. I had no idea 
of having such a flowing expression of thanks. I have not pre- 
pared anything. I am very grateful as I have said. And you know 
perhaps when this was undertaken there was nothing of the kind 
thought of. Mr. Reefy asked me if I would not write a few 
sketches ; he said he would be very glad to publish them. I did. 


I read them here ; you very kindly voted I should write more, and 
that you would publish them, and 1 have. I am very grateful 
indeed to you all for feeling so kindly about the book. It has 
been very gratifying to> me to be assured the last few days by 
people I have met on the street how much they enjoyed it. And 
I certainly do feel grateful to every one of you for your kindness 
in the way in which you have -received it. 

. Mr. Baldwin : Mrs. Hall, and members of the society : I 
have the honor and the pleasure of representing your executive 
committee, who desire to express their gratitude and apprecia- 
tion of your work in promoting the aims of this society. 

In connection with this, the committee have sent for and 
published an extra edition, the first edition, which is confined to 
one copy only, which cannot be duplicated, and which they de- 
sire you to accept as a token of the esteem of this society. I take 
pleasure in presenting the book, and I hope you will enjoy the 
binding as much as we have the text-book. 

Mrs. Hall : Well, I am full of thanks ; that is all I can say. 
It is lovely. I will let you all look at it. It is lovely. 



A fine volume of the above work has been presented by 
the Lorain County Historical Society to the Firelands Histori- 
cal Society and we have given the same a careful perusal. 

We find it most interesting reading, combining with its his- 
torical statements of the early days of Elyria the interest of a 
romance. It contains accounts of many of the important events 
in the early history of the town, and also embraces exceedingly 
interesting biographical memoirs of not a few of its prominent 

The character of the workmanship shows the pride which 
the Lorain Society have taken in the book. It is beautifully 
printed in a large clear type, upon paper of excellent color and 
texture, and is admirably illustrated with quite a goodly num- 
ber of fine local views. 


It is evident that no pains have been spared to make it a full, 
faithful, and valuable history of the period to which it relates. 

Mrs. Hall's style is at once graceful and easy, and her work 
is all so well done that it does not seem necessary to call attention 
to any particular portions of the volume. 

We congratulate the author and the public upon the result 
of her labors. Aside from its present interest as a narrative of 
events, it will have an abiding value as a reliable and trust- 
worthy review of many of the important and prominent occur- 
rences in the early history of Elyria. — Ed. 



John Chapman was born at Springfield, Mass., in the year 
I 775- Of his early life but little is known, as he was reticent 
about himself, but his half-sister who came west at a later period, 
stated that Johnny had, when a boy, shown a fondness for natural 
scenery and often wandered from home in quest of plants and 
flowers and that he liked to listen to the birds singing and to gaze 
at the stars. Chapman's penchant for planting apple seeds and 
cultivating nurseries caused him to be called "Appleseed John/' 
which was finally changed to "Johnny Appleseed," and by that 
name he was called and known everywhere. 

The year Chapman came to Ohio has been variously stated, 
but to say it was one hundred years ago would not be far from 
the mark. An uncle of the late Roscella Rice lived in Jefferson 
county when Chapman made his first advent in Ohio-, and one 
day saw a queer-looking craft coming down the Ohio river above 
Steubenville. It consisted of two canoes lashed together, and 
its crew was one man — an angular, oddly-dressed person — and 
when he landed he said his name was Chapman, and that his 
cargo consisted of sacks of apple seeds and that he intended to 
plant nurseries. 


Chapman's first nursery was planted nine miles below 
Steubenville, up a narrow valley, from the Ohio river, at Bril- 
liant, formerly called Lagrange, opposite Wellsburg, W. Va. 
After planting a number of nurseries along the river front, he ex- 
tended his work into the interior of the state — into Richland 
county — where he made his home for many years. 

Chapman was enterprising in his way and planted nurseries 
in a number of counties, which required him to travel hundreds 
of miles to visit and cultivate them yearly, as was his custom. His 
usual price for a tree was "a fip penny-bit," but if the settler hadn't 
money, Johnny would either give him credit or take old clothes 
for pay. He generally located his nurseries along streams, 
planted his seeds, surrounded the patch with a brush fence, and 
when the Pioneers came, Johnny had young fruit trees ready for 
them. He extended his operations to the Maumee country and 
finally into Indiana, where the last years of his life were spent. 
He revisited Richland county the last time in 1843, an d called at 
my father's, but as I was only five years old at the time I do not 
remember him. 

My parents (in about i827-'35) planted two orchards with 
trees they bought of Johnny, and he often called at their house, 
as he was a frequent caller at the homes of the settlers. My 
grandfather, Capt. James Cunningham, settled in Richland 
county in 1808, and was acquainted with Johnny for many years, 
and I often heard him tell, in his Irish-witty way, many amusing 
anecdotes and incidents of Johnny's life and of his peculiar and 
eccentric ways. 

Johnny was fairly educated, well read and was polite and at- 
tentive in manner and was chaste in conversation. His face was 
pleasant in expression, and he was kind and generous in dispo- 
sition. His nature was a deeply religious one, and his life was 
blameless among his fellow men. He regarded comfort more 
than style and thought it wrong to spend money for clothing to 
make a fine appearance. He usually wore a broad-brimmed hat. 
He went barefooted not only in the summer, but often in cold 
weather, and a coffee sack, with neck and armholes cut in it, was 
worn as a coat. He was about 5 feet, 9 inches in height, rather 


spare in build but was large boned and sinewy. His eyes were 
blue, but darkened with animation. 

For a number of years Johnny lived in a little cabin near 
Perrysville (then in Richland county), but later he made his home 
in Mansfield with his half-sister, a Mrs. Groome, who lived on 
the Leesville road (now West Fourth street) near the present res- 
idence of R. G. Hancock. The parents of George C. Wise then 
lived near what is now the corner of West Fourth street and 
Penn avenue and the Groome and Wise families were friends and 
neighbors. George C. Wise, Hiram R.- Smith, Mrs. J. H. Cook 
and others remember "Johnny Appleseed" quite well. Mrs. 
Cook was, perhaps, better acquainted with "Johnny" than any 
other living person today, for the Wiler House was often his 
stopping place. The homes of Judge Parker, Mr. Newman and 
others were ever open to receive "Johnny" as a guest. 

But the man who best understood this peculiar character was 
the late Dr. William Bushnell, father of our respected fellow- 
townsman, the Hon. M. B. Bushnell, the donor of this beautiful 
commemorative monument, and by whose kindness and liberality 
we are here today. With Dr. Bushnell's scholastic attainments 
and intuitive knowledge of character he was enabled to know and 
appreciate Chapman's learning and the noble traits of his head 
and heart. 

When upon his journeys "Johnny" usually camped out. He 
never killed anything, not even for the purpose of obtaining food. 
He carried a kit of cooking utensils with him, among which was 
a mush-pan, which he sometimes wore as a hat. When he called 
at a house, his custom was to lie upon the floor with his kit for 
a pillow and after conversing with the family a short time, would 
then read from a Swedenborgian book or tract, and proceed to 
explain and extol the religious views he so zealously believed, 
and whose teachings he so faithfully carried out in his every day 
life and conversation. His mission was one of peace and good 
will and he never carried a weapon, not even for self-defense. 
The Indians regarded him as a great "Medicine Man," and his 
life seemed to be a charmed one, as neither savage men nor wild 
beast would harm him. 


Chapman was not a mendicant. He was never in indigent 
circumstances, for he sold thousands of nursery trees every year. 
Had he been avaricious, his estate instead of being worth a few 
thousand might have been tens of thousands at his death. 
i . "'Johnny Appleseed's" name was John Chapman — not Jona- 
than — and this is attested by the muniments of his estate, and 
also from the fact that he had a half-brother (a deaf mute) whose 
Christian name was Jonathan. 

Chapman never married and rumor said that a love affair in 
the old Bay State was the cause of his living the life of a celibate 
and recluse. Johnny himself never explained why he led such a 
singular life except to remark that he had a mission — which was 
understood to be to plant nurseries and to make converts to the 
doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. He died at the home 
of William Worth in St. Joseph township, Allen county, Indiana, 
March ii, 1847, anf l was buried in David Archer's graveyard, a 
few miles north of Fort W T ayne, near the foot of a natural mound. 
His name is engraved as a senotaph upon one of the monuments 
erected in Mifflin township, Ashland county, this state, to the 
memory of the Pioneers. Those monuments were unveiled with 
imposing ceremony in the presence of over 6,000 people Septem- 
ber 15, 1882, the seventieth anniversary of the Copus tragedy. 
During the war of 1812 Chapman often warned the settlers 
of approaching danger. The following incident is given : When 
the news spread that Levi Jones had been killed by the Indians 
and that Wallace Reed and others had probably met the same 
fate, excitement ran high and the few families which comprised 
the population of Mansfield sought the protection of the block- 
house, situated on the public square, as it was supposed the sav- 
ages were coming in force from the north to overrun the country 
and to murder the settlers. 

There w r ere no troops at the blockhouse at the time and as 
an attack was considered imminent, a consultation was held and 
it was decided to> send a messenger to Captain Douglas, at Mt. 
Vernon, for assistance. But who would undertake the hazardous 
journey? It was evening, and the rays of the sunset had faded 
away and the stars were beginning to> shine in the darkening sky ; 
and the trip of thirty miles must be made in the night over a new 


cut road through a wilderness — through a forest infested with 
wild beasts and hostile Indians. 

A volunteer was asked for and a tall, lank man said de- 
murely: "I'll go." He was bareheaded, barefooted and was un- 
armed. His manner was meek and you had to< look the second 
time into his clear, blue eyes to fully fathom the courage and de- 
termination shown in their depths. There was an expression in 
his countenance such as limners try to portray in their pictures 
of saints. It is scarcely necessary to state that the volunteer was 
"Johnny Appleseed" for many of you have heard your fathers 
tell how unostentatiously "Johnny" stood as "a watchman on the 
walls of Jezreel," to guard and protect the settlers from their 
savage foes. 

The journey to Mt. Vernon was a sort of a Paul Revere 
mission. Unlike Paul's, "Johnny's" was made on foot — bare- 
footed; — over a rough road, but one that in time led to fame. 

"Johnny" would rap on the doors of the few cabins along the 
route, warn the settlers of the impending danger and advise them 
to flee to the blockhouse. 

"Johnny" arrived safely at Mt. Vernon, aroused the garri- 
son and informed the commandant of his mission. Surely, figur- 
atively speaking, 

"The dun-deer's hide 
On fleeter feet was never tied," 

for so expeditiously was the trip made that at sunrise the next 
morning troops from Mt. Vernon arrived at the Mansfield block- 
house, accompanied by "Johnny," who had made the round trip 
of sixty miles between sunset and sunrise. 

About a week before Chapman's death, while at Fort Wayne, 
he heard that cattle had broken into his nursery in St. Joseph 
township and were destroying his trees, and he started on foot to 
look after his property. The distance w r as about twenty miles 
and the fatigue and exposure of the journey were too much for 
"Johnny's" physical condition, then enfeebled by age; and at the 
even-tide he applied at the home of a Mr. Worth for lodging for 
the night. Mr. Worth was a native Buckeye and had lived in 



Richland county when a boy and when he learned that his oddly 
dressed caller was "Johnny Appleseed" gave him a cordial wel- 
come. "Johnny" declined going to the supper table but partook 
of a bowl of bread and milk. 

The day had been cold and raw with occasional flurries of 
snow, but in the evening the clouds cleared away and the sun 
shone warm and bright as it sank in the western sky. "Johnny" 
noticed this beautiful sunset, an augury of the Spring and flowers 
so soon to come and sat on the doorstep and gazed with wistful 
eyes toward the west. Perhaps this herald of the Springtime, the 
season in which nature is resurrected from the death of Winter, 
caused him to look with prophetic eyes to< the future and contem- 
plate that glorious event of which Christ is the resurrection and 
the life. Upon re-entering the house, "Johnny" declined the bed 
offered him for the night, preferring a quilt and pillow on the 
floor, but asked permission to hold family worship and read "Bles- 
sed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of Heaven," 
"Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God," etc. 

After he had finished reading the lesson, he said prayers — 
prayers long remembered by that family. He prayed for all sorts 
and conditions of men; that the way of righteousness might be 
made clear unto them and that saving grace might be freely given 
to all nations. He asked that the Holy Spirit might guide and 
govern all who profess and call themselves Christians and that all 
those who* were afflicted in mind, body or estate, might be com- 
forted and relieved, and that all might at last come to the knowl- 
edge of the truth and in the world to come have happiness and 
everlasting life. Not only the words of the prayer, but the pathos 
of his voice made a deep impression upon those present. 

In the morning "Johnny" was found in a high state of fever, 
pneumonia having developed during the night, and the physician 
called said he was beyond medical aid, but inquired particularly 
about his religious belief, and remarked that he had never seen a 
dying man so perfectly calm, for upon his wan face there was an 
expression of happiness and upon his pale lips there was a smile 
of joy, as though he was communing with loved ones who had 
come to meet him and to soothe his weary spirit in his dying 


moments. And as his eyes shone with the beautiful light su 
pernal, God touched him with his finger and beckoned him home. 

Thus ended the life of the man who was not only a hero, but 
a benefactor as well ; and his spirit is now at rest in the Paradise 
of the Redeemed, and in the fullness of time, clothed again in the 
old body made anew, will enter into the Father's house in which 
there are many mansions. In the words of his own faith, his 
bruised feet will be healed, and he shall walk on the gold-paved 
streets of the New Jerusalem of which he so eloquently preached. 
It has been very appropriately said that although years have 
come and gone since his death, the memory of his good deeds 
live anew every Springtime in the beauty and fragrance of the 
blossoms of the apple trees he loved so well. 

"Johnny Appleseed's" death was in harmony with his un- 
ostentatious, blameless life. It is often remarked, "How beauti- 
ful is the Christian's life ;" yea, but far more beautiful is the 
Christian's death, when "the fashion of his countenance is al- 
tered," as he passes from the life here to the life beyond. 

What changes have taken place in the years that have inter- 
vened between the "Johnny Appleseed" period and today ! It 
has been said that the lamp of civilization far surpasses that of 
Aladdin's. Westward the star of empire took its way and 
changed the forests into fields of grain and the waste places into 
gardens of flowers, and towns and cities have been built with 
marvelous handiwork. But in this march of progress, the strug- 
gles and hardships of the early settlers must not be forgotten. 
Let us not only record the history, but the legends of the pioneer 
period; garner its facts and its fictions; its tales and traditions 
and collect even the crumbs that fall from the table of the feast. 

Today, the events which stirred the souls and tried the cour- 
age of the Pioneers seem to come out of the dim past and glide 
as panoramic views before me. A number of the actors in those 
scenes were of my "kith and kin" who' have long since crossed 
over the river in their journey to the land where Enoch and 
Elijah are Pioneers, while I am left to exclaim : 

" Oh, for the touch of a vanished hand 
And the sound of a voice that is still." 


While the scenes of those Pioneer days are vivid to us on 
history's page, future generations may look upon them as the 
phantasmagoria of a dream. 

At 72 years of age — 46 of which had been devoted to his self- 
imposed mission — John Chapman ripened into death as natur- 
ally and as beautifully as the apple seeds of his planting had 
grown into trees, had budded into blossoms and ripened into 
fruit. The monument which is not to be unveiled is a fitting 
memorial to> the man in whom there dwelt a comprehensive love 
that reached downward to the lowest forms of life and upward to 
the throne of the Divine. 


The two skeletons found in this grave were rudely shoveled 
from the ground by the workmen who discovered them, and only 
replaced in it for the purpose of exhibiting them as an accessory 
to what the photo really preserves ; the stone lining exactly as 
that was placed by the hands of those who honored the persons 
of mark by the exceeding care of interment. The stone at the 
head of the skeleton is one of the covering pieces ; the others are 
in situ; thus the sides and tops of the grave were fully incased by 
these slabs, preventing wild beasts from disturbing the remains. 
Such exceptional care would also indicate that these persons were 
of high rank in their tribe. No rUde pottery or arrows seem to 
have been found in it. 

The hill upon which the interment took place was once the 
shore line of ancient Lake Erie and is composed wholly of pure, 
fine lake sand, modified by long percolation of carbonated water 
through decaying leaves from the forest once thickly covering it. 
Hence these stones incasing the grave were brought from the 
limestone exposure below and perchance a mile away. This site 
is a sightly place — Sandusky, the crests above Castalia, Blooming- 
ville, Bellevue, Berlin Heights are in evidence. Signal fires 
could communicate, and doubtless did, the rude prehistoric tel- 
egrams of warning of hostile raid and war or whereabouts of 


A little distance away is the white man's burial place, and 
his place of worship has a white spire overlooking both burial of 
red and white men ; one religion and race supplanting the other. 
Mow soon will inevitable changes supplant ours? 

This remarkable stone encased Indian grave was discovered 
ten rods south of the "Short Line" Railway cut made through 
the sand hill dunes of Groton township, Erie county, Ohio, to 
secure gravel from a pebble ridge for ballast. One of the earliest 
log cabins in the history of the Firelands was built almost over the 
site of the red man's place of interment. A well was dug close 
by, but as the plow of early days passed over this spot, it was 
not found until the railroad came. Mr. C. W. Piatt has pre- 
served the appearance as it was shortly after its excavation. The 
skeleton and photo are preserved in the museum of the Sandusky 
High School. 

A local amateur antiquarian, D. L. C. Ransom, conversant 
with Indian cairns, mounds, forts, graves, flint quarries, arrow 
factories, etc., is taken, enjoying his meditations upon a vanished 
race. Sprague, an early, able writer, voices our thought, "Not 
many generations where you now sit, encircled with all that ex- 
alts and embellishes civilized life * * * lived and loved another 
race of beings. Beneath the same sun that rolls over your head 
the Indian hunter pursued the panting deer, gazing on the same 
moon that smiles for you, the Indian lover wooed his dusky mate. 
Here the wigwam blaze beamed on the tender and helpless, and 
the council-fire glared on the wise and daring. Now they dipped 
their noble limbs in your sedgy lakes, and now they paddled the 
light canoe along your rocky shores. Here they warred the echo- 
ing whoop, the bloody grapple, the defying death-song; all were 
here; and when the tiger strife was over, here curled the smoke 
of peace. Here, too, they worshipped, and from many a dark 
bosom went up a fervent prayer to the Great Spirit. * * * 
And all this has passed away. Across the ocean came a pilgrim 
bark bearing the seeds of life and death. * * * As a race 
they have withered from the land. Their arrows are broken, 
their springs are dried up, their cabins are in the dust. Their 
council-fire has long since gone out on the shore. * * * The 
inquisitive white man will ponder on the structure of their dis- 


turbed remains and wonder to what manner of persons they be- 
longed. They will live only in the songs and chronicles of their 

What Pioneer's son or daughter has not had the heart thrilled 
by the recitation of the above from the old McGuffey's Fifth 
Reader at Pioneer spelling schools of winter evenings in the long 
ago. Excelsior. 



The following is copied from "The Chicago Times Herald," 
of June 10, 1900. It will be of special interest to the readers of 
"The Firelands Pioneer" as it relates to two well-known Pioneers 
one of whom has passed away after a long and useful life and a 
prominent officer for many years of "The Firelands Historical 
Society," and the other is now the honored president of this 
society. It is also' historical matter cf great public and general 
interest; guests of honor for the Republican convention. 

The fourteen surviving delegates of the Pittsburg conven- 
tion of 1856, are : 

John Howard Bryant, born 1807, lives at Princeton, 111. 

Rocliff BrinkerhofT, born June 28, 1828, lives at Mansfield, 

Clark W. Penn, born 18,17, lives at Washington, D. C. 

Allen A. Craig, born 1820, lives at Corry, Pa. 

William A. Cook, lives at Washington, D. C. 

Charles G. Davis, born 1820, lives at Plymouth, 111. 

Ex-Gov. Sidney Kdgerton, born 1819, lives at Akron, O. 

Geo. H. Frey, born 1825, lives at Springfield, O. 

Wm. L. Lane, born 1818, lives at Philadelphia, Pa. 

S. P. McCalmont, born 1823, lives at Franklin, Pa. 

Ex-Gov. John M. Palmer, born 1818, lives at Springfield, 


G. C. Schneider, born 1825, lives at Chicago, 111. 
Rush R. Sloane, born September 18, 1828, lives at San- 
dusky, O. 

Jacob Weyand, born 1828, lives at Beaver, Pa. 

The history of the "political father" of John Sherman is in- 
teresting. Rush R. Sloane, of Sandusky, Ohio, has accepted the 
invitation of Senator Hanna and will attend the convention. 
Judge Sloane was born and has always resided in Sandusky. He 
was educated as a lawyer, and was admitted to practice in the 
Ohio and Supreme courts in 1849. He read law with F. D. Par- 
ish, who> was a victim under the fugitive slave act, and in 1845 
was fined under that act by the United States court $1,000 and 
costs. It is a singular circumstance that Mr. Sloane, the student 
of Mr. Parish, was in 1852, for defending five slaves, arrested and 
convicted under the second fugitive slave act of 1850, and in 1854 
paid a judgment obtained against him for $3,000 and $1,200 
costs. This was the only prosecution in the United States under 
this act, which made "slave catchers" of all American citizens. 
The "Sandusky Register" in i860, when Judge Sloane was the 
candidate of the county for the Republican nomination for con- 
gress, said : "This slave episode was an important factor in the 
foundation of the political and personal fortunes of Mr. Sloane, 
whose conduct throughout, from 1852 to the time of the judg- 
ment against him, which he paid, was upright, honorable, modest, 
brave and altogether creditable." Judge Sloane was twice 
elected probate judge of the county upon the Republican ticket, 
and resigned that office in 186 r, to accept office under President 
Lincoln. He largely influenced the nomination of Senator Sher- 
man as successor to Senator Chase, who resigned to enter Presi- 
dent Lincoln's cabinet. Judge Sloane was for seven years a 
member of the Republican state committee of Ohio, and during 
1864-5-6 was chairman of the Ohio state Republican central com- 
mittee. He again had the management of Senator Sherman's 
second campaign for the nomination for senator, and no man 
at that time exercised a greater influence in the politics of Ohio in 
the Union or Republican party than he. In 1872 he voted for 


his warm personal friend, Horace Greeley, for president, and 
made the canvass for congress on the Greeley ticket. Judge 
Sloane was elected mayor of Sandusky on the Democratic ticket 
in 1878. He retired from business in 1880, and now devotes his 
time largely to the Firelands Historical Society, of which he is 
president. He is an exceptionally public spirited man, and has 
done much for the advancement of the material interests of his 
native city. 

In this connection it may be truthfully said that Judge Sloane 
was not only the "political father," but also one of the warmest 
of the personal friends of the late Hon. John Sherman. 

Judge Sloane has in his possession five hundred or more 
letters from John Sherman, all in his own handwriting, as well 
as many telegrams, the latter pertaining principally to political 
events in which Mr. Sherman was conspicuous in the earlier years 
of his public career. The letters cover a period of nearly half a 
century, and one of them was probably about the last ever penned 
by Mr. Sherman. Some of the letters are brief and pertain only 
to political matters, concerning which Sherman freely and fre- 
quently consulted Judge Sloane, depending largely upon the 
sagacity and excellent management of the latter in his earlier 
campaigns. Other letters are those of friend to friend, and were 
couched by Mr. Sherman in terms of highest regard for . his 
political associate and personal friend. 

This collection of letters contains much valuable and 
hitherto unpublished history, some parts of which, by Judge 
Sloane's consent, will find their way into the columns of "The 
Star" at no very distant date. 




The recent death of Mrs. Marian Edison Page, of Milan, 
Ohio, vividly recalls to the mind of the writer a visit made last 
autumn to that historic village. 

"More passengers — tourists and excursionists — get off and 
on at Milan than at any other station along the line." 

Such was the observation of a conductor on the Sandusky, 
Milan & Norwalk electric car which I boarded at Sandusky. 

Milan's attractions are threefold. It is remarkable, first, as 
one of the. most picturesquely located towns in Northern Ohio. 
Its historical associations and record are of absorbing interest; 
and, lastly, it is famous as the birthplace of a man who stands 
preeminent in the realm of science, and whose name is known as 
the modern conjurer, Thomas A. Edison. Mrs. Page, above 
mentioned, was a sister of the inventor. 

Approaching from the westward, through flat, uninteresting 
country, the passenger experiences a thrill of delight when a view 
of Milan, perched on the bluffs of Huron river, flashes upon his 
vision — the change is so sudden and the scene so charming withal. 

Enclosed within double lines of romantic hills and winding 
through the loveliest of valleys, diversified by garden, orchard, 
and meadow land, the waters of the Huron sweep silently on their 
course northward toward Lake Erie, distant eight miles. 

Viewed as the writer viewed them, by the fading light of a 
lovely day in September, the green knobs that shut in the valley 
are redolent of pastoral suggestions, taking shape in the grazing 
cattle and sheep that cover them. A tinkle of cow-bells from 
home-coming herds echoes from among the hills. Glimpses of 
nestling farm houses and rural scenes diversified is like a dream 
of Acadia. This, then, is the landscape upon which the famed 
projector of electric marvels first opened his eyes over fifty years 


ago. Crossing a bridge of massive iron near the town,I craned 
my neck, at a nod from the conductor, towards "Hog's Back," 
a bluff on the river's opposite side. 

"There," he observed with an impressive gesture — "there 
stands the house in which Edison was born." 

It is a structure of red brick, stationed like an outpost on the 
bluff's highest point. 

Just beyond the river the car mounts a steep hill to the town, 
and a moment later reaches the public square. 

Though in appearance a sleepy old borough, Milan is far 
from stupid, giving evidence on all sides of the intelligence and 
culture of the people who, at various times, have there resided, 
or who now make it an abiding place. Shaded by stately elms 
and century-old maples, the streets are delightfully cool, clean, 
and quiet. An occasional age-worn dwelling is seen, showing 
in its architectural design the classic tastes of the builder. 

A stately monument erected in the square to the memorv 
both of "the living and the dead," those who fought in the war of 
the Rebellion, shows a record of loyalty and of valor seldom 

The historic interest attaching to Milan begins with the 
red races, the Rennappi, Pawnees, Delawares, and Ottawas, that 
flourished and fought along the Huron, and whose bones, un- 
earthed from ancient mounds, now afford speculative food for the 

The valley and its hills formed a favored resort for these 
tribes. There were divisions — tribal and factional — among them, 
and jealousies and dissensions galore. The romantic element 
here awoke within the savage, as "Lovers' Rock" attests, bear- 
ing a legend old which runs briefly as follows : 

A chief's beautiful daughter had two lovers — rival chiefs. 
She loved one, but her father favored the other and swore that 
she should marry him. The rivals belonged to separate tribes. 
They fought. Her beloved was defeated and was in imminent 
danger of being captured. Despairing, he sought a last inter- 
view with the maiden at their fry sting place, the rock. There, 
seeing no hope of living together, they resolved to die together 


and flung themselves from its summit and died in each other's 

This rock, situated near a picturesque waterfall shapen by a 
swift stream in its descent over slate ledges to the river below, is 
still the resort of lovers — of a type more modern. 

In 1787 two noted Jesuit missionaries, Dencke and Zeis- 
berger, established missions among these feudal dwellers. 
Father Dencke was of Icelandic birth, the son of a missionary, 
a man of intense piety, wide philanthropy, and extensive learn- 
ing, who brought with him into the wilderness a library said to 
have nearly rilled one side of the cabin in which he lived. 
Father Dencke's station occupied the present site of Milan, the 
Indian converts and followers numbering about one thousand, 
whom the missionary gathered about him, building them a village 
known as "Pequotting," On "Abbott Island," two miles north of 
Pequotting, was established the mission post of Father Zeis- 
berger. "Abbott's Island," now owned by prominent Ohio 
capitalists, who have built there a club house, is a romantic eleva- 
tion, tree clad, and swept by the waters of the Huron. 

The vicissitudes of these missionaries, the wonderful work 
accomplished by them, and their final dispersion, combine to 
form a story of thrilling interest. 

The next historical figure of importance cut by this locality 
was during the war of 18 12, when a fort near Milan's present 
site, formed on the frontier of British invasion, a strong military 
post, and was the only protection afforded lake shore settlers at 
that time from the British and Indians. On the shore of the 
lake, north of Milan, the American troops, which had become 
prisoners at Hull's surrender, were landed and released by their 
captors. Mistaking them for British invaders, the inhabitants 
stampeded in wild alarm when these paroled prisoners came 
swarming into the Milan settlement. A lofty hill, which might 
have served as the stronghold of some ancient knight, is still 
pointed out as the site of old Fort Avery, and is said to be the 
iiighest land in Erie county. 

A thrilling chapter of Pioneer reminiscences might here be 
added, but space forbids. Suffice to say that the missionaries, 
the British, and the Indians passed away each in turn. The 


Tillage known as Pequotting, having become a white settlement, 
was called "Merry's Mills," and afterwards rechristened Milan. 
The next epoch in the history of the place was its 
phenomenal development and growth along commercial lines. 
The river being navigable for large vessels to a point within 
three miles of Milan, a commodious warehouse was here located, 
and the place became famous for its grain shipments. The 
residents, who then numbered about 400, conceived the idea of a 
ship canal, and were so impressed with the vast importance of 
such a project that almost to a man they bonded their property 
to raise money for the enterprise. After serious drawbacks, a 
large outlay, and a ten years' struggle the canal was completed 
in 1839. and the first vessel, the Kewanne, passed through it into 
Milan July 4 of that year, the occasion proving to be the greatest 
and the demonstration the most enthusiastic that the place had 
ever known. 

Eleven warehouses, with a storage capacity of 300,000 
bushels, built at the canal terminus, were hardly sufficient, it is 
authentically stated, to store all the grain brought to the place. 
Between six and seven hundred wagons, grain-laden, arrived in 
a single day. Some of the number w T ere four and six-horse 
teams and traveled, in some instances, 130 miles. Grain wagons 
crowded every approach to the warehouses, waiting, each in turn, 
for a chance to unload. As high as 16,000 bushels daily were 
received and twenty vessels were loaded in a single day. 

In the forties Milan achieved wide fame, standing as a 
primary grain market second in the world. 

With that of the grain trade a second boom struck the place 
and ship building became extensive. It is related that one old 
ship builder, J. P. Gay, who formed a partnership with a brother 
builder named Merry, the firm becoming Merry & Gay, sailed 
along in the most happy and successful manner, filling at one 
time a contract with the United States government for the build- 
ing of six revenue cutters. 

Meantime the opening at Milan of Huron Institute in 1832 
paved the way to further successes, affording the best educational 
advantages west of Cleveland — Oberlin College not then being in 


existence. The Presbyterian church, built on the site of Father 
Dencke's mission house, was the parent and guardian of this 
famous institution. The church itself became in turn historic. 
Its great bell could be heard for many miles; and its power for 
good, vested in its people and voiced from its pulpit, was felt 
throughout the region. 

"As like attracts like," so the intelligence of her people and 
the great commercial enterprise there existing drew thither from 
other places men of brains and wealth. Among the number 
was Samuel Edison, who came with his family from Vienna, 
Canada, and located at Milan in 1837; engaging as a lumber 
dealer and general merchant. On the "Hog's Back" he erected 
the dwelling pointed out as the Edison homestead. Here on 
the nth of February — youngest of a family of four — was born 
Thomas Alva Edison, the inventor. 

A review of Milan's downfall is interesting, as that of its 
rise. Briefly as can be told, the story runs thus: 

Puffed by past successes, and confident of her ability to 
maintain commercial prestige independent of outside co-opera- 
tion, Milan fought the railways, which as years crept by r sought 
to invade her domain, religiously guarding the channel through 
which had entered her prosperity — the canal. As a result, the 
Lake Shore & Michigan Southern passed her a few miles to the 
south, and still later the Nickel Plate a short distance to north- 
ward. The railways speedly absorbed her grain trade. Cleve- 
land and other places stole her shipbuilding interests, and the 
canal became practically useless. Oberlin College and other 
seats of learning, accessible by rail, springing up, diverted pat- 
ronage from Huron Institute, and lone as a widow bereft, Milan 
sat disconsolate by the river, with only the memory of her fallen 

The decay of trade interests was followed by the with- 
drawal of many influential people from the place, and its popula- 
tion soon became reduced from thousands to a few hundreds. 
Among the number who left was Samuel Edison, who removed 
his family to Port Huron in T854 — Baby Thomas then being 
seven years old. 


Milan struggled to regain her lost estate, finally compromis- 
ing with the railways to the extent of contributing to one herself, 
and which was built along the old canal towpath. This project 
failed, however, of its anticipated success. 

In 1888 a conflagration swept the business portion of the 
town with disastrous results. The old Presbyterian church went 
down in the wreck, its doom rung by its own massive bell as it 
fell crashing into the flames. Among other embellishments, this 
church contained a memorial window presented by Thomas 
A. Edison, in memory of his mother. 

Prominent among the wrecks of Milan's prosperity still 
stands the structure known as Huron Institute — stately though 
ruinous. The visitor is shown the basin where fleets of vessels 
once lay at anchor — now covered with agricultural products, 
while nothing is left to tell of the extensive shipyards. The 
last remaining warehouse at which vessels loaded with grain is 
also pointed out, now encompassed by dry land instead of water. 
The building is used as a canning factory. 

The disused canal bed and the railway along its tow path, 
smothered by wild vegetation, combine to present a mournful 
spectacle, causing a depression which is only relieved when is 
caught a glimpse of the power house of the electric car line close 
by. We then recall the fact that with all her failures, Milan pro- 
duced one grand success when she produced an Edison. 

In losing commercial prestige, Milan yet retained her dig- 
nity, borne up by the intelligence of her people. Besides Edison, 
she has produced many other inventors of note. 

While sojourning in Milan, the writer visited the Edison 
homestead, then owned and occupied by Mrs. Page. Having had 
on a previous occasion the privilege of meeting the lady, Mrs. 
Page recognized and gave me a cordial greeting. 

Mrs. Page was a woman of pleasant countenance and uncon- 
ventional manners, an easy, agreeable talker, and possessed of in- 
telligence above the average, though claiming no especial gifts. 
On the death of her husband, Homer Page, two years ago, Mrs. 
Page abandoned "Rose Hall," their country residence near Ab- 
bott's Island, and moved to the home of her youth. Some im- 


provements in the structure were recently made, a porch extend- 
ing its whole length being added to the front. Otherwise it re- 
mains much the same as when built over sixty years ago. As I 
neared the place, its brick walls, covered by a coat of red paint, 
showed brightly through the boughs of fine old maples ; and con- 
trasted pleasingly with the fresh verdure of an open grass plot 
bordering the street. 

Furnished in excellent taste,' and pervaded with a cheerful 
and homelike atmosphere, was the interiori; the parlor windows 
commanding a magnificent view of the valley, river, and a 
line of hills beyond. Prominent among objects seen in this 
room, was a fully equipped phonograph — one of the best made — 
presented Mrs. Page by her brother, Thomas. I was kindly al- 
lowed a peep into the room where its inventor was born. The 
library and dining rooms were also opened to my inspection, and 
. I was shown some of the old family pictures, among which was 
that of Grandfather Edison, in old-fashioned stove-pipe hat and 
stock tie — who died at the age of one hundred and four years; 
also that of Thomas A., in short dresses. A recent photograph 
of the inventor was also shown me by Mrs. Page. She invariably 
spoke of him with sisterly pride ancl affection, admiring him as 
much for his generous, noble heart as for his wonderful genius. 

"Thomas," as she informed me, had recently offered her 
$io,ooo for the homestead, but she had refused his offer, not wish- 
ing to part with it. 

vSaid she: "I asked him what he would do with the place 
if he had it." 

" 'Turn it into a library for the benefit of the people of 
Milan/ he replied." 

She read to me from a newspaper clipping a beautiful trib- 
ute paid by him to their m other, and further along in our conver- 
sation remarked incidentally that he had. asked her to accompany 
him to the Paris Exposition, but owing to her poor health and a 
predisposition to sea -sickness, she did not care to' cross the 

Though a verv busy man, Mr. Edison has never forgotten 
the home of his childhood. On one occasion he wrote Mrs. 
Page, expressing the longing he felt to view once more the beau- 


tiful hills of Milan. His words kept ringing through her brain, 
until constrained to set them to rhyme, they took shape in the 
following stanzas : 

"Beautiful hills of Milan, 

I long to see you once more, 
To tread on thy grassy carpet 
As I did in days of yore. 

" Beautiful hills of Milan, 

Where I was so happy and free ; 
With my brothers and sisters, now far away 
In the land beyond life's sea. 

•' Beautiful hills of Milan, 

How oft in my dreams I see 
The father, the mother, the loved ones, 
Who enjoyed thy beauties with me. 

" Beautiful hills of Milan, 

Would I could see you again, 
It would be sweeter to me than gold 
Or my name on the roll of fame." 

Mrs. Page was a regular attendant at the Presbyterian 
Church, being included in its membership. The church is near 
the Edison home. It is of modern build, and occupies the site 
of the structure burned in 1888, as well as that of the old Jesuit 

The remains of Mrs. Page were buried beside those of her 
husband in the Milan cemetery, whither they were followed by 
all her townspeople, who loved her for her kindly impulses and 
noble deeds, Thomas A. Edison, the only surviving member of 
the family, being chief mourner. 

"Milan-on-the-Huron" has been likened to "Stratford-on- 
Avon." Nowhere else in America are the steps of progress 
more clearly marked. Most fitting then, that it should be the 
birthplace of an Edison ; and in coming days, when the tide of 
travel, which has begun setting toward it, is at its full, and pil- 
grims from all lands halt at its gateways to view the cradle of 
modern electrical science, the old town will then awaken from 
its Rip Van Winkle sleep to a realization of its world-wide fame. 

Theresa Thorndals. 





Erie was separated from Huron more than sixty-two years 
ago and legally organized. The county of Huron was divided, and 
the northern part together with the east part of Sandusky 
county, was called Erie county; the following is the act of the 
legislature creating the new county of Erie, and passed on the 
fifteenth of March, 1838. On the sixteenth of March an act was 
passed, also on the sixth day of March, 1840, an act was passed 
making additions and alterations to the new county all of which 
are hereinafter given : 

"Section 1. Be it enacted, etc., That such parts of the 
counties of Huron and Sandusky as are embraced in the bound- 
aries hereinafter described, be, and the same are hereby, 
erected into a distinct and separate county, which shall 
be known as the county of Erie, and the seat of justice 
in and for said county shall be established at Sandusky 
city, to^wit: Beginning at a point on the east line of 
Oxford township, in the county of Huron, one mile north of the 
southeast corner thereof, thence northerly on the said east line 
and in the same direction to the Canada line; thence westerly 
along said Canada line to a point therein directly opposite the 
west line of the township of Portage, in Sandusky county ; thence 
southerly, parallel with the east line of said Sandusky county, 
to the northwest corner of Townsend, in Sandusky county; 
thence east to the west boundary of Huron county, to a point 
one mile north of the south line of the township of Groton, in the 
said county of Huron, and from thence to the place of beginning; 
Provided, and it is hereby declared, that if the east line of the 
said county of Erie as above described will not include the whole 
of Cunningham's island (now Kelley's), in Lake Erie, then, and 
in that ca^e, said line shall be so< far varied from the south shore 
of said Lake Erie to the said Canada line that will embrace the 
whole of said Cunningham's island. 


"Sec. 2. That the said county of Erie be, and remain, at- 
tached to the said counties from which it is taken until the same 
shall be organized by the legislature." 

On the sixteenth day of March, 1838, an act was passed, the 
first clause of which read as follows: 

"Be it enacted, etc., That the county of Erie is hereby or- 
ganized into a distinct and separate county." 

On the fourth day of April following, the first court of Erie 
common pleas was held. Present, Judges Moses Farwell, Na- 
than Strong and Harvey Fowler. The business of the first day, 
as given on No. 1 of the dockets of the court, was as follows : 

"It appeared that there was a vacancy in the office of clerk 
of the court. It is ordered that Zenas W. Barber be, and he is 
hereby, appointed clerk, pro tern, of this court. And thereupon 
said Zenas W. Barker appeared in open court, and having ex- 
ecuted and filed a bond to the state of Ohio in the penal sum of 
$10,000, bearing date the fourth day of April, 1838, with John 
G. Camp and Oran Follett his sureties, conditioned according 
to law, which is approved by the court, took the oath of office re- 
quired by law." Next came the appointment of school exam- 
iners, given on the docket as follows : 

"It is ordered by the court that the Rev. Alvin Nash, the 
Rev. Thomas H. Quinan, E. B. Sadler, Esq., be, and they are 
hereby, apointed school examiners for the county of Erie, in pur- 
suance of an act for the support and better regulation of com- 
mon schools, passed March 7, A. D., 1838." 

The above, with the appointment of John G. Camp, Esq., 
as the guardian of Ebenezer B. Goodrich, constituted all of the 
legal business transacted the first day of the session of the first 
court of Erie county common pleas. 

No alterations or additions were made to the new county 
until 1840, when the subjoined section of the act of March 6, 1840, 
was passed: 

"Sec. 5. Be it enacted, etc., That all that territory in the 
county of Huron, north of the north line of the townships of 
Wakeman, Townsend, Norwalk and Lyme, which includes the 
townships of Vermillion, Florence, Berlin, Milan and Huron, 


and also a strip off the south side of the townships of Oxford and 
Groton, one mile in width, be, and the same is hereby, attached 
to the county of Erie." 

This constituted the formation proper of Erie county, and 
no material changes with regard to> territory have since been 
made. The prosperity of the county since its definite erection 
has been rapid, though a variety of causes have been brought to 
bear upon and retard its progress. The most melancholy event, 
the one of all others the most detrimental to the growth and 
financial and social development of the county was the visitation 
of the cholera in 1849. J ust at tne decisive time in her history, 
when in the height of her advancement, the fell destroyer came, 
and, as a fatal holocaust, swept over her people, affecting her 
dearest interests and devastating her population. Especially was 
this the case in Sandusky city, the county seat. The harrowing 
uncertainty of the extent of the disease, together with its re- 
currence in 1852 and 1854, was the death knell to the rapid 
progess which, for a decade, of years anterior, had characterized 
every department of mechanical, industrial and financial advance- 
ment in the county. Thousands left who never returned, and a 
sudden and lasting check was put upon the influx of immigration, 
which was formerly one of the main things which led to her 



During the year 181 5 some of the most prominent men of 
Bloomingville, Cleveland, and elsewhere, discussed the practica- 
bility of establishing a bank at Bloomingville. No definite action 
was taken until the spring of 1816, when the enthusiasm of 181 5 
cropped out in active preparations for the building of the Bloom- 
ingville bank. Indeed, it was a great project, it would place 
Bloomingville on a par with the other cities of the Buckeye state, 
and, as no building in the place would fill the bill, to build one 
was the only resort. Ebenezer Hartwell was the man for the 
place, as he had abundant means, a most timely consideration, as 


future events demonstrated. Accordingly, a large, substantial 
brick edifice was erected opposite the Shirley House containing 
a vault and all the other necessary appurtenances for a well- 
regulated, first-class banking house. 

Mr. Hartwell carried the pay roll, and, it is said, would 
shoulder his bag of money (specie payment), come over to the 
building, pay off the workmen, and return home again in perfect 

A skillful engraver was employed, and the money-plate pro- 
vided. But they now encountered a barrier. The laws of the 
state required a charter to be obtained from the Legislature be- 
fore any money could be put in circulation, and this they must 
yet secure. A meeting of the "Directors" was called, at which 
Judge Wright, then of Huron, was chosen to represent their in- 
terests at Columbus in securing the necessary paper bearing the 
Governor's autograph, but alas ! When he reached the capital and 
smilingly made known his wants, he was politely informed that 
the Legislature had just passed a law forbidding the issuing of 
any more bank charters for the space of twelve months. His 
chagrin and mortification can better be imagined than described. 
He returned home, made known the condition of affairs, and re- 
ceived the consoling words of his brethren. 

But this would not do; the money intended for circulation 
had in the meantime been printed, and something must be done 
with it. Another meeting was held in the Shirley House, and the 
Directors "fixed matters" to suit themselves. It was immediately 
announced that they had a charter, and word went forth that 
Bloomingville money was good." 

Their plan was not to put the money in circulation about 
here, but go south and buy stock, giving in payment this fraud- 
ulent money. But the honest settlers south were "too many" for 
them, and had placed in every tavern and stopping place, a con- 
spicuous notice, warning all people against "Bloomingville 
money." One man who had gone south on this mission, related, 
upon returning, that he met with so many of these notices, he 
concluded it was "no go," and went and buried his money between 
two stones. 



The picture of the Bloomingville bank erected in 1816, in 
this number of the Pioneer, is interesting as being the first 
brick or stone bank building ever erected on either the Firelands 
or the Western Reserve, indeed, probably in the state of Ohio. 

jjiijiiiiji'-lilll 111 l!!!iii'iii\ ! »!i.*i; ji»S 

^mmy K r :v : y>m 

Building erected in 1816, in Oxford Township. 

The original building was only the square brick. The wood 
addition was added in recent years. 

I will only add that after the brief occupation of the building 
for banking purposes, it became the residence of the Hon. 
Eleutheros Cooke, and here was born his eldest son, Pitt Cooke, 
now deceased, but for many years a prominent lawyer and busi- 
ness man of Sandusky. Bloomingville, in 1816, was the largest 
town in northern Ohio. 

In 1837, Andrew W. Prout, of Sandusky, late cashier of the 
Second National Bank, and father of Mr. George R. Prout and of 
Mrs. Charles H. Merz, both residents of Sandusky, was also born 
in this old brick "Bloomingville Bank" building. 




Mrs. Henry D. Cooke, the widow of the first governor of the 
District of Columbia, who still lives at her beautiful home on the 
Georgetown heights, possesses reminiscences of her husband's 
administration and of the condition of the capital prior to that 
period to> which the approaching centennial celebration of its es- 
tablishment as the seat of government gives additional interest. 
Those vast enterprises which converted Washington from a strag- 
gling unkempt village into one of the most beautiful cities in the 
world, were born during the brief three years which marked the 
existence of the territorial form of government, and it is due to 
the courage and untiring efforts of the men filling the offices 
which it created, that Washington's design for the national capi- 
tal, as mapped out by L'Enfant, was carried into effect. 

Governor Cooke was a son of Eleutheros Cooke, a promi- 
nent Ohio lawyer, who represented his state in congress and who 
proposed the first railroad company west of the Allegheny Moun- 
tains. With the intention of following his father's profession, 
young Cooke entered Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsyl- 
vania, afterwards graduating at Transylvania University, Ken- 
tucky, where he received the degree of B. A., and was selected 
to deliver the valedictory address. He later studied law in San- 
dusky and Philadelphia, but a strong inclination towards journal- 
ism turned him from his original design, and he joined the staff 
of the Philadelphia North American. 

In 1846 he went to Valparaiso, Chile, as an attache to the 
American consul, William G. Morehead. During the voyage his 
vessel was wrecked off the Bermudas, and while detained at the 
Island of St. Thomas, which he succeeded in reaching, the idea 
of a steamship line from New York to California by way of Pan- 
ama occurred to him. He wrote letters to the Philadelphia Uni- 
ted States Gazette, and the New York Courier and Enquirer, 
urging its advantage. The correspondence was submitted to the 
department of state by the consul, the result being that within 


Born at Sandusky, Ohio, in dwelling then, standing on 
lots where now is erected "Sloane Block and Hotel." Youngest 
son of Hon. Eleutheros Cooke. 


two years the Pacific Mail Steamship Co. was organized. Mr. 
Cooke afterwards lived in California, where he amassed a large 
fortune, and had much to do with the shipping interests of the 
Pacific. He was also the first to announce through the military 
governor of California to Washington the discovery of gold in 
the Sacramento valley. 

Upon his return east he was associated with the Sandusky 
Register and the Ohio State Journal. While editing the latter 
publication he was struck with certain bright, racy letters in a 
country exchange, and, writing to inquire into their authorship, 
was told that they came from the pen of a young son of the edi- 
tor, a novice in journalism. He at once offered him a position on 
the staff of the Journal at $12 a week, the young man, whose for- 
tune was, m his own estimation, thus made, being none other than 
William Dean Howells. In 1861 Mr. Cooke became a partner 
in the banking house of his brother, Jay Cooke, and during the 
Civil War the two rendered valuable services to the United States 
government in placing its loans and raising money for the prose- 
cution of the war. 

At its close the condition of Washington, with its unpaved 
streets, plowed with ambulances and army wagons, defies de- 
scription. Vehicles frequently sank in liquid mud from which 
the horses were unable to extricate them and were pried out with 
poles before being drawn further on their way. On one occa- 
sion, while attending a reception on New York avenue, Mrs. 
Cooke had to be borne from her carriage across a quagmire in 
the arms of an attendant and placed upon the sidewalk; while 
the pedestrians equipped themselves for outdoor exercise with 
heavy overshoes, the ladies wearing short scarlet or blue worsted 
petticoats, over which their dresses were festooned. A swarm 
of street cleaners were born of the exigency of the situation, and 
one of these might be seen coming to the assistance of some dis- 
comfited damsel endeavoring to cross from one sidewalk to an 
other, and, having prepared a place upon which she could set 
her foot, would leave, her there until another was provided. 

After his inauguration General Grant announced that he 
wished a feature of his administration to be the improvement and 


beautification of the capital. Mrs. Cooke and himself were de- 
scended from a common ancestor and a close friendship existed 
between the two families. Her husband's ability as an organizer 
and as a manager of large financial operations, therefore, was 
well known to him,' and in 1871, when the three municipalities 
governing the district were merged into one controlling power, 
Grant offered the governorship for which it provided to him. 
The position was three times declined, but the president refused 
to take "no" for an answer and Mr. Cooke finally yielded. The 
salary which the office paid was $3,000 a year, while his incum- 
bency of it cost him annually from $30,000 to $35,000. 

The task, too, which he had undertaken was a thankless 
one, or one the thanks for which were delayed. The work of 
tearing down had to precede that of building up, a circumstance 
calculated to arouse the opposition of the short sighted, and, in 
some instances, individual rights were of necessity sacrificed to 
the advancement of the general good. The prejudices, too, of 
that large class averse to innovations simply as such, had to be 
combated, and almost every inch of ground was fought. Now 
and again the Governor avoided a contest by the exercise of 
strategy. When the old market house was removed, having 
invited the judges possessing the power to> grant an injunction 
to a country place to dine, a large force was assigned to the work 
of pulling down the buildings. Meanwhile the market people 
rushed wildly hither and yon, vainly seeking for someone au- 
thorized to issue a restraining order. 

At that time the Baltimore & Ohio railroad ran around the 
capital grounds, and, thinking it best to alter its course at this 
point, the track was torn up. The rails were instantly replaced, 
and this being repeated whenever they were taken away the 
governor had them removed in the night, and the trains pre- 
vented from running until the company was brought to terms. 

Owing to the width of the streets, Washington was a difficult 
place to beautify. The narrowing and paving of these, the 
planting of shades trees, the adoption of uniform grades and the 
establishment of a complete system of sewerage was all com- 
prised in the general plan of improvement devised by Gov. Cooke 


and his associates. To carry out this plan immense sums of 
money were required, and but for the confidence of investors in 
their representation of the resources of the district enabling- it 
to meet its liability, these sums could never have been raised. 
Not only was a radical change wrought in the appearance of the 
capital by the efforts of this remarkable body of men, but con- 
gress was aroused to a sense of its responsibility in regard to the 
seat of government, and a standard of excellence and enterprise 
was established, which is still a potent influence in the municipal 
affairs of the district. Among Governor Cooke's private bene- 
factions to the city of his adoption was a beautiful mission 
church. He also contributed $20,000 to the erection of the Sec- 
ond Episcopal Church in Georgetown, His home was the center 
•of the most delightful hospitality, one of the entertainments re- 
membered by the older inhabitants of Washington being a dinner 
given to members of the joint high commission, and attended by 
President and Mrs. Grant and the cabinet officers and their 
wives. Another function which occurred at the gubernatorial 
mansion was a brillant ball, at which distinguished persons from 
all parts of the country were present, and which was said to have 
been the handsomest ever given at the capital up to that time. 



It was a fair morning in September, a gentle breeze was 
Dlowing down the lake, rippling the water. A little American 
fleet lay- peacefully at anchor in the beautiful island-locked bay 
of South Bass Island, its brave young commander and sturdy 
men anxiously waiting for the sign of a coming hostile sail. A 
few days before, with the Union Jack vauntingly flying, they 
had passed the British forts at Maiden, up at the head of the 
lake, behind which, under cover, lay the British fleet. The 
•challenge to come out and fight in open water had been un- 


heeded, and Perry and his men were waiting for something to 
turn up. 

The sun was just coming up in a cloudless sky behind the 
slopes of the islands, when a messenger knocked at the com- 
mander's cabin door. The British fleet was in sight, coming 
down the lake. "The day has come at last!" exclaimed Lieu- 
tenant EUiott as he climbed up the side of the flagship Lawrence 
to get his commander's order. "The one we have long been 
wishing for," responded Perry. Quickly the plan of action was 
decided. Hurried orders were given. On the ship Lawrence, 
up from the halyards, rose the great blue flag, bearing to> the 
breeze the dying words of the brave James Lawrence: "Don't 
give up the ship" — words that so soon were to be the sign by 
which a great battle was to be won and the fame of an American 
boy made immortal., 

What a little fleet it was to win so great a victory! — 
Measured by modern standards of engineering warfare but a 
mere handful of small sailing vessels, rudely constructed; com- 
prising, all told, but nine boats, some carrying but one or two 
guns, and all only 54. The most effective of these were as short 
in range as a pistol. One warship of Dewey's fleet could have 
torn them all to shreds. The crews numbering, all told, only 
about 400, were made up almost entirely of untried sailors and 
landsmen. But they were brave men, stirred with the spirit of 
patriots, and fired by love of country. Their commanders were 
all young officers, few of whom had seen actual service, but they 
felt that their nation's honor was in their keeping. How true it 
is that a righteous cause is half the victory already won. 

The British fleet, on the other hand, was commanded by 
officers of experience in naval warfare. Commodore Barclay 
had seen service with the great Nelson in ocean warfare, and 
lost an arm in one of his battles on the Nile. His fleet com- 
prised six vessels, three less than Perry's in number, but carry- 
ing 66 guns of longer range and larger calibre. Seamen trained 
to the service stood behind them and before the masts. Out 
from the little bay sailed Perry and his fleet, into the open water 
to the westv/ard. The British fleet was slowly, but defiantly, 


coming down the lake upon them. The breeze dying away de- 
layed the encounter. Close action was what young Perry 
wanted, and so it proved wished his opponent, the brave Captain 

Not long had they to wait. Swinging hither and thither, 
their sails hanging lifeless, the little fleet of American vessels 
was indeed at the mercy of the wind — too far away to> get into 
action, they could not come up to help the Lawrence, on which 
Perry had led and was soon to be under the British fire. At a 
quarter before twelve the British commander opened fire from 
his flagship, the Detroit. A gun from the Lawrence replied, 
but the shot fell into the water. It had carried scarcely two-thirds 
the way of its mark. Another shot from the British tore 
through the Lawrence and the brave Lieutenant Yarnell stag- 
gered bleeding, but rose to take his place again defiantly at the 
guns. Under such a fire, now joined in by the other British 
ships, stood the dauntless Perry and his determined crew, until 
the Lawrence was torn and riddled, and stripped of sail and 
mast, and the dead and wounded covered the decks and crowded 
the hatchways. 

It was a terrible suspense ! With the rest of the American 
fleet too far away to help, waiting a favoring breeze to bring 
them up to the ill-fated Lawrence fighting solitary and alone. 
There was no thought, however, of surrender. All Perry was 
seeking was a position where he could fight back. The Law- 
rence had ceased firing. "It is wasting powder and shot," ex- 
claimed its commander. But God did not desert him — dark 
though it looked. Soon the Lawrence drifted in among the 
British boats — every brace and bow line shot away, and not a 
sail left to work. But her carronades were within range of the 
enemy's -boats, and their shot began to tell. Down came the 
topmast of one of the English brigs. With seven guns that 
Perry found he could use, her motto flag still flying, the Law- 
rence stood her ground with 32 English guns concentrated upon 
her. It was a terrible ordeal, but the men on the Lawrence kept 
at it, as if to fight was the only thing to do, no matter what their 


Perry realized that to surrender the Lawrence would be a 
death blow to all chance of victory and held on. His men 
realized it as well as he. English shot went clear through the 
Lawrence ; man after man at the guns was torn to pieces. Soon 
the brave Lieutenant Brooks fell. Again and again was the 
resistless Yarnell wounded, only to leave his post for the surgeon 
below, after the repeated order of his commander, only to* re- 
turn again. Four times was he wounded. How fortunate it 
was that in this terrible encounter of the Lawrence, Perry's life 
was spared. The dying words of Brooks were prophetic: "If 
Perry's life is saved he'll win us out of this." In that swift, single- 
handed engagement of the Lawrence with the entire British 
fleet, every American officer save Perry was wounded or killed, 
and three fourths of the crew. 

In the two hours of awful suspense and terrible conflict, a 
slight breeze had sprung up and the other vessels of Perry's fleet 
began to move slowly toward the line of battle. Unable to shift 
his own ship, now completely disabled and riddled, Perry seized 
upon a new plan. It came like an inspiration as he looked out 
toward his now slowly moving boats, still too far away. He 
ordered the little yawl boat manned. Two men who were help- 
ing the surgeon care for the wounded and dying below had to be 
called, so shattered was his force on deck, and leaving the brave 
Yarnell in command he ordered down the motto flag, wrapped 
it about his arm and was a moment later being rowed away to the 
Niagara, the shot flying about his little craft and cutting the 
water all about him. This suddenly conceived, and as suddenly 
executed act of Perry marked the supreme moment in the great 
battle. It turned the tide of victory. The lowering of the motto 
from the Lawrence had, as it were, taken the enemy by surprise ; 
the firing from their ships for the moment ceased. They looked 
only for the surrender flas: to be hoisted. Once on board the 
Niagara, the motto flag, "Don't give up the ship," went swiftly 
up its halyards, and fluttered in the breeze as defiantly as a few 
moments before it had waved above the dead and dying on the 
decks of the Lawrence. Cheer 'after cheer went up from every 
American boat ; the breeze seemed to catch the inspiration, and 


on, now swept the boats, the valiant Perry leading with the Niag- 
ara, his new flagship, right in among the British vessels. The 
battle raged fierce and hot on every ship. "Order close action!" 
commanded Perry, and the brave Elliott obeyed. "We're all 
right now," cried an old battled-scarred tar, as he saw Perry 
take command on the Niagara. Even the shattered ship Law- 
rence, almost deserted, had caught the spirit of victory. Up to 
the masthead had Yarnell hoisted the Stars and Stripes — her 
colors were at the peak. "Don't give up the ship !" rang in the 
ears of the brave Yankee seamen, and they fought with a des- 
perate valor, daring and dash that fairly stunned the Red Coats. 
Their fire was swift, sure and terrible. Vessel after vessel of 
the British was in turn attacked, riddled, stripped of her masts 
and sail, and left helpless. 

We all recall the words of Dewey as he gave the quiet com- 
mand to fire at Manilla. So Perry, nearly a century before, with 
like coolness, standing on the forward deck of a mere toy boat 
compared with Dewey's great Olympia, said: 

"Have you the range there, Judson? You may fire." 

The final encounter was soon over. 

"Cease firing," came the order from Perry, as the smoke, 
clearing away, revealed a British officer coming to> the bulwarks 
of his disabled vessel, waving a white flag — that blessed harbin- 
ger of peace. 

"Call away a boat," he said, "and put me on board the 
Lawrence. I will receive the surrender there." 

Wounded men crawled to the ports to> greet their victorious 
commander, and tears filled his eyes as he stepped upon the deck 
of his own vessel baptised in the blood of his countrymen. 
When British officer after officer of the defeated fleet came for- 
ward to offer his sword, the hero of Erie, in quiet recognition, 
said: "I request that you will keep your sword. It has been 
bravely used and worn." 

Grant at Appomattox was filled with like charity for a fallen 
foe. Somehow the spirit of liberty and of free institutions tends 
to nobility of soul. This was the simple message of Perry to his 
general in command, written upon the back of an old envelope : 


U. S. Brig Niagara, off the Western Sister, Head of Lake Erie : 

September 10, 1813, at 4 p. m. 
Dear General : We have met the enemy and they are ours. 
Two ships, two brigs, one schooner and one sloop. 

Yours with great respect and esteem, 

O. H. Perry. 

When the count was taken after the battle it was found that 
twenty-two men had been killed and sixty-one wounded on the 
flagship Lawrence; two killed and twenty-five wounded on the 
Niagara; on the Scorpion two killed, and one on the Arion; 
three wounded on the Caledonia, Somers and Trippe, making a 
total loss for the American fleet of twenty-seven killed and ninety- 
six wounded. The British loss in this battle was greater — 
forty-one being killed and ninety-four wounded. Twice had 
the British officer in command, Commodore Barclay, been 
wounded, and rendered helpless by injury to< the only arm he 
had. The dead sailors of both fleets, each wrapped in a sailor's 
shroud of a hammock with a round shot at his heels were buried 
in the waters of Lake Erie. The next day the six dead officers — 
Midshipmen Henry Laub and John Clark and Lieutenant Brooks 
of the American fleet, and Captain Finnis, Lieutenant Stokes 
and Lieutenant Garland of the British fleet — were placed in 
rudely constructed coffins and following a solemn procession of 
boats, rowing minute strokes to the sound of the solemn dirge 
of the band, were conveyed to the shore of Put-in-Bay IsLnd for 
burial. The officers and surviving crews of both fleets followed 
and about the open grave stood the victorious Perry support- 
ing upon his arm the torn and shattered form of the brave Com- 
modore Barclay. 

The Battle of Lake Erie marked a turning point in the life 
of the young and struggling republic. It settled forever its sup- 
premacy upon the lakes that separate it from British territory. 
It did more than that. It opened the way for the victorious 
march of General Harrison and his army into the enemy s terri- 
tory to the north, and made possible the settlement of the vast 
territory of the west and its development into the sisterhood of 


states that now crown our flag with their cluster of forty-five 
stars. That battle, though small both in numbers and instru- 
ments of warfare, was yet one of the great sea battles of the 
world — great because fought with a bravery and daring that 
startled the world-— led by a commander who> showed himself 
to be one of the world's heroes, and great because stupendous 
and far-reaching in its results. 

Nearly four score years and ten have passed since the battle 
of Lake Erie was fought and won. The graves of the six brave 
officers who lost their lives in that battle still remain unmarked 
by the nation. The spot where they sleep is but a few rods from 
the shore at the southern end of the village park of Put-in-Bay. 
For years only a willow tree marked it. Later a single chain 
supported by plain posts surrounded the sacred mound. The 
frosts and storms of time have shattered the willow that soi many 
years swung and tossed above them as the blasts came sweeping 
in from off the waters where as foe to foe they had fought and 
fallen. Only a stump and a few ragged limbs now remain. Two 
or three years ago the people of Put-in-Bay secured from the 
government eight condemned cannon and eighty-five shells. 
They raised by private subscription, entertainments and other- 
wise about $500, paid the transportation on the cannon and 
placed them along the walk leading past the mound looking out 
over the bay and lake. The shells were built up in the form of 
a pyramid over the graves of the dead heroes. Some years ago 
a bill was introduced in Congress by Hon. S. R. Harris, of Bu- 
cyrus, making an appropriation for a monument at Put-in-Bay. 
At the last session of Congress, Honorable Melville Bull, the 
member from the Newport district, Rhode Island, where Com- 
modore Perry was born and lies buried, introduced a bill appro- 
priating $25,000 for the same object. 

The bill was reported favorably by the committee at the last 
session of congress, and it is now pending on the calendar of the 
House. In a letter to the writer of this article Congressman 
Bull, under date of October 28, says : "I am hopeful of secur- 
ing its consideration and passage at the next session of Congress. 



Anything you and others at Sandusky and Put-in-Bay can do to 
assist my efforts will be greatly appreciated. I give below the 
bill introduced by Mr. Bull and the report of the committee rec- 
ommending the passage of the bill :" 

"A bill providing for the erection of a monument at Put- 
in-Bay, Ohio, commemorative of Commodore Oliver Hazard 
Perry and those who participated in the naval battle of Lake 
Erie on the tenth day of September, eighteen hundred and 

"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of 
the United States of America in Congress assembled ; That the 
sum of twenty-five thousand dollars be, and the same is hereby 
appropriated, out of any money in the treasury not otherwise 
appropriated, for the erection of a monument at Put-in-Bay, 
Ohio, to the memory of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and 
the men who fell or participated in the naval battle of Lake Erie 
fought near Put-in-Bay, Ohio, on the tenth day of September, 
eighteen hundred and thirteen : Provided ; That the money ap- 
propriated as aforesaid shall be expended under the direction of 
the Secretary of the Navy, and the plans, specifications, and de- 
signs for such monument shall, before any money so appro- 
priated is expended, be first approved by the Secretary of the 
Navy : And provided further, That no part of the sum hereby 
appropriated shall be so expended until the Monument Asso- 
ciation of Put-in-Bay, Ohio, shall procure not less than one-half 
acre of ground, located at or near the burial place of the officers 
and men who were killed in the said battle of Lake Erie, upon 
which to erect said monument; and which for said monument 
shall be procured without cost to the United States, and the title 
to be vested in the United States. • 

,( Mr. Cummings, from the committee on the library, submit- 
ted the following report : 

"The committee on the library, to whom was referred the 
bill (H. R. 124) providing for the erection of a monument at Put- 
in-Bay, Ohio, commemorative of Commodore Oliver Hazard 
Perry and those who participated in the naval battle of Lake Erie 


on the tenth day of September, 1813, having considered the same, 
beg leave to report as follows : 

"The naval battle of Lake P>ie, in which the American 
fleet under Commodore Perry defeated the British, is one of the 
most glorious events in our history as a nation. Perry was but 
twenty-seven years of age ; the timbers of his fleet were still 
green ; his men were for the most part raw recruits. The British 
force was formed of veterans and commanded by Commodore 
Barclay, who had served under Nelson at Trafalgar. The vic- 
tory was won by the desperate valor and consummate skill of the 
noble young seaman and his hardy followers. It established our 
supremacy on the Great Lakes, went far toward retrieving the 
disasters we had suffered on land, and aided in securing the im- 
portant results that followed. 

"The remains of the American dead were buried on what is 
now Put-in-Bay Island. A willow tree marks the spot and is all 
there is to commemorate the memory of these noble men and 
their gallant victory. Your committee believe that an enlight- 
ened and grateful people should express their gratitude, respect, 
and affection by a suitable memorial. The merit is not in the 
cold bronze or stone, but in the warm memories, the grateful feel- 
ings, the noble aspirations that it will stir in every true Ameri- 
can heart. 

"No site can be more fitting than that where these brave 
men fought and where those w r ho fell now sleep. 

"Your committee therefore recommend the passage of the 

At the state conference of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution of Ohio, held in Columbus, October 31 and Novem- 
ber 1, the subject of securing a suitable memorial monument was 
presented in a paper by Mrs. John T. Mack, on behalf of Martha 
Pitkin Chapter of Sandusky, and the conference unanimously 
passed a resolution heartily endorsing Mr. Bull's bill, and pledg- 
ing the Daughters of Ohio to use their influence with the sen- 
ators and representatives from Ohio to secure their active sup- 
port for the passage of the measure. 


It is indeed fitting that, the simple story of the valor and the 
sacrifice of the brave men who fell in the great battle on Lake 
Erie be perpetuated in enduring marble and bronze, that the 
future generations of Americans may observe the lesson and 
have kindled afresh in their breasts love of our common coun- 
try, and loyalty to the republic founded by the fathers, and for- 
ever established in the sisterhood of nations by the heroes of 
ijy6 and 1812. 

We read that next winter congress is to be asked to appro- 
priate $10,000 to raise from Misery bay at Erie and preserve the 
Niagara on which Perry won his great victory. I hope it wn\ 
be done. These landmarks of great events in the nation's life 
cannot be too sacredly cherished and preserved. But over and 
above all inanimate things let us fittingly commemorate the 
heroes who laid upon their country's altar their lives and thereby 
vouchsafed to future generations the rich heritage of a free and 
supreme republic. 



Editor Blade : Your letter, saying you are satisfied 
that Ohio became a state in 1803, instead of 1802, as has been 
claimed, but expressing doubt as to exact date, and saying "if you 
can throw any light on that problem, we shall be glad to pub- 
lish," came duly to hand. In reply will state, my article in The 
.Blade of June 4 settled the question, to any one who examined 
the acts of Congress and of the Ohio constitutional convention, 
to which I referred ; but as you evidently have not done this, will 
try now and make the date so clear that all will admit that Ohio 
became a state March 1, 1803, from which date the territorial 
officials ceased to act and the new state officials began to per- 
form their duties of officers of the state of Ohio. 

The article of Mr. Holbrook in The Blade goes to support 
the date when Ohio became a state, as March 1, 1803, and much 


in the same language as King in his History of Ohio, pages 
292-295. Mr. Holbrook also states that "the enabling act pro- 
vided that it (the constitution) should go into effect without a 
submission to a popular vote." Now the act did not do this. It 
simply did not require a reference to the popular vote. The con- 
vention on this question could do as the members thought best, 
and the journal of the convention shows that a resolution was 
offered, that rhe constitution be submitted to the people for their 
adoption or rejection, and that resolution was rejected by a vote 
of 27 to 7. The new constitution had been adopted November 
29, 1802, by the unanimous vote of the convention, and no claim 
was made that the people of the territory were averse to it. 

The article of Mr. McConkie in The Blade contains a good 
deal that does not bear on the question, namely,as to what the Sen- 
ate did in 1877, and also as to what the State department wrote in 
1880. What the State department recognizes may be correct, 
but of itself proves nothing, and actually misled Mr. McConkie, 
if he quotes correctly, as we will presently see. He also says, 
"I shall not take time to record the several steps from the ena- 
bling act to the act of Congress/' Now, the enabling act was the 
act of Congress. Neither of these gentlemen refers to the act 
of Congress of May 7, 1800, a reference to which and to the acts 
and ordinance and resolution of the convention of 1802 is abso- 
lutely necessary in deciding the question of date. 

The act of 1800 set off that part of the Northwest Territory 
now included in Ohio as a distinct territorial government, and 
the seat of government was fixed at Chillicothe. The rest of the 
territory Avas organized as the territory of Indiana. The bounda- 
ries of Ohio were given, and it was called the Eastern division. 
The ordinances of May, 1785, and July, 1787, were passed before 
settlements began north of the Ohio, and were held out to emi- 
grants as inducements to settle in a wilderness, with all the dan- 
gers and hardships connected therewith. These ordinances de- 
clared that "the lot No. 16 in each township shall be given perpet- 
ually for the use of schools," and thus became a condition of the 
sale and settlement of the western country. This reservation cf 
section 16 therefore could not, April 30, 1802, be made the con- 


sideration of a new bargain between the United States and the 
state of Ohio, because the state already had this reservation, as 
did all of the territory, by the ordinance of 1785. 

Now it is necessary to set forth section 7 of the said ena- 
bling act, approved April 30, 1802, which was in the words follow- 

''Section 7. That the following propositions be, and the 
same are hereby offered to the convention of the eastern state of 
the said territory, when formed, for their free acceptance or re- 
jection ; which if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory 
upon the United States. First — That the section number six- 
teen, in every township, and where such section has been sold, 
granted or disposed of, other lands equivalent thereto, and most 
contiguous to the same, shall be granted to the inhabitants of 
such townships, for the use of schools. Second — That the six 
miles reservation, including the salt springs, commonly called the 
Scioto salt springs, the salt springs near the Muskingum river 
and in the Military tract, with the sections of land which include 
the same, shall be granted to the said state, for the use of the 
people thereof, the same to be used under such terms, and condi- 
tions, and regulations as the legislature of the said state shall di- 
rect ; provided, the said legislature shall never sell nor lease the 
same for a longer period than ten years. Third — That one- 
twentieth part of the net proceeds of the lands lying within the 
said state, sold by Congress, from and after the thirtieth day of 
June next, after deducting all expenses incident to the same, 
shall be applied to the laying out, and making public roads lead- 
ing from the navigable waters emptying into the Atlantic to the 
Ohio, to the said state and through the same, such roads to be 
laid out, under the authority of Congress, with the consent of 
the several states through which the road shall pass; provided, 
always, that the three foregoing propositions herein offered, are 
on the conditions, that the convention of the said state, shall pro- 
vide by an ordinance, irrevocable without the consent of the Uni- 
ted States, that every and each tract of land, sold by Congress, 
from and after the thirtieth day of June next, shall be and re- 
main exempt from any tax laid by order or under authority of the 


state, whether for state, county, township or any other purpose 
whatever for the term of five years, from and after the day of 
sale." (Approved April 30, 1802.) 

Now, it will be observed that by said 7th section certain 
propositions contained therein are offered to the convention of 
the eastern territory when formed for their free acceptance or re- 
jection, which if accepted by the convention, shall be obligatory 
upon the United States. It is further to be noted that the con- 
sitution, as adopted, did neither accept or reject the propositions 
contained in the 7th section of the enabling act, as requested in 
said act. It was generally supposed at the time, that such ac- 
ceptance or rejection would be final. But this was not the case. 
The almost unanimous opinion of the convention was that the 
conditions offered by Congress were not an adequate consid- 
eration for the state rights to be surrendered ; yet not promptly 
rejecting the propositions they passed an ordinance in which they 
resolved to accept them, provided certain additions and modifi- 
cations should be agreed to by Congress, a copy of which ordi- 
nance and resolution passed in convention, November 29, 1802, 
at which time the constitution was also adopted, was as follows : 

"We, the representatives of the people of the eastern division 
of the territory northwest of the river Ohio, being assembled in 
convention, pursuant to an act of Congress, entitled 'An act to 
enable the people of the eastern division of the territory northwest 
of the river Ohio to form a constitution and state government and 
for the admission of such state into the Union, on an equal foot- 
ing with the original states, and for other purposes, and having 
had under our consideration the propositions offered by the said 
act, for our free acceptance or rejection, do resolve to accept of 
the said propositions ; provided, the following addition to and 
modification of the said propositions shall be agreed to by the 
Congress of the United States, viz : That in addition to the first 
proposition, securing the section number sixteen in. every town- 
ship, within certain tracts, to the inhabitants thereof, for the use 
of schools, a like donation, equal to< the one thirty-sixth part of the 
amount of the lands in the United States military tract, shall be 
made for the support of schools, within that tract ; and that the 


like provision shall be made for the support of schools in the 
Virginia reservation, so far as the unlocated lands, in that tract 
will supply the proportion aforesaid, after the warrants issued 
from said state have been satisfied; and also that a donation of 
the same kind, or such provision as Congress shall deem expe- 
dient, shall be made to the inhabitants of the Connecticut reserve. 
That of air the lands which may hereafter be purchased of the 
Indian tribes, by the United States, and lying within the state of 
Ohio, the one thirty-sixth part shall be given, as aforesaid, for the 
support of public schools. That all lands before mentioned to be 
appropriated by the United States, for the support of schools, 
shall be vested in the legislature of this state, in trust for said 
purpose. That not less than three per cent, of the net proceeds 
of the lands of the United States, lying within the limits of the 
state of Ohio, sold and to be sold, after the thirtieth day of June 
last, shall be applied in laying out roads, within the state, under 
the direction of the legislature thereof. And if the Congress of 
the United States shall agree to the above addition to and modi- 
fication of the said propositions, it is hereby declared and or- 
dained that every and each tract of land sold or to be sold by 
Congress, from and after the thirtieth day of June last, shall be 
and remain exempt from any tax laid by order or under the 
authority of the state, whether for state, county, township or any 
other purposes whatever, for the term of five years after the day 
of sale, to be reckoned from the date of the certificate of the first 
quarterly payment. 

''That whereas Congress, by a law entitled 'An act author- 
izing the grant and conveyance of certain lands to John Cleves 
Symmes and his associates,' passed the fifth day of May, 1792, 
did authorize the President of the United States to convey by 
letters patent unto the said John Cleves Symmes and his as- 
sociates, their heirs and assigns, a certain tract of land therein 
described, and did further authorize the President, by the act 
aforesaid, to grant and convey unto the said John Cleves Symmes 
and his associates, their heirs and assigns, in trust for the purpose 
of establishing an academy and other public schools and sem- 
inaries of learning, one complete township to be included and 


located within such limits and lines of boundary as the President 
may judge expedient ; and in pursuance thereof, the President did 
convey unto the said John Cleves Symmes and his associates, 
their heirs and assigns, by his letter patent, the aforesaid one com- 
plete township, to be located and accepted by the governor of the 
territory northwest of the river Ohio ; and inasmuch as the town- 
ship aforesaid has never been located and accepted agreeably to 
the provision of the said act." 

The convention recommended the following propositions to 
Congress, as an equivalent for the one complete township afore- 
said, to-wit : The lots numbered eight, eleven and twenty-six, 
reserved in the several township for the future disposition of Con- 
gress, or so many of the said lots, as will amount to the number 
contained in the aforesaid complete township, to be vested in the 
legislature, in trust to and for the purpose for which the said 
township was originally intended, to be designated by the legisla- 
ture of this state. 

Now T stated the answer made bv the state department de- 
ceived Mr. McConkie, because the act of February 19, 1803, was 
the last act referred to by him, and the one by which he claimed 
the state of Ohio was admitted to the Union; and he therefore 
claims the actual date of admission was February 19, 1803. 
Now, were it not for the ordinance and resolution of the conven- 
tion, which I have copied herein, and of which neither Mr. Hol- 
brook or Mr. McConkie were apparently aware and did not at all 
refer to», nor did they apparently know or refer to the 7th section 
of the enabling act, which I quote herein, proposing certain con- 
ditions for acceptance or rejection by the convention, and had 
said act of February to, 1803, been the last act of Congress re- 
lating to the admission of Ohio into the Union, then I admit, that 
would be-the correct date when Ohio became a state. 

But the ordinance and resolution adopted by the convention 
imposed further obligations, which it was necessary for Congress 
to grant and act upon before Ohio, under the ordinance and con- 
stitution, would become a state in the Union. The act of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1803, did not grant these conditions and obligations; 
r; onlv provided for the due execution of the laws of the United 


States within the state of Ohio. We find by the journal of the 
convention that Thomas Worthington was authorized to carry 
the constitution and ordinance and resolution to Congress, and to 
ask for the approval by Congress of the constitution, with the 
amendments and changes as proposed in the ordinance and reso- 
lution of November 29, 1802. This duty was performed, and Mr. 
Worthington went to Washington and sent a letter to Congress, 
which on the 23d of December, with all the papers, were duly re- 
ferred to a special committee. This committee made no report 
until in February, 1803. 

Meanwhile the question was raised whether the delegate, 
Mr. Fearing, from the territory of Ohio, was longer entitled to 
his seat, as the Ohio convention had on the 29th of November, 

1802, adopted a state constitution. On the last day of January, 

1803, the house of representatives decided that Ohio was not yet 
a state, and that Mr. Fearing still held his place as delegate from 
the territory of Ohio. 

Now, you must observe that the convention to form a new 
constitution did not accept the conditions desired by congress 
in the 7th section of the enabling act, but considered the people 
of the state as entitled to better terms, and that it was the duty 
of the convention to negotiate for better terms with Congress, 
and which terms as remanded in the ordinance and resolution of 
1802, Congress did afterwards grant. Mr. Worthington re- 
turned to Ohio, and the legislature convened on the 1st day of 
March, Tuesday, 1803, as stipulated in the state constitution, be- 
ing assured that Congress would grant exactly the terms as set 
forth in the aforesaid ordinance and resolution. On the first day 
of March the legislature organized, canvassed the votes given at 
the election on the nth day of January, and declared Edward 
Tiffin elected governor. 

Now note : Congress adjourned on the 3d of March, 1803, 
but before it adjourned an act was approved on that day, entitled : 
"An act in addition to, and in modification of, the propositions 
contained in the act entitled, an act to enable the people of the 
Eastern division of the territory northwest of the river Ohio>, to 
form a constitution, and state government, and for the admission 
of such state into the Union, on an equal footing with the original 


state, and for other purposes." This act is too long to add to my 
lengthy article., but is to be found in Volume 2 of the United 
States statutes at large, chapter 211, page 225, and this act fully 
granted to the state of Ohio, everything as asked for by the 
convention, in the ordinance and resolution passed November 29, 
1802, and heretofore given in full. 

Of course the legislature had been advised before March 
7, 1803, as to what action Congress would take as to the ad- 
ditional concessions demanded by the said ordinance and resolu- 
tion, and when the territorial officers resigned, and the state 
officials assumed office, and the legislature convened at the time 
named in the constitution, then, and not until then, did Ohio be- 
come a state. This was Tuesday, March 1, 1803. 

Will also state that I have in my library the first volume ever 
published of Ohio laws. It is entitled: "Acts of the State of 
Ohio First Session, Volume 1, Chillicothe, Tuesday, the first 
day of March, A. D., 1803, being the first session held under the 
constitution of the State of Ohio." Now refer to the act of 
Congress passed February 21, 1806, which decided when Ohio 
became a state. The territorial judges did not conclude the 
business of their courts, as they claimed, until April 15, 1803, 
and wanted their pay to that date. The officials of the treasury, 
on advice of the attorney general of the United States, refused 
to allow them pay beyond the time of the adoption of the new 
constitution, November 29, 1802. The judges then applied to 
the state legislature of Ohio, and were refused payment, claiming 
that it was for the United States to pay. The result was the pas- 
sage of the above act, which fixed the date when Ohio became 
a state as March 1, 1803. This has ever since been considered 
conclusive. Hon. Rufus King, in his history of Ohio, published 
in 1888, "so stated; also Hon. S. P. Chase, in his History and 
Notes of the State of Ohio, written and published in 1833 ; and 
also that able jurist and author in an address delivered in No- 
vember, 1837, at Cincinnati, O., — the Hon. Timothy Walker, 
author of Walker's American Law. Rush R. Sloans, 

President Firelands Historical Society. 
Sandusky, O., June 11, 1900. 



We think all of The Blade's readers will agree with us that 
the communication elsewhere in this issue of The Blade, from 
Hon. Rush R. Sloane, settles the mooted question of the date at 
which Ohio became a state. 

The uncertainty over this matter arose from the manner in 
which congress provided for her admission as a state. An act 
was passed providing for a constitutional convention and the 
formation of a state government, with admission to the Union, 
upon the acceptance of certain conditions. 

These conditions were accepted by Ohio, to become opera- 
tive when Congress conceded certain other conditions. A con- 
stitution was adopted, state officers elected, and the legislature 
convened on March I, 1803, thus setting the machinery of the 
state government in motion on that date — it being thoroughly 
understood that Congress would accede to the added stipulations. 
This was done by an act approved two days later. 

Hence, March 1, 1803, is the date on which Ohio became de 
facto a member of the [Jnion. Judge Sloane's paper is extremely 
interesting, and is a valuable summary of the facts of this little- 
understood portion of Ohio history. 

Columbus, O., Nov. 15, 1900. 

I am in receipt of the Toledo Blade, March 12. I think you 
make out a clear case. The preliminary steps were taken in 1802, 
but the work was not fully accomplished and the state admitted 
until 1803. The latter is its birth date. 

In making an address on the occasion of the Frankliton Cen- 
tennial, I was led into the popular error, and mentioned 1802 as 
the time of admission, but I shall not make the mistake again. 

Very respectfully, 

John Beatty. 
Hon. R. R. Sloane, Sanduskv. 




Our fellow citizen, Judge Rush R. Sloane, has been elected 
a member of the Western Reserve Society of the "Sons of the 
American Revolution.'' 

judge Sloane's grandfather, William Sloane, of Lyme, New 
Hampshire, was a blood relation of Sir Hans Sloane, who, in 
1753, for a nominal price, gave his magnificent collection and 
library to the English government, which purchase originated 
the establishment of the world famed "British Museum." In 
T777 William Sloane was an officer in Col. Herrick's Vermont 
Regiment, and in T782 in Col. Nelson's regiment. He was 
severely wounded at the engagement at East Bay, Lake Cham- 
plain, and at Bennington, and died with eight British bullets 
in his body. 

Judge Sloane has the pasteboard pocketbook with some of 
the old Continental money, which was in his grandfather's 
pocket (with the blood stains still visible) at the time he was 
wounded. This is surely an interesting history. 


Justus Barnes was born at Litchfield, Connecticut, March 
17, 1787. He was married to Annie Sedgwick in 18 12. They 
settled in Portage county, Ohio, but moved to Ruggles township, 
then in Huron county, in 1824, and to Clarksfield in 1833. In 
1849 they moved to Iowa, where Mr. Barnes died in 1861 and 
his wife in 1873. 

Henry Sedgwick Barnes was a son of Justus Barnes and 
Annie Sedgwick and was born in Portage county, Ohio, in 181 5 
and came to Ruggles township in 1824 and to Clarksfield in 1833. 
He was married to Lydia Gray in 1835 an d died in Clarksfield 
in 1894. 

Mrs. Sarah Barber was a daughter of Jacob and Harriet 
Bush and was born at Rochester, New York, June 3, 1826, and 
came to the Firelands in 1830 and her home was in Huron and 
Erie counties until her death February 13, 1899. In 1850 she 
was married to Dr. Milton Murray and in 1852 to Hiram Barber. 

Seth M. Barber was born in Tompkins county, New York, 
September 5, 1820. He was a son of Rev. Phineas Barber and 
Orpha Morse. In 1830 he came to Berlin township with his 
father's family. In 1852 he was married to Amanda Gardner, 
and they lived at Ashland until 1861 when he enlisted in the 
Union Army and rose to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, remain- 
ing in the service of the government until 1866. He returned to 
Ashland and remained until 1870, when he was appointed Uni- 
ted States pension agent at Cleveland, which office he held for 
seven years and then settled on a farm in Norwalk township, 
where he died March 2 1 /, tqoo. 


William Bassett was born in England in 1796 and came to 
New York in 1830 with his family, moving to Townsend six 
months later and to Clarksfield in 1832. He died in 1862. His 
wife, Jane Pelham, died in 1879. 

John Milton Bissell was born at Saulsbury, Connecticut, 
in 1784. In 1807 he was married to Sally Kellogg, and in 18 14 
to Sally Birch. In 1832 the family moved to Clarksfield, where 
Mr. Bissell died March 4, 1842, and the wife in 1864. 

William Blanchard was a son of Dennis Blanchard and Ab- 
igail Hutchinson (who was an aunt to the Hutchinson family of 
singers, famous at the time of the Rebellion), and was born at 
Wilton, New Hampshire. In 1819 he was married to Sally 
Lawrence and in 1834 they came to Florence, where he lived 
until his death in 1870. 

John Underhiil Bloomer was born in Vermont in 1816 and 
came to Norwalk with his father's family in 1817 and lived for 
a time just west of the Huron river, but moved to Sherman town- 
ship later. In 1826 he went to live with a sister in Lexington, 
Ohio, and in 1838 went to Galion and lived until his death, Sep- 
tember 21, 1900. 

Christina R. Bowen was a daughter of William Robinson 
and Lucretia Coleman and was born in Ohio in 18 12. In 1834 
she was married to' John Bowen and in 1835 they came to Huron 
county. She died in Norwich township in 1899. 

John Bowen was a son of Courtant Bowen and Agnes King 
and was born in New Jersey March 11, 1805. In 1834 he was 
married to Christina Robinson and in 1835 tne Y came to Huron 
county. He died in Norwich township in August, 1880. 

Mrs. Emeline Brown (Curtiss) died at Freeport, Illinois, 
January 9, 1900. She was a resident of Norwalk many years ago 
and was married to William P. Brown at that place in 1835. 

Dr. Hiram Bunce was a son of Isaac Bunce and Anna Sher- 
wood and was born in Connecticut in 1802. He married, 1st, 
Margaret Keneday; 2d, Mary Stevens. He moved to Wake- 


man about 1832 and to Clarksfield in 1836. In 185 1 he moved 
to Oberlin and in 1856 to Iowa, where he died in 1864, followed 
by his wife in 1879. 


died at his home, 843 Eairmount street, Cleveland, Ohio, at 6 130 
A. M., April 21, 1900. 

Mr. Camp was born in Buffalo, N. Y., in 1823, and moved 
with his parents to Sandusky, Ohio, in 1834. He was graduated 
from Kenyon College in 1836 and from Harvard Law School in 
1838. He was engaged in the practice of law for a number of 
years in Sandusky. He was paymaster in the Volunteer Army 
from 1 86 1 to 1865. He was appointed special agent of the treas- 
ury by President Hayes and served in that capacity for some 
years, being stationed at Rouse's Point, N. Y., New Orleans, 
Detroit, Savannah, Key West and Cleveland. 

Mr. Camp was twice married and had children by both 
wives. His second wife and widow was Elizabeth Osborn, 
daughter of E. H. Osborn, an early superintendent of the Old 
Mad River Railroad. They had five children, four daughters 
and one son who survive him. Mr. Camp moved with his family 
to Cleveland about ten years since, but his remains were taken 
from there to Sandusky and interred in Oakland Cemetery on 
April 23, 1900. 

Jacob Clawson was born at Wheeling, West Virginia, in 
j 792. In 1800 he went to Tompkins county, New York, and in 
1813 was married to Betsy E. Rowland. In 1831 they moved 
to Clarksfield. He died in 1881. 

Betsey E. Clawson was a daughter of Euke Rowland and 
Elizabeth Knickerbocker and was born in Tompkins county, 
New York, m 1791 and was married to Jacob E. Clawson in 
1813 and moved to Clarksfield in 1831. She died in 1878. 

Enoch Coggeshall died January 12, 1900, at the age of sixty- 
three years. He lived all his life in Townsend and Norwalk 


Lewis Conger was a son of Elijah Conger and Hannah 
Ludlow, and was born in Tompkins county, New York. In 1833 
he came to the Firelands with his father's family, living in Milan 
four years, then in Peru township, then in Greenfield township. 
In 1853 he was married to Isabella Lowther and lived on a farm 
in Greenfield township, where he died November 11, 1899. 

[From Sandusky Register, December 10. 1879.] Pitt 
Cooke, Esq., died at his residence in this city at about three 
o'clock yesterday morning after a brief illness. Mr. Cooke had 
only been confined to his bed four or five days, but he was so ill 
during the two days preceding his death that all hope of his re- 
covery was abandoned, it being apparent that he could not sur- 
vive. His death was the result of hemorrhage of the stomach. 
Mr. Cooke was the eldest son of the late Hon. Eleutheros Cooke, 
one of the early settlers of this city. 

Deceased was born at Bloomingville, this county, in 1819. 
When a boy of school age Mr. Cooke was sent to> the Norwalk 
Academy in Huron county and subsequently entered upon a col- 
legiate course at Kenyon, where he completed his education and 
subsequently entered a law office as a student, and after passing 
a creditable examination was admitted to the bar and soon there- 
after formed a copartnership in this city with L. S. Beecher, Esq., 
under the firm name of Beecher & Cooke. He continued the 
practice of law for some years with Mr. Beecher, but finally 
abandoned his profession and became a partner with the late 
Wm. Townsend, Esq., in the forwarding and commission busi- 
ness in this city. The firm continued in business until 1849, when 
Mr. Townsend died and Mr. Cooke was appointed administrator 
of his estate and settled up his business affairs. 

Soon after the commencement of the late war Mr. Cooke 
went east to assist his brother Jay Cooke, then a" banker in Phil- 
adelphia, in the matter of furnishing contractors with money to 
purchase materials for manufacturing clothing for the army, and 
other supplies needed by the government. At the close of the 
war, Jay Cooke & Co. established a banking house in New York 
and Mr. Pitt Cooke then removed to New York and was engaged 



Born at Bloomingvi le, Ohio, in "The Old Brick Bank Build- 
ing" on the 23d day of July, 1819, Oxford Township. 


as an active member of the above firm until the fall of 1873, when 
he returned with his family to this city, where he has since re- 
sided. Few men were more competent or active in business 
than Mr. "Cooke, and as a companion and friend he was always 
genial and pleasant. He was a man of large heart and warm, 
generous impulses, and ever ready to assist to the extent of his 
ability those who were in need. His loss will be deeply felt by 
many beyond his own family and immediate friends. 

Deceased leaves a wife and six children. His funeral will 
occur next Saturday. His brother, Jay Cooke, Esq., who is now 
in the east, and other relatives from a distance, are expected here 
to attend the funeral. 

On Saturday, December 13, 1879, at his residence on West 
Washington street, in Sandusky, occurred the funeral of one of 
the oldest and most active citizens. The leading social and busi- 
ness interests were fully represented. But not only these, but 
all classes of people attended to pay their last tribute of affec- 
tionate remembrance to their friend. The floral offerings, made 
of the choicest flowers, were especially fine, including special de- 
signs^ cross, crown, anchor, wreath, star, pillow, sickle, all show- 
ing the love and esteem in which the deceased was held by neigh- 
bors and friends. 

At the funeral services Rev. L. S. Osborn, rector of Grace 
(Episcopal) Church ; Rev. A. Nicholas, rector of Calvary Church, 
Sandusky ; Rev. Dr. S. A. Bronson, rector of Grace (Episcopal) 
Church, Mansfield, Ohio, and the venerable Samuel Marks, rec- 
tor of Christ (Episcopal) Church, Huron, Ohio, officiated. The 
two surviving brothers, Jay Cooke, of Philadelphia, and ex-Gov- 
ernor Henry D. Cooke, of the District of Columbia, were in at- 
tendance. At the conclusion of the exercises at the house the 
body was escorted to the family lot in Oakland cemetery, the 
following leading citizens of this city acting as pall-bearers: 
Judge E. B. Sadler, Judge Rush R. Sloane, R. B. Hubbard, Esq. ; 
A. H. Moss, Esq.; C. C. Keech, Esq.'; W. T. West, Esq.; W. 
A. Simpson, Esq. ; S. S. Hosmer, Esq. 


Mary Ann Cooper was the daughter of Jason Wing and 
Sally Cary, and was born at Rochester, Vermont, May 16, 1821. 
She came to the Firelands with her parents in 1838, living first 
in Wakeman, then Berlin Heights, and moving to Clarksfield in 
1843. She was married to Barna Cooper, September 23, 1845, 
and died at Clarksfield November 16, 1900, in the house where 
she had lived more than fifty-five years. 

Layton Cunningham was a son of Layton Cunningham and 
Polly Way and was born in New York state in 1809 and came 
to Clarksfield in 1833 with his brother Hiram. In 1830 he was 
married to Mary Young and they lived in Clarksfield until 1850, 
or thereabouts, when they moved to Michigan, where Mr. Cun- 
ningham died in 1887. 

Asa Curry was born in Tompkins county, New York, in 
1807, and was married to Delia Snook in 1830 and they moved 
to Clarksfield in 1836 and Mr. Curry died there in 1886 and the 
wife in 1889. 

Lucius M. Curtiss was a son of Eleazer and Anna Curtiss, 
of Saulsbury, Connecticut, and was born in 180 1. In 1822 he 
moved to Florence township and in 1829 the rest of the family, 
including the parents, came there. Lucius moved to Clarksfield 
that year and in 1831 he was married to Louisa Furlong and they 
lived in Clarksfield until 1843, when they moved to Florence, 
where Mr. Curtiss died in T870 and his wife in 1881. Henry 
L. Curtiss, a brother of Lucius, lived in Florence until 1843, when 
he moved to Clarksfield and lived there until 1857 and lived in 
Wakeman and Cleveland, finally moving back to Florence, where 
he died in 1881. He was married to Charlotte Eliza Weaver, in 
1837. She died in 1884. 

Bryant Darby was a son of Amos and Nancy Darby and 
was born at New London in 1837. In i860 he was married to 
Polly Brooks. His death occurred April 7, 1900. 

John J. Denman was a son of John Denman and Marinda 
Blackman and was born in Florence township, Erie county, 
March 22, 1834. He was married to Mary Groat in 1856, and 


after her death to Maria Adams. Mr. Denman was a resident of 
Florence all his life. His death occurred December 5, 1899. 

Byron Denslow was born in Tompkins county, New York, 
November 25, 1831, and came to Ohio when a small boy. He 
was married to Eliza Whited in 1861. He died at North Fair- 
field, March 22, 1900. 

Mrs. Cynthia Dickey Drake died at her home in Ridgefield 
township, February 23, 1900, at the age of 76 years. She lived 
upon the same farm for seventy-four years. 

Albert W. Dunks was a son of Lyman Dunks and Almira 
Williams and was born in Mendon, New York, May 4, 1835. In 
1836 he came to New London township with his parents. His 
wife was Ellen Russell. He died at his home in New London, 
March 16, 1900. 

Richard Fanning was a son of James Fanning and Sarah 
Westbrook and was born in Ontario county, New York, in 18 14, 
and came to Clarksfield in 1829. In 1836 he was married to 
Mary Gregory. He died in 1864 in Clarksfield. 

Winslow Fay was a son of Lyman Fay (who came to Milan 
in 181 5) and Caroline Kellogg. He moved to Clarksfield and 
was married to Mary Ann Brooks in 1837. They lived there 
until 1849 an d moved to Florence and lived until the death of 
Mrs. Fay in 1878. Mr. Fay died at Elyria in 1884. 

Mrs. Mary Graham died at the home of her son, Charles, in 
Chicago, Ohio, February 11, 1899. She had lived in Huron 
county for more than sixty years. 

Mahala Gray was a daughter of Lott Spurrier and Catherine 
Kilmore and was born at Van Buren, New York, December 20, 
1.820. The family moved to Euclid, near Cleveland, about 1834 
and in 1836 to Milan township, at Abbott's Bridge. In 1840 
they moved to Clarksfield township. Mahala was married to 
George W. Gray in 1841. She died at Wellington, Ohio, March 
15, 1900. 



Peter L. Gregory died March i, 1900, at the residence of his 
sister, Mrs. Abby L. Darling, on Columbus avenue, Sandusky, 
Ohio. He was a member of this society and was present at the 
fall meeting at Clarksfield, September 22, 1899. He then made 
some remarks respecting the Vermillion and Ashland Railroad, 
and stated that he drove the first pile ever driven in Ohio, it being 
driven on that railroad line. 

Mr. Gregory was born in southeast Dutchess county, New 
York, May 11, 1818, and moved with his parents to Clarksfield 
township in 1828. He was married to Louisa Tyler, he said, May 
27, 1838. (Marriage Record says June 3.) She died in Clarks- 
field soon thereafter and he went to Sandusky and became inter- 
ested in the hotel business. He married for a second wife, in 
1843, Mary, the daughter of Captain Darling, of Perkins town- 
ship, Erie county, and was in that year deputy sheriff of that 

He subsequently resided in the states of New York, Illinois, 
Wisconsin and Minnesota, and was for the greater part of his 
life engaged in railroading. After retiring from active business 
he spent the latter few years of his life in Sandusky, Ohio, resid- 
ing with his sister, Mrs. Abby L. Darling, widow of Joseph M. 

Mrs. G. B. Hageman (Lorina Nicolls) was born May 16, 
1818, in Locke, Cayuga county, New York. Her parents were 
John and Sarah Nicolls, who moved in 1834 to Crawford county, 
Pennsylvania, and in 1837 to Bronson, Huron county, Ohio, 
where she resided until her death. In 1841 she was married to 
George B. Hageman, who was called home in 1886. They had 
three children, Mary, Ellen and Hattie. She was a faithful wife 
and mother and a consistent member of the Congregational 
Church for about fifty years. She departed this life on Novem- 
ber 20, 1899, aged 81 years and six months. 

Almanza Hamlin was a native of Sharon, Connecticut, and 
came to Clarksfield in 1833 or 1834. He bought nearly four 


thousand acres of land in the first section of the township and 
sold or "articled" it to the first settlers. In 1847 ne married 
Mary Webster. He died in 1854. 


Susannah Montgomery was born in Harpersfield, Ashtabula 
county, Ohio, September 16, 181 1, and was married to Rice 
Harper at Unionville, Geauga county, Ohio, January 5, 1830. 
They moved to Sandusky, Ohio, in 1839, where she resided for 
sixty-one years till her death, January 25, 1900. Her husband, 
Rice Harper, died February 19, 1891. See pages 134 and 135, 
N. S. Volume 9 of Firexands Pioneer October, 1896. 

Madison Harrington was a son of Capt. Seth Harrington, 
who came from Rhode Island to Perkins township, Erie county, 
in 1810. He was born March 19, 1813, and was married first to 
Lydia Hunt, and second, to Sally Fleming. The most of his 
life was spent in Erie county, but he died at Collins, February 

12, I9OO. 

John Hayes, a native of Danbury, Connecticut, moved from 
Rochester, New York, to Clarksfield in 1832. He died in 1870, 
at the age of 68. His wife, Clarissa Wildman, died in 1891. 

Thomas Hazard was a son of John Hazard and Sarah Patten 
and was born in the' city of New York, September 30, 1807. 
His father served in the army during the war of 1812 and then 
followed the sea. He took his family on a voyage and spent a 
year in Portugal, Russia and England. In 1835 Mr. Hazard 
was married to Amanda Palmitier, and in 1836 came to Ohio, 
settling in Florence township, near Birmingham. In i860 they 
moved to .Defiance, Ohio, where the wife died in 1872. Mr. 
Hazard died at Kipton, Ohio, September 15, 1895. 

Truman B. Hemenway was a son of Daniel and Marinda 
Hemenway. He was born in Berkshire county Massachusetts, 
May 21, 1825. In 1836 the family came to New London town- 
ship. ' Mr. Hemenway was married to Mrs. Lucy Palmer and 
died in New London, March 26, 1900. 


Lucinda H. Hester, a daughter of Benjamin Hildreth and 
Susan Colgrove, was born in Tompkins county, New York, 
August 21, 1816. She came to Huron county in 1835 and in 1842 
was married to John S. Hester. She died in Norwich township, 
November 6, 1899. 

Eudolphia Hildreth (Cherry) was born in Fairfield township 
August 5, 1826, and was married to Rev. Dr. T. F. Hildreth in 
1849. She died at. her home in Norwalk in 1900. 

Hannah L. Howe was a daughter of Nathan and Cynthia 
Hatfield and was born February 24, 1830, in Herkimer county, 
New York. When three years of age she came, with her parents, 
to Peru, Huron county, where she was married, in 1850, to James 
H. Howe and where she continued to reside until 188 1, when the 
family moved to Norwalk, where Mr. Howe died. She died 
in 1900. 

Elias Hughes was a native of New Jersey and was born No- 
vember 27, 1821. He came to Milan with his parents when quite 
young. In 1847 ne was married to Eunice A. Root and moved 
to Greensburg, Ohio, and five years later to Huron. He died at 
Norwalk, September 9, 1900. 

Robert W. Hurlbut, was of Irish ancestry and was born at 
Roxbury, Connecticut, March 22, 1783. He was left an orphan 
at an early dgt at Danbury, Connecticut. After he was married 
he lived at Pittsburg, Pennsylvania, and his wife died there. He 
subsequently married a widow Croxford and moved to Clarks- 
field in 1835, ar| d lived there until his death in 1876. -He was a 
soldier in the war of 1812. 

Obadiah J. Husted was the youngest son of Samuel Husted 
and Esther Wildman and was born in Clarksfield, January 31, 
1820. In 1 84 1 he was married to Mary W. Hurlbut and they 
lived in Clarksfield until 1887, when they moved to Kansas City, 
Kansas, where Mr. Husted died September 20, 1900. His father 
built the first log house and the first frame house in Clarksfield. 
He also kept the first store and built the first mill in the township. 


William Johnson was a son of Ralph Johnson and was born 
in New Jersey, September 18, 1793. In 1834 he was married to 
Lydia Cortelyou and in 1835 came to Hartland township. He 
was married three times. He died in 1867, 

Sarah S. Knowlton, was a daughter of Mulford and Mary 
Stevens and was born in New Jersey, May 3, 1823. In 1833 she 
came to New London with her parents. In 1846 she was married 
to Henry Knowlton and lived in New London until her death, 
April 20, 1900. 



The family of which General Lawton's father was a member 
lived at Buffalo, New York, in the 20's. There were eight broth- 
ers and sisters in the family and five of them, at least, lived on 
the Firelands, in Clarksfield and other places. Daniel married 
a daughter of Josephus Sloane (who> was an uncle of Rush R. 
Sloan e, the President of our Society), George mjarried Cather- 
ine Daley, Charles married Abigail Daley, a sister of George's 
wife, Maria married, 1st, Oscar White; 2nd, Samuel Bratton; 
and Hannah married Mr. Dodge. Daniel, George and Charles 
died in Indiana, Maria died in New Haven, Huron county, Ohio, 
in 1871, and Mrs. Dodge died in Port Clinton, Ohio. Another 
sister, Caroline Taylor, died near Toledo in 1885. The Lawton 
brothers were millwrights and George worked on a mill at 
Birmingham, Ohio, about 1835, and after that went to Clarks- 
field, Ohio, and while living there was married to Catherine 
DaleyPof Henrietta, Lorain county, Ohio, at Birmingham, on the 
fourth day of December, 1836. They went to housekeeping at 
Clarksfield and their eldest son, Manley C, was born there. 
Mr. Lawton entered into a partnership with Virgil Squire, of 
Florence, and bought a sawmill and store at Clarksfield and built 
a gristmill there, which is still in operation, all of which busi- 
nesses they conducted until 184T, when Mr. Lawton sold his in- 


terest and moved to Venice, Erie county, Ohio, where he and 
his brothers rebuilt the old Venice mill owned by R. H. Hey- 
wood, of Buffalo. This work gave the Lawtons such fame as 
millwrights that they secured a contract at a place called Man- 
hattan, near Toledo, and they went there to work in the early part 
of the year 1843, but the family of George Lawton did not move 
there until later in the year, after the birth of the second son, 
Henry Ware, the subject of our sketch, which occurred on the 
seventeenth of March, 1843. George Lawton worked on a mill 
in Canada and at different places and went to California, while 
his family lived at Birmingham. Shortly after his return the 
wife died, January 21, 1854, leaving a son, George, five years of 
age, besides the two sons mentioned. She was born May 8, 1817. 
After the death of the mother the family was broken up. Man- 
ley drifted off to Texas and at the outbreak of the Rebellion en- 
tered the Confederate Army as an engineer, was captured and 
after the war went to California and married. He and his brother 
Henry did not meet for years until Henry was stationed in Cal- 
ifornia, when he by chance found his brother, Manley diea some 
years ago 1 . After the death of his mother, Henry Lawton lived 
for two years with Mr. A. J. Barney (now Vice-President of this 
Society), whose wife was a sister of Mrs. Lawton. Henry at- 
tended the public schools of Florence township from 1850 until 
1854, as appears from a letter of a former Vice-President of this 
Society, George W. Clary, who died at Birmingham in 1899. 
(Vol, 12, of Firelands Pioneer, new series, page 538.) During 
this period Mr. Henry H. Weeks (now of Kipton, Ohio) went to 
school at Birmingham and boarded with the Lawton family. 
Mrs. Lawton used to ask him to talk with her boys and use his 
influence with them, as she was so anxious to have her boys grow 
up to be good men. In a little volume still in existence, contain- 
ing the names of the members of the old Baptist Church at Bir- 
mingham, in 1836, are to be seen the names of George and Cath- 
erine Lawton. Some interesting facts as to him at this period 
of his youth and his subsequent history were given by Mr. Bar- 
ney at the annual meeting of this society in June, 1898. (N. S., 
Vol. 11 of Firelands Pioneer, page 184.) 


After leaving the home of Mr. Barney, Henry was with his 
father's brother at Ft. Wayne, Indiana, where he was a student 
at the Methodist Episcopal College until April 8, 1861, when, 
though a youth in his eighteenth year, he enlisted in the 9th Reg- 
iment of Indiana Volunteers, in the civil war, for the Union, and 
was first appointed Sergeant. On August 20, 1861, he was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant in the 30th Indiana Volunteers, where 
he was promoted to Captain on May 17, 1862, and Lieutenant 
Colonel on November 15, 1864. With the brevet rank of Colo- 
nel, he was mustered out on November 25, 1865, at the age of 22 
years. He then went to Harvard University and commenced the 
study of law, which was interrupted by his appointment as Second 
Lieutenant in the 41st United States Infantry, on July 28, 1866. 
He was promoted to First Lieutenant July 31, 1867. He was 
appointed Regimental Quartermaster from June 1, 1868, to No- 
vember 11, 1869, when he was transferred to the 24th United 
States Infantry and on January 1, 1871, to the 4th United States 
Cavalry, where he continued to serve as Quartermaster. He 
was promoted to Captain, March 20, 1879 J Major and Inspector 
General, September 17, 1888, and Lieutenant Colonel, February 
12, 1889. He was assigned to the Second Division of the Fifth 
Corps and commissioned Brigadier General, on May 4, 1898, at 
the outbreak of the war with Spain. He entered the Cuban 
campaign and distinguished himself at Daiquiri, El Caney and 
other places. He was promoted to Major General July 8, 1898. 
At the time of the capitulation of the Spaniards at Santiago he 
was one of the commissioners to arrange the terms of surrender, 
?.nd was assigned to the charge of the Santiago district after the 
surrender on July 17, 1898. In December, 1898, he was ap- 
pointed to command a corps in the Philippines, where he per- 
formed many brilliant services and fairly demoralized the enemy 
by the dash and energy of his movements. On the nineteenth 
of December, he led his troops against the enemy at San Mateo, 
Luzon, and while on the firing line encouraging his men, he was 
shot through the heart by a sharpshooter. Of his death an army 
correspondent of the Cleveland Leader wrote : 


''General Lawton was walking- along the firing line within 
300 yards of a small sharpshooters' trench, conspicuous in the 
big white helmet he always wore and a light yellow rain coat. 
He was always easily distinguishable because of his commanding 
stature. The sharpshooters directed several close shots which 
clipped the grass near by. His officers called General Lawton's 
attention to the danger he was in, but he only laughed with his 
usual contempt of bullets. 

"Suddenly he exclaimed : Tm shot,' clenched his hands in a 
desperate effort to stand erect, and fell into the arms of a staff 
officer. Orderlies rushed across the field for surgeons, who 
dashed up immediately, but their efforts were useless. The body 
was taken to a clump of bushes and laid upon a stretcher, the 
familiar white helmet covering the face of the dead general. Al- 
most at this moment the cheers of the American troops rushing 
into San Mateo were mingling with the rifle volleys. 

"After the fight six stalwart cavalrymen forded the river to 
the town, carrying the litter on their shoulders, the staff preced- 
ing with the colors and a cavalry escort following. 

"The troops filed bareheaded through the building where the 
body was laid, and many a tear fell from the eyes of men who had 
iong followed the intrepid Lawton. The entire command was 
stricken with grief,, as though each man had suffered a personal 

This is a brief record of his military services, but it would 
require a volume to give a detailed account of his services to his 
country. One of his best known exploits was the pursuit of the 
famous Apache Indian chief Geronimo into the mountains of 
Mexico and the final capture of him and his band. It is a curious 
coincidence that the leader of the Filipinos at San Mateo was 
likewise named Geronimo. A Washington correspondent of the 
Leader wrote: 

"General Lawton's death was a great shock to the officers of 
the War Department, to nearly all of whom he was known per- 
sonally. Hitherto his luck in battle had been marvelous. He 
had been in hundreds of skirmishes and midnight attacks. He 
was regarded as a man of action and of splendid courage, but 


was not considered reckless. He never exposed his men without 
due consideration of the risks and the stake. His men knew this 
and would unhesitatingly follow his lead under what seemed to 
be the most desperate conditions." 

General Lawton was married to Mary Craig, of Pewee Val- 
ley, Kentucky, in 1881. They had four children, a boy, Manley, 
and three girls. His family was with him at Manilla and re- 
turned to this country with the remains. When the widow 
reached San Erancisco, she was met by a committee who placed 
in her hands pledges of nearly one hundred thousand dollars, 
the patriotic, testimonial of the people of the United States, so 
quickly subscribed in honor of her illustrious husband and for 
the support of his family. 

George Lawton, the father, was born in 1806 and died in 
1867. His son, George D., entered the army just at the close of 
the war, and received injuries which finally led to- his death in 
1871, at the home of his uncle, James Daley, in Clarksfield, Ohio. 

Egbert Macomber was a son of Zebedee Macomber and 
Rebecca Johnson, and was born in Westchester county, New 
York, June 10, 1808. In 1833 he came to Huron county and in 
1870 moved to Berlin township, where he died in 1888. He was 
married to Anna Benedict, in 1830. 

Anna B. Macomber, was a daughter of Uriah Benedict. 
She was born in Cayuga county, New York, in 1812. On New 
Year's Day, 1830, she was married to Egbert Macomber. She 
died at her home in Berlin in 1888. 


Nancy Adams (Bildad, Joel, John, Jacob, Robert of New- 
bury, etc.) was born in Marlboro, Vermont, July 30, 1798, and was 
the daughter of Bildad Adams and wife Mary Haynes. Her 
first colonial ancestor was Robert Adams, known as Robert of 
Newbury. He was born in Devonshire, England, in 1601, and 
with his wife (Eleanor Wilmot) and two children came to 
Ipswich, Massachusetts, in 1635, and moved thence to Salem, 
Mass., in 1638, and thence to Newbury, Mass., in 1640, where he 


died October 12, 1682. In religion, he was a Congregationalist. 
There is a published record which traces the ancestry of Nancy 
Adams back for fifty-six generations into the third century. 
Twenty-one generations in the Adams line to Lord John Ap 
Adams, of Tidonham and Beviston, who was in Parliament from 
1296 to 1307, and who in 1291 married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of Lord John de Gourney; then through Elizabeth five 
generations to William, Earl of Gueana, who was created Earl of 
Surrey and married Gundred, daughter of William the Con- 
queror or William I, King of England ; then in same line five 
generations to Charles, Duke of Loraine; then through Charles' 
mother, Lady Agnes de Vermanlois, the daughter of the Prin- 
cess Egiva, daughter of Edward the Elder, King of England; 
four generations to Alfred the Great, King of England, who 
was born in S49 and died October 28, 900 ; then thirteen genera- 
tions to> Cerdic, the first King of the West Saxons, who died in 
534; then nine generations to Odin, King of North Europe, mak- 
ing in all fifty-six generations from Odin to Nancy Adams. 

Nancy Adams came with her parents to Greenfield town- 
ship, Huron county, in the spring of 1815, and taught the first 
school in Peru township. She married Mathew McKelvey, 
March 27, 1818. They had ten children, seven girls and three 
boys. The last of the older seven, Mary, died in Plymouth, 
Ohio, July 27, 1842. The younger three then left are still living, 
October 22, 1900. Martha, widow of Ethan Lovell, in Green- 
field township ; Mathew in Tiffin, Ohio, and John, the youngest, 
in Sandusky, Ohio. She died in Blanchard township, Hardin 
county, Ohio, January 27, 1842. The accompanying cut of herself 
and husband were made from photographs of portraits painted 
soon after their marriage and are believed to have been the first 
painted in Sandusky or in Huron county. For further history 
of Nancy Adams, see biography of her husband, Mathew Mc- 
Kelvey. Her father, Bildad Adams, was prominently connected 
with the early history of Huron county, having assisted in its or- 
ganization and having been one of the first three commissioners 
elected in the fall of 181 5, and having been re-elected and served 
in that capacity till 1822. During the time of his service as com- 











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missioner he resided in Greenfield township, where his wife, 
Mary Haynes, died September 7, 1822. Sometime thereafter he 
married Esther Harper, a widow, and moved to Milan township, 
where he died in the fall of 1826. He and his son John served in 
the War of 1812, and his father, Joel Adams, was a Lieutenant 
in the Second Company of Suffield in the First Connecticut 
Regiment during the Revolution, or War for Independence. 


Mathew McKelvey was born in Westmoreland county, 
Pennsylvania, January 30, 1794. He was the son of William 
McKelvey and wife, Mary Toppings. His father, William Mc- 
Kelvey, was probably born in Chester county, Pa., in 1760, for 
when seventeen years of age he enlisted in that county, June, 1777, 
in Captain Gilbert Gibbs' Company of the First Chester County 
Militia Regiment of Foot, commanded by Colonel Hannum, 
which entered for service June 18, 1777, and was mustered into 
the United States service July 11, 1777. William was for six 
years in active service during the Revolution and lost a leg 
therein. He received lands and a pension from the United 
States Government. After the close of the war, he married and 
settled in Westmoreland county, Pa., where he resided till 1804, 
when he came with his son William to Palmyra township, Port- 
age county, Ohio, and prepared a home for his family which he 
moved there in 1805. He moved thence to Trumbull county in 
1807 and thence to what is now Greenfield township, Huron 
county, in the early spring of 181 5, and thence to Plymouth town- 
ship, Richland county, in 1819, where he died about 1838. He 
had twelve children, nine born in Westmoreland county, Pa., and 
three in Trumbull county, Ohio. Ten of these children lived to 
be married and nine of them resided on the Firelands after their 
marriage. One of them, William McKelvey, Jr., was the first 
person who entered Greenfield township for the purpose of settle- 
ment. He located in that township in 1810, nearly five years 
prior to the arrival of his father and the rest of the family. 
William MeKelvey was of Scotch-Irish descent, was a Presby- 


terian in religious belief, and belonged to a family, one member 
of which, John McKelvey, was burned at the stake for non- 

Of the twelve children of William McKelvey, Mathew was 
the fourth. He went from Greenfield to> Portland, now San- 
dusky, in 1817. Frederick S. Wildman, late of Danbury, Conn., 
told the water that while on a visit there with his father, Zalmon 
Wildman, one of the early proprietors of Sandusky, in 18 17, he 
met and became acquainted with Mathew McKelvey, who> was 
then connected with a general store. There were then few 
human habitations in the vicinity but were numerous wild ani- 
mal inhabitants, some of which met their fate from the rifle of 
?vlathew McKelvey. He killed a bear not far from the present 
location of the courthouse. March 27, 18 18, he married Nancy 
Adams, daughter of Bildad Adams and wife (Mary Haynes). 
They resided for a time in Greenfield, during which time he sold 
the first stock of goods in the township. They were two of the 
twelve persons who organized the First Congregational Church 
in Greenfield township on July 3, 1822, and Mathew McKelvey 
was chosen clerk. Soon thereafter they moved, in 1822, to San- 
dusky where he opened a general store in a framie building which 
he erected on the southeast corner of Water and Wayne streets. 
The building was constructed by Mr. Lester Walker, who* some 
years prior to his death told the writer about it. He continued 
in the general mercantile business in Sandusky till. 1825, when he 
moved to Paris, now Plymouth, where he completed the second 
frame building erected in that village and conducted a general 
mercantile business therein till the fall of 1840, when he moved 
to Hardin county, Ohio, where in Blanchard township he had 
erected a dwelling house, farm buildings and a mill on lands 
which he bad sometime previously entered from the government, 
the lands upon which the town of Dunkirk is now located. Be- 
cause of sickness resulting in the death of his wife and three 
daughters, he _ returned with the remaining four children to 
Plymouth in the spring of 1842 and sometime subsequently he 
moved to Greenfield township, where he resided till his death, 
March 18, 1853. 


In 1829 he was elected commissioner of Huron county on the 
Whig ticket notwithstanding the fact that the Whig was then 
the minority party in the county. He erected over twenty build- 
ings in the town of Plymouth. He had one building erected suit- 
able for the purpose, and secured competent teachers and estab- 
lished in 1830 a school for young ladies, or female seminary. 
This, it is believed, was the second female seminary in the state of 
Ohio, the first having been established in 1829 in Steubenville by 
Dr. Charles Baety, a person of the same Scotch-Irish descent. 

Stephen Miller was a son of Sarles and Amy Miller, and 
was born in New York state, February 23, 1802. In 1825 he was 
married to Maria Cronce and they lived in New York City until 
July, 1832, when thev moved to Florence township. In 1838 
Mr. Miller went to Canada and enlisted in the Patriot army. He 
was shot through the knee and captured by the British. On 
December 4, 1838, he was taken out and shot by the British 

William Morris was a son of Amos Morris and Polly Hoyt, 
and was born near Danbury, Connecticut, in 1812. In 1832 he 
moved to Clarksfield. In 1837 ne was married to Angeline 
Sweatland and they settled near Norwalk, but moved to Clarks- 
field in 1844, where the wife died in 1850 and the husband in 


Elizabeth Needham was a daughter of Thomas Frazier and 
Levice Gorsline and was born January 18, 1830, being one of a 
family of sixteen children. The family came to Clarksfield, 
where the father died in 1837. Elizabeth was married to Lewis 
Needham, in Michigan, and they moved to Indiana in i872,where 
she died October 21, 1899. 

Ebenezer B. Nickerson was a son of Joseph Nickerson and 
Nancy Christ, and was born at Danbury, Connecticut, August 
20, 18 1 7, and came to Clarksfield with his father's family in 1824. 
He was married to Mary Hand in 1841, and they lived in Clarks- 
field until the death of Mr. Nickerson, July 25, 1900. 


John B. Niver was a son of Jacob Niver and Margaret "Mc- 
Millan, and was born in Orange, New York, March 19, 18 [3. 
In 1832 he came to Norwich township. In 1843 he- was .married 
to Sarah A. White and later to Esther Simmons. He died Feb- 
ruary 11, 1900. 

Charles Lewis Patch came from Danbury, Connecticut, to 
Milan in 183 1 and to Clarksfield the next year. His wife was 
Catherine Hasted. Mr. Patch died in 1835, an d his wife in 1859. 

Philo Pierce was a son of Hosea and Ann Pierce and was 
born in Wayne county, New York, January 26, 1824. In 1834 
he came to Greenfield township with his parents. In 1847 he 
was married to Elizabeth White. He died in Fitchville, June 
28, 1900. 

Henry N. Porter was a son of Horace Porter and Rebecca 
Northup and was born at Danbury, Connecticut, September 26, 
1824. The family came to Sandusky in 1830 or 183 1 by water 
and went to Clarksfield on foot. Mr. Porter was married to 
Susan Starr in 1848. He died at Clarksfield, November 17, 1899. 

Elizabeth Prosser was a daughter of John M. Smith and 
Emeline Rowland and was born in Tompkins county, New York, 
May 21, 1823. In 1826 she came to Clarksfield with her par- 
ents. She was married to Daniel Prosser in 1842 and lived in 
Huron county the most of her life. She died at Wakeman, Ohio ? 
February 5, .1897. 

Isaac Newton Reed was born in Vermont, April 6, 181 1, and 
died May 11, 1900. In 1833 he came to Berlin township, where 
he continued to live the most of the time until his death. In 1835 
he was married to Margaret Miles, who died in 1870. His sec- 
ond wife was Mrs. Maria Brundage. 

Luke Rowland was born in Connecticut in 1758. His wife 
was Elizabeth Knickerbocker. They moved to Clarksfield in 
1830, from New York state. He died in 1839. His wife was 
born in Saulsbury, Connecticut, in 1763, and died in Clarksfield 
in 1849. 


Levi Rowland was a son of Hezekiah Rowland and Grace 
Wildman and was born at Carmel, New York, in 1788. He 
was a soldier in the war of 1812. In 1830 he moved to Clarks- 
tield and lived many years. He died in Fitchville in 1874. 

Hiel Scott was born at St. Albans, Vermont, in 1801 In 
1823 he was married to Mary Bedell and they moved to Clarks- 
field in 1832. Mr. Scott died in 1850 and his wife in 1882. 

Charles R. Shelton was a son of Gershom Shelton and Hepsy 
Smith and was born in Connecticut, January 3, 1820. At some 
time prior to 1840 he came to Wakeman with his parents and 
lived there until his death in 1896. In 185 1 he was married to 
Kunice Whitney. 

Virgil Squire was a son of Joab and Mary Squire and was 
born at Bridgeport, Connecticut, November 4, 1808. In 1815 
he came to Florence with his parents and lived there until 
maturity, when he was married to Rebecca A. Peck, about 1835, 
and they began housekeeping at Clarksfield. He was associated 
with George Lawton, the father of Gen. Henry W. Lawton, in 
mercantile business and also in a mill. About 1842 Mr. Squire 
moved to Defiance, Ohio, where he died May 24, 1874. 

Adeline W. Starbird was a daughter of James Wilson and 
Phoebe Powers and was born in Norwalk, Ohio, December 25, 
1826. In 1845 she was married to William Scutt and in i860 
to Chauncey Starbird. She Jived in New London from child- 
hood until her death, March 2.J, 1900. 

George W. States was born in 1832 and came to the Fire- 
lands in 1833. In 1852 he was married to Hannah Prouty. He 
died at Norwalk, April 24, 1900. 

William St. John was born in Putnam county, New York, 
In 181 5. In May, 1833, he came to Huron county. In 1841 he 
married Ann Hale. He died in Greenwich, March 17, 1900. 

Alexander Twaddle was born in Alleghany county, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1782, of Irish parents. He married Elizabeth Ramage, 


who was born in Pennsylvania, in 1788, and they moved to> 
Jefferson county, Ohio, which was then on the frontier. In 1836 
they moved to Clarksfield, where Mr. Twaddle died in 1859 and 
his wife the next year. 

David Tyler was a son of David Tyler and Sarah Redington 
and was born in Massachusetts in 1790 and was married to Sally 
Post in 18 16. Mr. Tyler and his family came from the towns 
of Hector, in New York, to Sandusky, in 1833, and to Clarks- 
field the next year. Mr. Tyler and his wife both died at Clarks- 
field in 1862. 

Hoxsie Vincent was born in T796 and was married to 
Abigail Stone in 1828. They came from Dutchess county, New 
York, in 1832, to Clarksfield, where they lived until their deaths, 
the former in 1876 and the latter in 1881. 

Samuel Ward died at Millan in December, 1899. He came 
to Fitchville prior to 1832 and was a resident of that township 
and New London for many years. He was born May 25, 181 1. 

Marcus L. Ward was a son of Isaac and Electa Ward, and 
was born at Orange, New York, March 1, 18 14. In 1836 he was 
married to Polly Lovel and in the fall of the same year jthey 
moved to Berlin, Erie county. Mr. Ward died at Norwalk„ 
September 30, 1898. 

Henry Griffin Washburn was born in Ulster county, New 
York, He was a son of Walter Washburn and Nellie Van Ben- 
schoten, and a direct descendant of John Washburn, who came 
over in the Mayflower, and was for a time secretary of Plymouth 
Colony. In 1830 he came to Fitchville township and in 1832- 
to Greenwich, where he lived until his death September 2, 1886. 
In 1842 he was married to Ann Maria Van Benschoten, of Ber- 

Charles Wildman was a son of Frederick A. Wildman and 
Marietta Patch and was born in Clarksfield in 1835. He was 
never married. He died at Norwalk, October 20, 1! 


Clark Winans was born in 1775, and was married to Lurah 
Smith in 1805. In 1825 they moved to New London and lived 
there until 1833, when they moved to Clarksfield. The wife 
died in 1839 and the husband in 1856. 


died at his residence, the west House, in the city of Sandusky, 
Ohio, at 6:15 P. M., June 13, 1899. There were present at the 
time of his death, his wife, his four children and one brother, Mr. 
Gilbert West, of Pittsfield, Mass. Mr. West lacked but two days 
of being eighty-four years of age, and the greater part of those 
eighty-four years were devoted to business and the erection of 
buildings in the city of Sandusky. The name of W. T. West has 
been associated with the growth of Sandusky during the past sixty 

William T. West was born June 15, 181 5, on his father's 
(Abel West) farm at Washington Mountain, near Pittsfield, 
Mass., the farm being still owned by the family. He was de- 
scended from a long line of New England ancestry noted for 
longevity. Two of his five brothers are still living, one, Charles, 
much older than he was. 

Mr. West received only a limited education in the district 
school near his home. Early in life he learned the trade of brick- 
making, but did not work at it thereafter. At the age of sixteen, 
he went to> Barrington, Mass., and learned the trade of cabinet- 
making, which he followed for several years. In 1835, ne de- 
cided to go west and came as far as Albany, N. Y., where he se- 
cured his first contract which was for the making of thirty tables 
for the State legislative hall. He did the work so well that the 
tables are still in use. The panic of 1837 caused him to move 
farther westward with the intention of locating in Columbus or 
Cincinnati, where he had friends. He came from Buffalo' by boat 
to Sandusky, and soon after his arrival decided to< make the latter 
city his future home. He worked at his trade for about two 
years when he sold out to his competitor. His brother, A. K., 
who had been a clerk in a dry goods or general store in Troy, N. 
Y., then came to Sandusky and the two brothers formed a part- 


nership and opened a general store. That partnership was con- 
tinued up to the time of the death of his brother in 1880. For 
about ten years their business was carried on in a frame building 
on Water street and thereafter in their own building which they 
had erected on Columbus avenue, the south part of the present 
West House building. The erection of the West House 
building was begun in 1848 and a number of the store 
rooms therein were completed and occupied soon thereafter, 
yet the entire building was not completed and opened as a hotel 
till the fall of 1858, just prior to the date of the holding of the 
State Fair that year in Sandusky, the hotel arrangement having 
been pushed to' completion for that occasion. By apparent com- 
mon consent W. T. had entire charge of the building and real 
estate matters and A. K. of the mercantile department. When 
the West House was erected it was one of the largest hotel build- 
ings in the western states, and, thought to be much larger than 
required in the city of Sandusky. It was in fact for a time re- 
garded as "West's Folly," but it was maintained at little or no 
profit for some years till the Civil War had been in progress a 
short time, when till the close of the war it was filled to its full 
capacity, and became very profitable property. It was in this 
hotel that the conspiracy for freeing the prisoners on Johnson's 
Island was organized, and some of the conspirators were guests 
of the hotel for a considerable time. In the early part of the War 
of the Rebellion, Mr. West secured a contract for the construction 
of a prison depot for Rebel officers on Johnson's Island, and in 
connection with a partner, Mr. Philander Gregg, erected the 
prison buildings and officers' quarters in a remarkably short space 
of time, making a prison depot with a capacity for many thou- 
sands of prisoners to be housed and cared for in good shape. 

In addition to the West House, Mr. West has erected other 
large buildings in Sandusky, one on the north side of Water 
street ; the Mahala Block, named after his wife, on Washington 
Row, and a large double brick residence building on East Wash- 
ington street. Mr. West never employed an architect but did 
all his work in that line himself. He is entitled to much credit 
for the improvements he has made in Sandusky. 


Socially, Mr. West was a good conversationalist and always 
had many interesting incidents in his past experience to relate 
to his associates. No one became lonesome in his presence. He 
was for a long time associated with Grace Episcopal church and 
for many years was director of the choir. In 1845, Mr. West was 
married to Lydia Mahala Todd. Their marriage was the first 
celebrated in what is now the main room of Grace church build- 
ing. They had five children, one of whom, Abel Kingsbury, was 
drowned some years since. 

His widow, Tydia M., and four children survive him, two 
sons, William G. and George C., and two* daughters, Jennie (Mrs. 
C. L. Hubbard, of Sandusky) and Carrie (Mrs. Jordan, of Boston, 


The funeral services in memory of David S. Worthington 
were conducted by his Masonic brethren in the lodge room of the 
Masonic Temple, Sandusky, Ohio, Saturday afternoon, July 28, 
1900. The funeral was largely attended by members of the 
Fraternity and by the older citizens of the vicinity. 

David Samuel Worthington was born in Gasport, Niagara 
county, N. Y., March 26, 1818. About 1840, he came to Erie 
county, Ohk>, and settled on a farm in Perkins township. While 
residing on his farm he became interested in politics and was 
elected coroner of Erie county. Soon thereafter he was elected 
sheriff and moved to Sandusky. He was continued in the office 
of sheriff for eighteen successive years either as sheriff or deputy, 
receiving the full emoluments of the office in either case. The 
rule being whenever he was barred by statute from re-election, a 
friend was nominated and elected, with the arrangement that 
Worthington was to be the real sheriff and receive the benefits 
of the office. 

He was sheriff during the Civil War, and as such officer it 
became his duty to disperse several mobs. The writer well re- 
members one instance in Sandusky when a large number of 
people had congregated in front of a residence on Washington 
street with the apparent intention of hanging the occupant as a 
traitor. The mob was dispersed without serious difficulty and 


the supposed traitor taken to the prison depot at Johnson's 
Island. He had little connection with public affairs for the past 
fifteen years, and for several years had been failing both physic- 
ally and mentally, and was finally adjudged insane and sent to the 
asylum at Toledo about five months prior to his death there July 
27, 1900. One daughter, Mrs. Wilson, and a grandson survive 
him, also a sister who resides at Vickery, Sandusky county, Ohio. 


The constitution of the Firelands Historical Society provides 
for membership as follows : 

Art. 6. Any person may become a member of the Society 
by signing its Constitution and paying into its Treasury as an 
Annual member, the sum of one dollar yearly in advance, or, as a 
life member, the sum of five dollars in advance. All members shall 
be entitled to one copy each of all new publications of the Society 
issued during the first year of their membership, and by the pay- 
ment of an additional five, making it ten dollars, in advance, a 
Life member will also be entitled to one copy of all numbers of 
the Firelands Pioneer published since September, 1861, and at 
the time of such payment owned and for sale by the Society, and 
of all its future publications. Honorary Members of it may be 
elected by vote of the Society. 


Cunningham, J. O., Schuyler, P. N., 

Gardiner, John, Sloane, Rush R., 

Gallup, C. H., Taylor, Truman B., 

Green, C. R., Williams, Theodore, 

Laning, J. F., Whitney, Calvin, 

Loomis, F. R., Wildman, S. A., 

McKelvey, John, Whiton, J. M., 
Stewart, G. T., 

NOTE — Members will call in person on the Librarian for 
their volumes. No fund is provided for postage or express 


The Firelands Historical Society now appeals to the Pioneers 
of the Firelands, their sons and daughters, and to all friends of 
the Society for aid in its patriotic efforts to provide a place suit- 
able for the preservation of its large and valuable collection of 
historic and pre-historic relics and antiquities ; the purchase of 
books, periodicals, prints, maps, or other works to increase or 
improve its library, and especially to continue the publication of 
the Firelands Pioneer, containing over three thousand pages of 
the history of this part of Ohio, treasured up through more than 
43 years, and constantly enlarging the supply of its rich produc- 

The Society asks for this aid in the form of life memberships 
and donations from the living, and devises or bequests of testa- 
tors. One of the daughters of an eminent Pioneer bequeathed 
to it the sum of five hundred dollars, known and honored as The 
Catherine Gallup Fund, which from its accruing interest, has, for 
many years, been the main financial support of this publication. 
That this commendable example may be as well and wisely fol- 
lowed, the following forms of devise and bequest to> the Society, 
to maintain and enlarge its noble mission, are here appended : 


I give and devise to The Firelands Historical Society, formed 
in the city of Norwalk, Ohio, in the year eighteen hundred and 
fifty-seven, and incorporated in the year eighteen hundred and 
eighty, and to its successors and assigns forever, all that piece 
or parcel of land situated, etc. 


1 give and bequeath to The Firelands Historical Society, 
formed in the city of Norwalk, Ohio, in the year eighteen hun- 
dred and fifty-seven, and incorporated in the year eighteen hun- 
dred and eighty, the sum of dollars, to be applied to 

the uses and purposes of said Society. 





John Nelson Sloane Frontispiece. 

Michael Lipsett 595 

Hon. J.O.Cunningham 600 

Jay Cooke 641 

First Stone Housein Sandusky 654 

Sloane House, Sandusky 655 

Carnagie Library, Sandusky... 659 

Gen. John Beatty 668 

First Stone House on Fire- 
lands 667 

Hon. John Sherman 694 

Mrs. Mary Beebe Hall 698 

Monument to ' ' Johnny Apple- 
seed " 703 

Indian Chieftain's Tomb 711 

Old Bloomingville Bank 728 

Ex-Governor Henry D. Cooke 730 

Pitt Cooke 756 

Matthew McKelvey and wife... 769 


Officers of the Society 582 

Forty-fourth Annual Meeting-.. 583 

Treasurer's Report 592 

Librarian's Report 593 

Nominating Corn's Report 598 

Election of Officers , 598 

Auditing Committee's Report 627 
Fall Meeting at Sandusky 633 


President's Address at Annual 
Meeting 584 

Will of Michael Lipsett 595 

Pioneer Boyhood on the Fire- 
lands, by Hon. J. O Cun- 
ningham 601 

Pioneer Girlhood on the Fire- 
lands, by Mrs. Mary B. 
Ingham 621 

The Airly Days — Poem 627 

Pioneer Gatherings, by A. J. 
Baughman 629 

President's Address at Fall 
Meeting , 632 

War of the Rebellion; how 
Financed, by Jay Cooke 640 

Evolution of Sandusky " Free 
Library," by Mrs. J. O. 
Moss 658 

Address by Gen. John Beatty 667 

Sketch — Life of Gen. John 
Beatty 676 

Richland Co. Historical So- 
ciety and Address of Hon. 

RushR. Sloane 682 

Talk by Hon. John Sherman... 695 
Lorain County Historical So- 
ciety 697 

Reminiscences of Elyria, Ohio 701 
Life and Work of "Johnny 
Appleseed, " by A. J. Baugh- 
man 702 

An Indian Chieftain's Tomb... 711 
Political Father of John Sher- 
man 713 

Birthplace of Edison 716 

Erie County Sixty-three Years 724 

The Blo.omingville Bank 726 

Henry B. Cooke, First Gov- 
ernor, District of Columbia. 729 

Battle of Lake Erie 733 

When Ohio was Admitted 742 

Judge Sloane Honored 751 


Arranged Alphabetically < 752 to 779 

Life Members 780 Financial Appeal 781